The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the basic and lowest rank of a man, knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry. Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight, but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of chivalric orders. There is no female counterpart to Knight Bachelor; the lowest knightly honour that can be conferred upon a woman is Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, one rank higher than Knight Bachelor. Foreigners are not created Knights Bachelor. Knighthood is conferred for public service, it is possible to be a Knight Bachelor and a junior member of an order of chivalry without being a knight of that order. For instance, Sir Ian Holm, Sir Michael Gambon, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Sir Elton John, Sir Michael Caine, Sir Barry Gibb and Sir Ian McKellen are Commanders of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. None of them would be entitled to use the honorific "Sir" by virtue of their membership of the order alone, but as they are all Knights Bachelor, they are entitled to preface their names with that title.
Like other knights, Knights Bachelor are styled "Sir". Since they are not knights of any order of chivalry, there is no post-nominal associated with the honour; when the style "Sir" is awkward or incomplete due to a subsequent appointment, recipients may sometimes use the word "Knight" or "Kt" after their name in formal documents to signify that they have the additional honour. This style is adopted by Knights Bachelor who are peers, baronets or knights of the various statutory orders; until 1926 knights bachelor had no insignia which they could wear, but in that year King George V issued a warrant authorising the wearing of a badge on all appropriate occasions. The knights bachelor badge may be worn on all such occasions upon the left side of the coat or outer garment of those upon whom the degree of knight bachelor has been conferred. Measuring 2 3⁄8 inches in length and 1 3⁄8 inches in width, it is described in heraldic terms as follows: Upon an oval medallion of vermilion, enclosed by a scroll a cross-hilted sword belted and sheathed, pommel upwards, between two spurs, rowels upwards, the whole set about with the sword belt, all gilt.
In 1974, Queen Elizabeth II issued a further warrant authorising the wearing on appropriate occasions of a neck badge smaller in size, in miniature. In 1988 a new certificate of authentication, a knight's only personal documentation, was designed by the College of Arms; the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor was founded for the maintenance and consolidation of the Dignity of Knights Bachelor in 1908, obtained official recognition from the Sovereign in 1912. The Society keeps records of all Knights Bachelor, in their interest. Bachelor Knight banneret Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood British honours system: Knighthood Insignia of knights bachelor—Website of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor The UK Honours System—Website UK Government Debrett's Media related to Knights Bachelor at Wikimedia Commons
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Trosley Country Park
Trosley Country Park is in Trottiscliffe, near Vigo, in Kent, England. Once part of a large woodland estate after many changes, it was passed to Kent County Council, who turned it into a large country park; the country park was once part of the Trosley Towers Estate. In 1870, Sir Sydney Waterlow, 1st Baronet bought large areas of land including the village of Fairseat, a major section of Stanstead as well as other pieces of land from Wrotham to Meopham; the parts of the estate were linked by a small bridge bearing the family crest over Trottiscliffe Road. In 1887, he built Trosley Towers on the crest of the escarpment on the North Downs, to the east of Trottiscliffe Road. Two drives approached the house, it was surrounded by wooded grounds. Other private drives were constructed, including Hamilton Drive which still survives within the Trosley Country Park and runs from the site of the old house to Commority Road; when Sir Sidney died in 1906, the estate passed to his son Philip. When Philip died in 1931, the estate was sold off.
Some of the houses were bought by tenants, one of these was Pilgrims House, with 6 acres of land, at the bottom of Trottiscliffe Road, which went for £600. Trosley Towers and the woodlands around it were sold to'Mr E. E. Shahmoon' in 1935, this was the time of the chalet building. In 1936, Mr Shahmoon had Trosley Towers demolished and had Hamilton Lodge built along with adjoining stables. One story suggests that the Lodge and stables were built to accommodate the Shah of Persia and his racehorses on his visits to England; the whole area was still owned by Mr Shahmoon when it was taken over by the army in 1942 during World War II and Hamilton Lodge was to be the HQ of the Army Brigade, stationed here. The manor house in the estate was demolished; the 170-acre park was opened in 1976 by Kent County Council. In 2004, an amenity block was built within the park, it had a sweet chestnut timber cladding from the local trees in the park. Built with a sedum roof and rainwater drainage system recycled into the toilet flushing systems.
