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Siraj ud-Daulah

Mirza Muhammad Siraj ud-Daulah known as Siraj ud-Daulah, was the last independent Nawab of Bengal. The end of his reign marked the start of British East India Company rule over Bengal and almost all of India. Siraj succeeded his maternal grandfather, Alivardi Khan as the Nawab of Bengal in April 1756 at the age of 23, but he was soon betrayed by his commander in chief, Mir Jafar, in the Battle of Plassey against the British. After his death, his kingdom was annexed by the British and Mir Jafar was made the ruler. Siraj was born to Zain ud-Din Ahmed Khan and Amina Begum in 1733, soon after his birth, Siraj's maternal grandfather, was appointed the Deputy Governor of Bihar. Accordingly, he was raised at the Nawab's palace with all necessary education and training suitable for a future Nawab. Young Siraj accompanied Alivardi on his military ventures against the Marathas in 1746. Siraj was regarded as the "fortune child" of the family. Since birth, Siraj had special affection from his grandfather.

In May 1752, Alivardi Khan declared Siraj as his successor. Alivardi Khan died on 10 April 1756 at the age of eighty. Siraj-ud-Daulah's nomination to be Nawab aroused the jealousy and enmity of his maternal aunt, Ghaseti Begum, Mir Jafar and Shaukat Jung. Ghaseti Begum possessed huge wealth, the source of her influence and strength. Apprehending serious opposition from her, Siraj ud-Daulah seized her wealth from Motijheel Palace and placed her under confinement; the Nawab made changes in high government positions giving these to his own favourites. Mir Madan was appointed Bakshi in place of Mir Jafar. Mohanlal was elevated to the rank of peshkar of his Dewan Khana and he exercised great influence over the administration. Siraj suppressed Shaukat Jang, governor of Purnia, killed in a clash. Siraj, as the direct political disciple of his grandfather, was aware of the global British interest in colonization, hence resented the British politico-military presence in Bengal represented by the British East India Company.

He was angered at the Company's alleged involvement with some members of the Nawab's own court to a conspiracy to oust him. His charges against the company were broadly threefold. Firstly, that they strengthened the fortification around the Fort William without any intimation or approval. Hence, when the East India Company began the further enhancement of its military strength at Fort William in Calcutta, Siraj ud-Daulah ordered them to stop; the Company did not heed his directives. The Nawab took Fort William; the captives were placed in the prison cell as a temporary holding by a local commander, but there was confusion in the Indian chain of command, the captives were left there overnight, many died. Contemporary British accounts of the ordeal run a considerable risk of embellishment. Sir William Meredith, during the Parliamentary inquiry into Robert Clive's actions in India, vindicated Siraj ud-Daulah of any charge surrounding the Black Hole incident: "A peace was however agreed upon with Surajah Dowlah.

The Nawab was infuriated on learning of the attack on Chandernagar. His former hatred of the British returned, but he now felt the need to strengthen himself by alliances against the British; the Nawab feared attack from the north by the Afghans under Ahmad Shah Durrani and from the west by the Marathas. Therefore, he could not deploy his entire force against the British for fear of being attacked from the flanks. A deep distrust set in between the Nawab; as a result, Siraj started secret negotiations with Jean Law, chief of the French factory at Cossimbazar, de Bussy. The Nawab moved a large division of his army under Rai Durlabh to Plassey, on the island of Cossimbazar 30 miles south of Murshidabad. Popular discontent against the Nawab flourished in his own court; the Seths, the traders of Bengal, were in perpetual fear for their wealth under the reign of Siraj, contrary to the situation under Alivardi's reign. They had engaged Yar Lutuf Khan to defend them in case they were threatened in any way.

