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Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Sioux Falls is the most populous city in the U. S. state of South Dakota and the 140th-most populous city in the United States. It is the county seat of Minnehaha County and extends into Lincoln County to the south, proximate with the Minnesota state line; as of 2018, Sioux Falls had an estimated population of 190,750. The metropolitan population of 265,653 accounts for 29% of South Dakota's population. Chartered in 1856 on the banks of the Big Sioux River, the city is situated in the rolling hills at the junction of Interstate 90 and Interstate 29; the history of Sioux Falls revolves around the cascades of the Big Sioux River. The falls were created about 14,000 years ago during the last ice age; the lure of the falls has been a powerful influence. Ho-Chunk, Otoe, Omaha, Kansa, Arikira and Cheyenne people inhabited and settled the region previous to Europeans and European descendants. Numerous burial mounds still exist on the high bluffs near the river and are spread throughout the general vicinity.

Indigenous people maintained an agricultural society with fortified villages, the arrivals rebuilt on many of the same sites that were settled. Lakota populate urban and reservation communities in the contemporary state and many Lakota and numerous other Indigenous Americans reside in Sioux Falls today. French voyagers/explorers visited the area in the early 18th century; the first documented visit by an American was by Philander Prescott, who camped overnight at the falls in December 1832. Captain James Allen led a military expedition out of Fort Des Moines in 1844. Jacob Ferris described the Falls in his 1856 book "The States and Territories of the Great West". Two separate groups, the Dakota Land Company of St. Paul and the Western Town Company of Dubuque, Iowa organized in 1856 to claim the land around the falls, considered a promising townsite for its beauty and water power; each worked together for mutual protection. They built a temporary barricade of turf which they dubbed "Fort Sod", in response to native tribes attempting to defend their land from the settlers.

Seventeen men spent "the first winter" in Sioux Falls. The following year the population grew to near 40. Although conflicts in Minnehaha County between Native Americans and white settlers were few, the Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby southwestern Minnesota; the town was evacuated in August of that year when two local settlers were killed as a result of the conflict. The settlers and soldiers stationed here traveled to Yankton in late August 1862; the abandoned townsite was burned. Fort Dakota, a military reservation established in present-day downtown, was established in May 1865. Many former settlers returned and a new wave of settlers arrived in the following years; the population grew to 593 by 1873, a building boom was underway in that year. The Village of Sioux Falls, consisting of 1,200 acres, was incorporated in 1876 and was granted a city charter by the Dakota Territorial legislature on March 3, 1883; the arrival of the railroads ushered in the great Dakota Boom decade of the 1880s. The population of Sioux Falls mushroomed from 2,164 in 1880 to 10,167 at the close of the decade.

The growth transformed the city. A severe plague of grasshoppers and a national depression halted the boom by the early 1890s; the city grew by only 89 people from 1890 to 1900. But prosperity returned with the opening of the John Morrell meat packing plant in 1909, the establishment of an airbase and a military radio and communications training school in 1942, the completion of the interstate highways in the early 1960s. Much of the growth in the first part of the 20th century was fueled by agriculturally based industry, such as the Morrell plant and the nearby stockyards. In 1955 the city decided to consolidate the neighboring incorporated city of South Sioux Falls. At the time South Sioux Falls had a population of nearly 1,600 inhabitants, according to the 1950 census, it was third largest city in the county after Sioux Dell Rapids. By October 18, 1955 South Sioux Falls residents voted 704 in favor and 227 against to consolidate with Sioux Falls. On the same issue, Sioux Falls residents voted on November 15 by the vote 2,714 in favor and 450 against.

In 1981, to take advantage of relaxed state usury laws, Citibank relocated its primary credit card center from New York City to Sioux Falls. Some claim that this event was the primary impetus for the increased population and job growth rates that Sioux Falls has experienced over the past quarter century. Others point out that Citibank's relocation was only part of a more general transformation of the city's economy from an industrially based one to an economy centered on health care and retail trade. Sioux Falls has grown at a rapid pace since the late 1970s, with the city's population increasing from 81,000 in 1980 to 183,200 in 2018. 2019 Tornadoes On the night of September 10, 2019, the south side of Sioux Falls was hit by three EF-2 tornadoes damaging at least 37 buildings, including the Plaza 41 Shopping Center. One tornado hit the Avera Heart Hospital, damaging portions of the roof and windows, causing 7 minor injuries. Sioux Falls is located at 43°32'11" North, 96°43'54" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 73.47 square miles, of which 72.96 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.