The building won the Public Building category of the 2005 Kent Design Awards. It is situated on the North Downs and the chalk grassland slopes of the park are a Site of Special Scientific Interest; these slopes were used as grazing for farm animals, but were left to naturalise after the farms moved to the lower and more productive wealdland pastures. After the park was formed, these grasslands were cleared of scrub to allow the rare chalk land plants and animals to re-establish including the musk orchid, chalkhill blue butterfly. Other meadow insects found include the dark green fritillary; the park has various circular trails around the site, within Downs Wood, Great Wood and Butchers Wood. Three main trails are marked. The'Red Route' is 2.5 miles of flat terrain that uses North Downs Way. The'Yellow Route' is a 1.5-mile trail that uses some of the Red Route but is an easier, shorter trail. The'Blue Route' is 2 miles long, involves more challenging terrain, with steep hills and climbs, it passes Little Pell Great Pell Field.
The North Downs Way leads via a bridleway through the Country Park on its way from Wrotham to Upper Halling. An'Adventurous Pub Walk' of 8.5 miles starts in the park and leads to Ryarsh and Addington, before returning to the park. The Coldrum Trail starts in the country park and leads to the Coldrum Stones, before returning to the park. Situated off Junction 2 of the M20 motorway, the par is located off the A227 between Meopham and Wrotham. Kent County Page Kent Downs page
Sir is a formal English honorific address for men, derived from Sire in the High Middle Ages. Traditionally, as governed by law and custom, Sir is used for men titled knights i.e. of orders of chivalry, also to baronets, other offices. As the female equivalent for knighthood is damehood, the suo jure female equivalent term is Dame; the wife of a knight or baronet tends to be addressed Lady, although a few exceptions and interchanges of these uses exist. Since the Late Modern era, "Sir" has been used as a respectful way to address any commoners of a superior social status or military rank. Equivalent terms of address for women are Madam, in addition to social honorifics such as Mr, Mrs and Miss.'Sir' derives from the honorific title sire, used in Spanish, French and Swedish. Sire developed alongside the word seigneur used to refer to a feudal lord. Both derived from the Vulgar Latin senior, sire comes from the nominative case declension senior and seigneur, the accusative case declension seniōrem.
The form'Sir' is first documented in English in 1297, as title of honour of a knight, latterly a baronet, being a variant of sire, used in English since at least c.1205 as a title placed before a name and denoting knighthood, to address the Sovereign since c.1225, with additional general senses of'father, male parent' is from c.1250, and'important elderly man' from 1362. The prefix is never with the surname alone. For example, whilst Sir Alexander and Sir Alexander Fleming would be correct, Sir Fleming would not; the equivalent for a female who holds a knighthood or baronetcy in her own right is'Dame', follows the same usage customs as'Sir'. Although this form was also used for the wives of knights and baronets, it is now customary to refer to them as'Lady', followed by their surname. For example, while Lady Fiennes is correct, Lady Virginia and Lady Virginia Fiennes are not; the widows of knights retain the style of wives of knights, however widows of baronets are either referred to as'dowager', or use their forename before their courtesy style.
For example, the widow of Sir Thomas Herbert Cochrane Troubridge, 4th Baronet, would either be known as Dowager Lady Troubridge or Laura, Lady Troubridge. Today, in the UK and in certain Commonwealth realms, a number of men are entitled to the prefix of'Sir', including knights bachelor, knights of the orders of chivalry and baronets. Dual nationals holding a Commonwealth citizenship that recognise the British monarch as head of state are entitled to use the styling. Common usage varies from country to country: for instance, dual Bahamian-American citizen Sidney Poitier, knighted in 1974, is styled'Sir Sidney Poitier' in connection with his official ambassadorial duties, although he himself employs the title; the permissibility of using the style of'Sir' varies. In general, only dynastic knighthoods in the personal gift of the Sovereign and Head of the Commonwealth – the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle and the knighthoods in the Royal Victorian Order – are recognised across the Commonwealth realms, along with their accompanying styles.