William Watts, the Company representative at the court of Siraj, informed Clive about a conspiracy at the court to overthrow the ruler. The conspirators included Mir Jafar, the paymaster of the army, Rai Durlabh, Yar Lutuf Khan and Omichund, a Sikh merchant, several officers in the army; when communicated in this regard by Mir Jafar, Clive referred it to the select committee in Calcutta on 1 May. The committee passed a resolution in support of the alliance. A treaty was drawn up between the British and Mir Jafar to raise him to the throne of the Nawab in return for support to the British in the field of battle and the bestowing of large sums of money to them as compensation for the attack on Calcutta. On 2 May, Clive broke up his camp and sent half the troops to Calcutta and the other half to Chandernagar. Mir Jafar and the Seths desired that the confederacy between the British and himself be kept secret from Omichund, but when he found out about it, he threatened to betray the conspiracy if his share was not increased to

Mad About Mambo

Mad About Mambo is a 2000 romantic comedy film written and directed by John Forte. It stars Keri Russell and Brian Cox. A boy obsessed with football finds his life changing once he adds a little Samba. Danny plays on the football team at the all-boys Catholic school. Danny's three best friends, who play on the team, all have different ambitions for their lives. Mickey wants to be a fashion designer. Gary wants to become a magician so he can meet beautiful women, and Spike likes to beat people up, so he wants to become a mercenary and do it for a living. But Danny dreams of making football his life; the players Danny most admires are South Americans, such as Pele and Carlos Riga, who he feels have a special rhythm and flexibility. Wanting to add some of these qualities to his own game, Danny has an idea: he'll take Samba lessons, in the hope that dancing like a South American will help him play like a South American. To the surprise of himself and his friends, Danny turns out to be a pretty good Latin dancer and finds himself smitten with a student in his dance class, Lucy.

However, Lucy happens to have a boyfriend, a fierce competitor on one of Danny's rival teams. The film stars Brian Flanagan who plays an inspiring cameo role along with members of Celbridge Town Football Club. Mad About Mambo on IMDb

Whippany River

The Whippany River is a tributary of the Rockaway River 20 mi long, in northern New Jersey in the United States. It rises in Morris County, in Mendham Township west of Morristown, flows ENE in a meandering course, through Morristown and the Whippany area of Hanover, it flows through the Troy Meadows and joins the Rockaway in the Hatfield Swamp in eastern Morris County, just above the confluence of the Rockaway with the Passaic River. The river drainage area is 69 square miles. There are three USGS water gauges on the river; the gauge in Parsippany just before the Whippany River empties into the Rockaway River has an average flow of 178 cubic feet per second. The river derives its name from the Whippanong Native Americans, a tribe that once inhabited the area. Whippanong named for the trees growing along the banks of the river. List of rivers of New Jersey Whippany River Watershed Action Committee Patriots' Path 40°49′16.31″N 74°25′55.11″W NJ Skylands: Whippany River U. S. Geological Survey: NJ stream gauging stations Whippany River Watershed Action Committee

Devanagari kha

Kha is the second consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It arose from the Brahmi letter, after having gone through the Gupta letter. Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter ખ, the Modi letter. In all languages, ख is pronounced as or when appropriate. खण्ड = khand "fragment "In this example, ख implements its inherent vowel, the schwa. अखरोट = akhrot "nonsense ``. Certain words that have been borrowed from Persian and Arabic implement the nukta to more properly approximate the original word, it is transliterated as a x. ख़राब = xaraab "bad" Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers similar to that of the Greeks after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of ख are: ख = 2 खि = 200 खु = 20,000 खृ = 2,000,000 खॢ = 20×108 खे = 20×1010 खै = 20×1012 खो = 20×1014 खौ = 20×1016 Kurt Elfering: Die Mathematik des Aryabhata I. Text, Übersetzung aus dem Sanskrit und Kommentar. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, München, 1975, ISBN 3-7705-1326-6 Georges Ifrah: The Universal History of Numbers.

From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, ISBN 0-471-39340-1. B. L. van der Waerden: Erwachende Wissenschaft. Ägyptische, babylonische und griechische Mathematik. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel Stuttgart, 1966, ISBN 3-7643-0399-9 Fleet, J. F.. "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland: 109–126. ISSN 0035-869X. JSTOR 25189823. Fleet, J. F.. "Aryabhata's System of Expressing Numbers". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 43: 109–126. Doi:10.1017/S0035869X00040995. JSTOR 25189823

1998–2002 Argentine great depression

The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002. It followed the 1974–1990 Great Depression after a brief period of rapid economic growth; the depression, which began after the Russian and Brazilian financial crises, caused widespread unemployment, the fall of the government, a default on the country's foreign debt, the rise of alternative currencies and the end of the peso's fixed exchange rate to the US dollar. The economy shrank by 28 percent from 1998 to 2002. In terms of income, over 50 percent of Argentines were poor and indigent. By the first half of 2003, however, GDP growth had returned, surprising economists and the business media, the economy grew by an average of 9% for five years. Argentina's GDP exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2005, Argentine debt restructuring that year were resumed payments on most of its defaulted bonds. Bondholders who participated in the restructuring have been paid punctually and have seen the value of their bonds rise.