The city is in extreme eastern South Dakota, about 15 miles west of the Minnesota border. Sioux Falls has been assigned the ZIP Codes 5

Cazenovia (village), New York

Cazenovia is a village located in the Town of Cazenovia in Madison County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the village had a population of 2,835; the village lies on the southeast shore of Cazenovia Lake, 4 miles long and.5 miles across. The village is home to Cazenovia College. Cazenovia was established in 1794 by John Lincklaen, a young Dutch naval officer who purchased the town under the auspices of the Holland Land Company; some of the first buildings established in Cazenovia were what is now the Presbyterian Church and the company store. The town is named after an agent with the land company; the village was the first county seat. Many of the village's historic buildings are encompassed by the Albany Street Historic District and Cazenovia Village Historic District. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places is the Lehigh Valley Railroad Depot. In 1850 Cazenovia was the site of the famous Fugitive Slave Law Convention organized by abolitionist Gerrit Smith and chaired by former slave Frederick Douglass to protest the proposed Fugitive Slave Act.

The Lorenzo State Historic Site was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in July 1970. This land, located off Route 13, now belongs to the NY Historic Start Trust after being bought from the previous owner, George Ledyard, upon his death. There is a school house, farmhouse, a landscaped garden that guests can tour throughout the year by appointment or during regular hours. In 2005, the Cazenovia High School Academic Decathlon team won the school's first state title, sending the team to the national competition in Chicago; the team retained its state title the following four years, traveling to national competitions in San Antonio, Texas in 2006, Hawaii in 2007, California in 2008, Memphis, Tennessee in 2009. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,614 people, 943 households, 522 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,660.3 people per square mile. There were 1,031 housing units at an average density of 654.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.37% White, 2.41% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.04%, 0.27% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.75% of the population. There were 943 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.6% were non-families. 38.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.93. In the village, the population was spread out with 18.1% under the age of 18, 26.1% from 18 to 24, 19.9% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 73.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 67.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $43,611, the median income for a family was $61,750. Males had a median income of $45,662 versus $30,893 for females; the per capita income for the village was $23,424. About 2.8% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over.

The Cazenovia Public Library is a public library located in the town of Cazenovia, New York, United States. As a library in Madison County it is a part of the MidYork Library System, it is located at 100 Albany Street, Cazenovia NY. In its original building it houses specimens and historical artifacts that have been generously donated to the library; the first incidence of a library in Cazenovia was started in 1828 by John Williams, a general store owner and merchant. His library “consisting of 200 vols.” were lent to the public for free. It was not until 1886. Societies like it maintained their libraries “through membership, lending fees, gifts”In 1890 Robert J. Hubbard purchased and donated a house for the library's use. Built in the Greek Revival style, it had been built in 1830 for John Williams; the ground floor of the house served as the main library building until a modern extension was built in 1996. Robert J. Hubbard donated his collection of souvenirs from his 1894 Grand Tour trip. One of the most notable artifacts he brought back was an ancient Egyptian mummy.

Since 1985 the Cazenovia Public Library has served as a home to four library cats. Dewey 1985-1988 Kitty 1988-1999 Jesse 2000-2009 Page 2009–present Village of Cazenovia Web Site Cazenovia Republican - Weekly Newspaper Cazenovia History links Cazenovia Chamber of Commerce Cazenovia Pilot - News and Information Blog

Talmadge Prince

Talmadge "Tab" Prince was an American stock car racing driver. Talmadge Prince was born February 1938 in Cullman, Alabama, he was the fourth of six children born to Marie Cryer Prince. In 1969 he bought a 50 % share of a Chrysler/Plymouth dealership in Georgia, he financed the purchase using the proceeds from the sale of his business, PBR Electronics, to his older brother, William Lloyd Prince. Talmadge was married twice. In 1959 he married Jeanette Ellen Looney, they had two children. He married his second wife, Nell Sutton, in 1969, they had one son, born after his death. Prince started racing cars in the early 1960s, racing sprint and Late Model Sportsman cars on short tracks in the American South. In 1970, he entered his first NASCAR Grand National Series event, the Daytona 500. Prince's career only lasted a unfortunate 18 laps. In the second of the two 125 mile qualifying races for the Daytona 500 he blew an engine on his Dodge Daytona and went into a slide. Bill Seifert, following behind Prince, got into oil, lost control, crashed head on into the driver's door of Prince's car.