Knighthoods in the gift of the government of a Commonwealth realm only permit the bearer to use his title within that country or as its official representative, provided he is a national of that country. For instance, Anthony Bailey was reprimanded by Buckingham Palace and the British government in 2016 for asserting that an honorary Antiguan knighthood allowed him the style of'Sir' in the UK. Knight Commander or Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order Baronet Knight of the Order of the Garter Knight of the Order of the Thistle Knight Commander or Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Knight Commander or Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George Knight Commander or Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire Knight Bachelor Knight of the Order of the National Hero Knight Commander, Knight Grand Cross, or Knight Grand Collar of the Order of the Nation Knight of the Order of Australia Knight of St. Andrew of the Order of Barbados Knight Commander, Knight Grand Cross, or Knight Grand Collar of the Order of the Nation in the Order of Grenada Knight Companion or Knight Grand Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit Knight Commander of the Order of Saint Lucia Established in 1783 and awarded to men associated with the Kingdom of Ireland, Knights of the Order of St. Patrick were entitled to the style of'Sir'.
Regular creation of new knights of the order ended in 1921 upon the formation of the Irish Free State. With the death of the last knight in 1974, the Order became dormant; as part of the consolidation of the crown colony of India, the Order of the Star of India was established in 1861 to reward prominent British and Indian civil servants, military officers and prominent Indians associated with the Indian Empire. The Order of the Indian Empire was established in 1878 as a junior-level order to accompany the Order of the Star of India, to recognise long service. From 1861 to 1866, the Order of the Star of India had a single class of Knights, who were entitled to the style of'Sir'. In 1
The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills in south east England that stretch from Farnham in Surrey to the White Cliffs of Dover in Kent. Westerham Heights, at the northern edge of the North Downs, near Bromley, South London, is the highest point in London at an elevation of 245 m; the North Downs lie within two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the Surrey Hills and the Kent Downs. The North Downs Way National Trail runs along the North Downs from Farnham to Dover.'Downs' is from Old English dun, amongst other things, "hill". The word acquired the sense of "elevated rolling grassland" around the 14th century; the name contains "North" to distinguish them from a similar range of hills – the South Downs – which runs parallel to them but some 50 km to the south. The narrow spine of the Hog's Back between Farnham and Guildford forms the western extremity of the North Downs, whilst the cliffs between Folkestone and Deal terminate the ridge in the east. There are two distinct aspects, the steep south-facing escarpment and the gentle north-facing dip slope.
The southern boundary is defined by the foot of the escarpment which gives way to the flat, broad clay lands between the Downs and Greensand Ridge known as the Vale of Holmesdale. The northern boundary is less apparent but occurs where the chalk submerges below the more recent Paleocene deposits; the Downs are highest near the Kent–Surrey border reaching heights in excess of 200 m above sea level at the crest of the escarpment. The highest point is Botley Hill in Surrey at 269 m; the County top of Kent at Betsom's Hill, with a height of 251 m is located nearby, the highest point in Greater London, Westerham Heights, at 245 m is on the northern side of the same hill. East of the Medway Valley the Downs become broader and flatter, extending as far as the Isle of Thanet; the ridge is intersected by the valleys of a series of rivers: the Wey, Darent and Stour rivers. These drain much of the Weald to the south; the western rivers are tributaries of the Thames. In addition to existing rivers, the Downs are crossed by a number of wind gaps – prehistoric river valleys no longer occupied by rivers – including those at Farnham, Caterham and Hawkinge.
Except for the river valleys and wind gaps, the crest of the escarpment is continuous along its length. The dip slope is dissected by many small dry valleys, in the broad eastern part in Kent, by further river valleys such as that of the Little Stour. Leith Hill is sometimes incorrectly referred to as part of the North Downs, but it is located on the parallel Greensand Ridge and does not consist of chalk; the Downland of the North Downs consists of distinct lithostratigraphic units: The more level tops of the Downs are covered by acidic strata including a layer of Clay-with-Flints, a sandy clay with many flints, or various sands and gravels. The Chalk Group, composed entirely of chalk, a kind of soft fine-grained limestone, it is formed of three parts, the Upper Chalk, which has many flints, the Middle Chalk, with fewer flints, the Lower Chalk or Coombe Rock, with few flints. The chalk is most exposed on slopes or as cliffs, where the overlying acidic strata have been quarried or washed away.