Argentina repaid its International Monetary Fund loans in full in 2006, but had a long dispute with the 7% of bond-holders left. In April 2016 Argentina came out of the default when the new government decided to repay the country's debt, paying the full amount to the vulture/hedge funds. Argentina's many years of military dictatorship had caused significant economic problems prior to the 2001 crisis during the self-styled National Reorganization Process in power from 1976 to 1983. A right-wing executive, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, was appointed Economy Minister at the outset of the dictatorship, a neoliberal economic platform centered around anti-labor, monetarist policies of financial liberalization was introduced. Budget deficits jumped to 15% of GDP as the country went into debt for the state takeover of over $15 billion in private debts as well as unfinished projects, higher defense spending, the Falklands War. By the end of the military government in 1983, the foreign debt had ballooned from $8 billion to $45 billion, interest charges alone exceeded trade surpluses, industrial production had fallen by 20%, real wages had lost 36% of their purchasing power, unemployment, calculated at 18%, was at its highest point since the 1929 Great Depression.

Democracy was restored in 1983 with the election of President Raúl Alfonsín. The new government intended to stabilize the economy and in 1985 introduced austerity measures and a new currency, the Argentine austral, the first of its kind without peso in its name. Fresh loans were required to service the $5 billion in annual interest charges and when commodity prices collapsed in 1986, the state became unable to service this debt. During the Alfonsin administration, unemployment did not increase, but real wages fell by half to the lowest level in fifty years. Prices for state-run utilities, telephone service, gas increased substantially. Confidence in the plan, collapsed in late 1987, inflation, which had averaged 10% per month from 1975 to 1988, spiraled out of control. Inflation reached 200 % for the month in July 1989. Amid riots, Alfonsín resigned five months before the end of his term. After a second bout of hyperinflation, Domingo Cavallo was appointed Minister of the Economy in January 1991.

On 1 April, he fixed the value of the austral at 10,000 per US dollar. Australs could be converted to dollars at banks; the Central Bank of Argentina had to keep its US dollar foreign-exchange reserves at the same level as the cash in circulation. The initial aim of such measures was to ensure the acceptance of domestic currency because after the 1989 and 1990 hyperinflation, Argentines had started to demand payment in US dollars; this regime was modified by a law that restored the Argentine peso as the national currency. The convertibility law reduced inflation preserving the value of the currency; that raised the quality of life for many citizens, who could again afford to travel abroad, buy imported goods or ask for credit in dollars at traditional interest rates. The fixed exchange rate reduced the cost of imports, which produced a flight of dollars from the country and a massive loss of industrial infrastructure and employment in industry. Argentina, still had external public debt that it needed to roll over.

Government spending remained too high, corruption was rampant. Argentina's public debt grew enormously during the 1990s without showing that it could service the debt; the IMF kept extending its payment schedules. Massive tax evasion and money laundering contributed to the movement of funds toward offshore banks. A congressional committee started investigations in 2001 over accusations that Central Bank Governor Pedro Pou, a prominent advocate of dollarization, members of the board of directors had overlooked money laundering within Argentina's financial system. Clearstream was accused of being instrumental in this process. Other Latin American countries, including Mexico and Brazil faced economic crises of their own, leading to mistrust of the regional economy; the influx of foreign currency provided by the privatization of state companies had ended. After 1999, Argentine exports were harmed by the devaluation of the Br

St. Jerome in Penance

The St. Jerome in Penance is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Filippo Lippi, dating to c. 1439. It is housed in the Lindenau-Museum of Germany; the work could be identified with the St. Jerome Penitent of which Lippi asked payment in a letter issued to Piero de' Medici in 1439; the painting is one of the first known example on the subject of St. Jerome doing penance, it is a small panel, divided into two different scenes: in the upper part is St. Jerome with the wooden cross, the stone to strike his breast and the lectern lying on the rock. In the lower part, with a chronological step, is the episode of the saint with the lion having a thorn in the paw; the unfriendly landscape is a metaphor of the hermit style of life