Prince was killed instantly. He was buried at the Roselawn Cemetery in Decatur and was survived by two sons and a daughter. Talmadge Prince driver statistics at Racing-Reference

2014 Pengkalan Kubor by-election

A by-election was held for the Kelantan State Assembly seat of Pengkalan Kubor on 25 September 2014 following the nomination day on 13 September 2014. The seat fell vacant after the death of the incumbent three-term assemblyman, Noor Zahidi Omar from liver cancer in Guangzhou, China on 20 August 2014. Zahidi was an assemblyman from the United Malays National Organisation, a component party of the opposition Barisan Nasional coalition. In the 2013 general election, he defeated Pakatan Rakyat candidate Saharun Ibrahim and an independent candidate by 1,736 votes. Mat Razi Mat Ail from UMNO represented Barisan Nasional. Pakatan Rakyat was represented by Wan Rosdi Wan Ibrahim from PAS. Independent candidate Izat Bukhary Ismail Bukhary will be contesting the seat. A total of 24,039 voters can vote in the by-election


Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers and fabrics with the goal of achieving color with desired color fastness. Dyeing is done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. Dye molecules are fixed to the fiber by absorption, diffusion, or bonding with temperature and time being key controlling factors; the bond between dye molecule and fiber may be weak, depending on the dye used. Dyeing and printing are different applications; the primary source of dye has been nature, with the dyes being extracted from animals or plants. Since the mid-19th century, humans have produced artificial dyes to achieve a broader range of colors and to render the dyes more stable to washing and general use. Different classes of dyes are used for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process, from loose fibers through yarn and cloth to complete garments. Acrylic fibers are dyed with basic dyes, while nylon and protein fibers such as wool and silk are dyed with acid dyes, polyester yarn is dyed with disperse dyes.

Cotton is dyed with a range of dye types, including vat dyes, modern synthetic reactive and direct dyes. The word dye is from Old English dag and dah; the first known use of the word dye was before the 12th century. The earliest dyed flax fibers have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia and date back to 34,000 BC. More evidence of textile dyeing dates back to the Neolithic period at the large Neolithic settlement at Çatalhöyük in southern Anatolia, where traces of red dyes from ocher, an iron oxide pigment derived from clay, were found. In China, dyeing with plants and insects has been traced back more than 5,000 years. Early evidence of dyeing comes from Sindh province in Pakistan, where a piece of cotton dyed with a vegetable dye was recovered from the archaeological site at Mohenjo-daro; the dye used in this case was madder, along with other dyes such as indigo, was introduced to other regions through trade. Natural insect dyes such as Cochineal and kermes and plant-based dyes such as woad and madder were important elements of the economies of Asia and Europe until the discovery of man-made synthetic dyes in the mid-19th century.

The first synthetic dye was William Perkin's mauveine in 1856, derived from coal tar. Alizarin, the red dye present in madder, was the first natural pigment to be duplicated synthetically in 1869, a development which led to the collapse of the market for grown madder; the development of new colored synthetic dyes followed and by the 1870s commercial dyeing with natural dyestuffs was disappearing. Dyes are applied to textile goods by dyeing from dye solutions and by printing from dye pastes and the Methods that are included are direct application and yarn dyeing. Selection of the appropriate dye is important because any given dye is not applicable on every type of fiber. Furthermore, resistance to washing and light differ among dyes; the choice of dye depends on the objective in dyeing. For example, indigo dyes have poor wash and rubbing fastness on denim, so they are used to produce washed-down effects on that fabric. In contrast, vat or reactive dyes are applied on cottons to achieve excellent washing fastness.