The buried upper surface of the chalk beneath the acidic strata is eroded into pipes and pinnacles, sometimes visible in road cuttings and quarries. The Upper Greensand Formation, a whitish, limy sandstone used for building, for which it has been mined from beneath the chalk; the Upper Greensand of the North Downs is a thin bed of one or two metres thickness, it is visible at the surface. The Upper Greensand marks the southern edge of the Downs, being underlain by: The Gault Formation of stiff blue clay; the Lower Greensand Formation of the Lower Cretaceous period, containing greensand, a glauconite sand or sandstone, as well as a certain amount of silts, clays and limestone. The topography of the North Downs consists of the Chalk Group, the rock strata of the Upper Cretaceous period which in certain areas is overlain by superficial deposits of gravels or clay-with-flints. Citing Dr D. T. Aldiss of the British Geological Survey: The Greensand Ridge is separate from the Downs. Again, one has to be aware of the distinction between'greensand' and'the Greensand', a lithostratigraphic term which refers to the Lower Greensand Group.
The Lower Greensand does contain some greensand, but much silt and limestone: most of it is neither green nor sand. It forms a distinct layer below the Gault Formation and the Upper Greensand Formation which directly underlie the Chalk Group. The'Greensand Ridge' refers to one of a series of escarpments formed by the Lower Greensand. In Surrey, the Upper Greensand is thin and is not separately marked by rising ground, but elsewhere it too forms an escarpment; these groups and formations each occur in separate layers. In Surrey these dip northwards at an angle of 2 degrees or less but increasing to as much as 55 degrees in the Hog's Back area, west of Guildford; the North Downs support several important habitats. The most distinctive of these is chalk grassland, limited to steep escarpment and valley slopes; this semi-natural habitat is maintained through sheep and rabbit grazing
The London Gazette
The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published. The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette; this claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrow's Worcester Journal, because The Gazette is not a conventional newspaper offering general news coverage. It does not have a large circulation. Other official newspapers of the UK government are The Edinburgh Gazette and The Belfast Gazette, apart from reproducing certain materials of nationwide interest published in The London Gazette contain publications specific to Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively. In turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating to entities or people in England and Wales.
However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette. The London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, they are subject to Crown copyright. The London Gazette is published each weekday, except for bank holidays. Notices for the following, among others, are published: Granting of royal assent to bills of the Parliament of the United Kingdom or of the Scottish Parliament The issuance of writs of election when a vacancy occurs in the House of Commons Appointments to certain public offices Commissions in the Armed Forces and subsequent promotion of officers Corporate and personal insolvency Granting of awards of honours and military medals Changes of names or of coats of arms Royal Proclamations and other DeclarationsHer Majesty's Stationery Office has digitised all issues of the Gazette, these are available online; the official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office.
The content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed. The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, courtiers were unwilling to touch London newspapers for fear of contagion; the Gazette was "Published by Authority" by Henry Muddiman, its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, the Gazette moved too, with the first issue of The London Gazette being published on 5 February 1666; the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense: it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majesty's Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889. Publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office.
In time of war, despatches from the various conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have been mentioned in despatches; when members of the armed forces are promoted, these promotions are published here, the person is said to have been "gazetted". Being "gazetted" sometimes meant having official notice of one's bankruptcy published, as in the classic ten-line poem comparing the stolid tenant farmer of 1722 to the lavishly spending faux-genteel farmers of 1822: Notices of engagement and marriage were formerly published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions. History of British newspapers Iris Oifigiúil The Dublin Gazette – in Ireland London Gazette index Official Journal of the European Union List of government gazettes London and Belfast Gazettes official site Great Fire of London 1666 – Facsimile and transcript of London Gazette report
St Bartholomew's Hospital
St Bartholomew's Hospital known as Barts, is a teaching hospital located in the City of London. It was founded in 1123 and is run by Barts Health NHS Trust. Barts was founded in 1123 by Rahere, a favourite courtier of King Henry I; the Dissolution of the Monasteries did not affect the running of Barts as a hospital, but left it in a precarious position by removing its income. It was refounded by King Henry VIII in December 1546, on the signing of an agreement granting the hospital to the Corporation of London; the hospital became styled as the "House of the Poore in Farringdon in the suburbs of the City of London of Henry VIII's Foundation", although the title was never used by the general public. The first Superintendent of the hospital was Thomas Vicary, sergeant-surgeon to King Henry, an early writer on anatomy, it was here that William Harvey conducted his research on the circulatory system in the 17th century, Percivall Pott and John Abernethy developed important principles of modern surgery in the 18th century, Mrs Bedford Fenwick worked to advance the nursing profession in the late 19th century.