The term "direct dye application" stems from some dyestuff having to be either fermented as in the case of some natural dye or chemically reduced as in the case of synthetic vat and sulfur dyes before being applied. This renders the dye soluble so that it can be absorbed by the fiber since the insoluble dye has little substantivity to the fiber. Direct dyes, a class of dyes for dyeing cotton, are water-soluble and can be applied directly to the fiber from an aqueous solution. Most other classes of synthetic dye, other than vat and surface dyes, are applied in this way; the term may be applied to dyeing without the use of mordants to fix the dye once it is applied. Mordants were required to alter the hue and intensity of natural dyes and improve color fastness. Chromium salts were until extensively used in dyeing wool with synthetic mordant dyes; these were used for economical high color fastness dark shades such as navy. Environmental concerns have now restricted their use, they have been replaced with reactive and metal complex dyes that do not require mordant.

There are many forms of yarn dyeing. Common forms are the hanks form. Cotton yarns are dyed at package form, acrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form. In the continuous filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed at package form, while viscose rayon yarns are dyed at hank form because of technology; the common dyeing process of cotton yarn with reactive dyes at package form is as follows: The raw yarn is wound on a spring tube to achieve a package suitable for dye penetration. These softened; the packages are pressed up to a desired height to achieve suitable density of packing. The carrier is loaded on the dyeing machine and the yarn is dyed. After dyeing, the packages are unloaded from the carrier into a trolley. Now the trolley is taken to hydro extractor; the packages are hydro extracted to remove the maximum amount of water leaving the desired color into raw yarn. The packages are dried to achieve the final dyed package. After this process, the dyed yarn packages are delivered.

Garment dyeing is the process of dyeing fully

List of South African military chiefs

This article lists the South African military chiefs. From 1958 until the first post-apartheid general election in 1994, the present-day South African National Defence Force was known as the South African Defence Force. From 1912 to 1958, the military was known as the Union Defence Force. In terms of section 202 of the Constitution of South Africa, the military command of the Defence Force consists of the Chief of the Defence Force plus the Chiefs of the combat arms as well as the Surgeon-General of the South African Military Health Service; the Defence Force consists of the Army, Air Force and Medical Service. The Chief of the South African National Defence Force is the senior military commander and the chiefs of the four services, in addition to the chiefs of Joint Operations, Defence Intelligence, Corporate Staff, report to him; as of September 2018 the Chief of the SANDF is General Solly Shoke. The Union Defence Force consisted of land forces. An aviation corps was formed in 1915 and replaced by the South African Air Force in 1920.

A naval branch was added in 1922, the South African Division of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve was incorporated into it in 1942. In 1951, the defence forces were reorganised into three distinct combat services: the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy; the organisation was renamed "South African Defence Force" in 1958. The UDF had no overall commander for the first nine and a half years. From January 1922, the Chief of the General Staff responsible only for the Defence Headquarters staff, was the executive commander of the UDF; the title was changed to'Commandant General UDF' in September 1956. The UDF was renamed'South African Defence Force' in November 1958; the Commandant General's title was changed to'Commandant General SADF'. It was changed to'Chief of the SADF' in July 1973, after Admiral Hugo Biermann assumed the post the year before. After South Africa's first democratic election, the South African Defence Force became the South African National Defence Force.

The SADF amalgamated with the Azanian People's Liberation Army, Umkhonto we Sizwe, the homeland defence forces to form the South African National Defence Force in 1994. The SANDF was based on the existing SADF structure of Army, Air Force and Medical Service; the Chief of the South African Army is the professional head of the Army. There was no separate army commander until 1948; the post was called'Director-General of Land Forces' 1948–51 and'Army Chief of Staff' 1951–66, has been'Chief of the Army' since 1966. Lieutenant general Werndly van der Riet and Major general Mannetjies de Goede spent some time acting as Head of the Army; the Chief of the South African Air Force is the professional head of the Air Force. The post was called'Director of Air Services' 1920–33,'Director of Air & Technical Services' 1937–39,'Director-General of Air Services' 1939–41,'Director-General of the Air Force' 1941–51, and'Air Chief of Staff' 1951–66, has been'Chief of the Air Force' since 1966; the Chief of the South African Navy is the professional head of the Navy.

The post was called'Officer Commanding South African Naval Service' 1922–32,'Director, Seaward Defence Force' 1940–42,'Director, South African Naval Forces' 1942–51,'Naval & Marine Chief of Staff' 1951–55, and'Naval Chief of Staff' 1955–66, has been'Chief of the Navy' since 1966. The Surgeon General is the Chief of the South African Military Health Service, known as the South African Medical Service before 1994; the Chief of Corporate Staff is responsible for the provision of all staff services for the SANDF