In 1839 to 1872, the mortality reports show that surgical trauma and postoperative infection were the greatest causes of death. Tuberculosis, remained the most fatal nontraumatic cause of death. Nurses were expected to work 12 hours a day, sometimes 14, with meal breaks in 1890, they had 2 weeks annual holiday. Upon the creation of the National Health Service in 1948, it became known as St Bartholomew's Hospital. Barts is the oldest hospital in Britain still providing medical services which occupies the site it was built on, has an important current role as well as a long history and architecturally important buildings; the so-named Henry VIII entrance to the hospital continues to be the main public entrance. Its main square was designed by James Gibbs in the 1730s. Of the four original blocks only three survive; the first wing to be built was the North Wing, in 1732, which includes the Great Hall and the murals by William Hogarth. The South Wing followed in 1740, the West in 1752 and the East Wing in 1769.
In 1859, a fountain was placed at the square's centre with a small garden. St Bartholomew's Hospital has existed on the same site since its founding in the 12th century, surviving both the Great Fire of London and the Blitz, its museum, open Tuesdays to Fridays every week, shows how medical care has developed over this time and explains the history of the hospital. Part-way around the exhibition is a door. On the walls of the staircase are two murals painted by William Hogarth, The Pool of Bethesda and The Good Samaritan, they can only be seen at close quarters on Friday afternoons. Hogarth was so outraged by the news that the hospital was commissioning art from Italian painters that he insisted on doing these murals free of charge, as a demonstration that English painting was equal to the task; the Pool of Bethesda is of particular medical interest, as it depicts a scene in which Christ cures the sick: display material on the first floor speculates in modern medical terms about the ailments from which Christ's patients in the painting are suffering.
The room to which the staircase leads is the hospital's Great Hall, a double-height room in Baroque-style. Although there are a few paintings inside the Great Hall, nearly all are on movable stands: the walls themselves are given over to the display of the many large, painted plaques which list, in detail, the sums of money given to the hospital by its benefactors. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the hospital precincts of the ancient priory were redesignated as an Anglican ecclesiastical parish, with St Bartholomew-the-Less becoming the parish church – a unique situation amongst English hospital foundations. St Barts-the-Less is the only survivor of five chapels within the hospital's estate, the others failing to survive the Reformation; the church has a 15th-century tower and vestry, its connections with the hospital can be seen not only in its early-20th century stained glass window of a nurse, a gift from the Worshipful Company of Glaziers, but in commemorative plaques adorning its interior.
Throughout the whole of the 19th century, the Hardwick family were major benefactors of the hospital. Thomas Hardwick Jr. Philip Hardwick, Philip Charles Hardwick were all architects/surveyors to Barts Hospital. Philip Hardwick, a Royal Academician, was engaged in the rebuilding of the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Less in 1823 and donated the fountain in the hospital's courtyard. By 1872, Barts contained 676 beds. About 6,000 in-patients were admitted every year, as well as 101,000 out-patients; the average income of the hospital was £40,000 and the number of governors exceeded 300. In 1993 the controversial Tomlinson Review of London hospitals was published and concluded that there were too many hospitals in central London, it recommended. Barts was identified as a hospital with a catchment area that had a low population and the hospital was threatened with closure. A determined campaign was mounted to save the hospital by the Save Barts Campaign, supported by staff, local MPs and the City of London Corporation.
Some facilities were saved, but the accident and emergency department closed in 1995, with facilities reloca