Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine
Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine is a now-defunct monthly video game magazine, published by Ziff Davis Media, it was a sister publication of Electronic Gaming Monthly. The magazine focused on PlayStation hardware and culture, covering the original PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable; the most famous aspect of the magazine was the inclusion each month of a disc that contained playable demos and videos of PlayStation games. The magazine was produced for nearly ten years, from October 1997 to the final issue in January 2007. One month after OPM was discontinued in January 2007, the independent PlayStation magazine PSM became PlayStation: The Official Magazine, replacing OPM as the official magazine focusing on Sony game consoles; the final incarnation of the OPM staff included: Editor-in-chief – Tom Byron Managing editor – Dana Jongewaard Senior editor – Joe Rybicki Previews editor – Thierry "Scooter" Nguyen News editor – Giancarlo Varanini Art director – Ryan Vulk Associate art director – Alejandro Chavetta Disc editor – Logan Parr Editorial director – John DavisonPast members included: Senior Art Director - Bob Conlon Managing editor – Gary Steinman Managing editor – Din Perez Managing editor – Dan Peluso Reviews editor – Chris Baker Associate editor – Mark MacDonald Editor-in-chief – Wataru Maruyama Editor-in-chief – Kraig Kujawa Editor-in-chief – John Davison OPM was the first gaming magazine to include a disc that featured playable demos of PlayStation games.
Beginning with issue one, each magazine came with a disc containing playable PlayStation game demos and non-playable video footage. Interviews, industry event coverage, video walkthroughs of games would be included on the discs. Beginning with issue 49, the magazine came with a PlayStation 2 demo disc, though for a time it would still be alternated with original PlayStation demo discs. Issues 50, 52, 54 were the last issues to include demo discs for the original PlayStation. All of the demo discs were developed by Inc.. OPM had released Killzone Liberation, it was available only with the purchase of retail copies rather than subscription issues. The magazine was discontinued before making the assumed transition to PlayStation 3 demo discs. OPM demo discs for PS1 and PS2 were listed in order: Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #1 First PS1 OPM Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #2 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #3 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #4 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #5 Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #6 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #7 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #8 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #9 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #10 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #11 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #12 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #13 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #14 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #15 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #16 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #17 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #18 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #19 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #20 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #21 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #22 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #23 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #24 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #25 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #26 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #27 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #28 - Robot in the City Section Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #29 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #30 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #31 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #32 - Atlantis Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #33 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #34 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #35 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #36 - Future City Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #37 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #38 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #39 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #40 - Dr. Evil Fish Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #41 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #42 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #43 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #44 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #45 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #46 - Orb Crystal Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #47 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #48 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #49 First PS2 OPM Official U.
S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #50 PS1 OPM- Square lines Section /Galaxy Map Section Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #51 Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #52 PS1 OPM Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine Issue #53 (Februar
Sony Interactive Entertainment
Sony Interactive Entertainment LLC is a multinational video game and digital entertainment company, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the central hub for the American businesses under the Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. The company was founded in Tokyo and established on November 16, 1993, as Sony Computer Entertainment, to handle Sony's venture into video game development through its PlayStation brand. Since the successful launch of the original PlayStation console in 1994, the company has been developing the PlayStation lineup of home video game consoles and accessories. Expanding into North America and other countries, the company became Sony's main resource for research and development in video games and interactive entertainment. In April 2016, SCE and Sony Network Entertainment International was restructured and reorganized into Sony Interactive Entertainment, carrying over the operations and primary objectives from both companies; the same year, SIE moved its headquarters from Tokyo to California.
Sony Interactive Entertainment handles the research and development and sales of both hardware and software for the PlayStation video game systems. SIE is a developer and publisher of video game titles, operates several subsidiaries in Sony's largest markets: North America and Asia. By August 2018, the company had sold more than 525 million PlayStation consoles worldwide. Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. was jointly established by Sony and its subsidiary Sony Music Entertainment Japan in 1993 to handle the company's ventures into the video game industry. The original PlayStation console was released on December 1994, in Japan; the company's North American operations, Sony Computer Entertainment of America, were established in May 1995 as a division of Sony Electronic Publishing. Located in Foster City, the North American office was headed by Steve Race. In the months prior to the release of the PlayStation in Western markets, the operations were restructured: All video game marketing from Sony Imagesoft was folded into SCEA in July 1995, with most affected employees transferred from Santa Monica to Foster City.
On August 7, 1995, Race unexpectedly resigned and was named CEO of Spectrum HoloByte three days later. He was replaced by Sony Electronics veteran Martin Homlish; this proved to be the beginning of a run of exceptional managerial turnover, with SCEA going through four presidents in a single year. The PS console was released in the United States on September 9, 1995; as part of a worldwide restructuring at the beginning of 1997, SCEA and Sony Computer Entertainment Europe were both re-established as wholly owned subsidiaries of SCEI. The launch of the second PS console, the PlayStation 2 was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, the U. S. on October 26, 2000. On July 1, 2002, chairman of SCEI, Shigeo Maruyama, was replaced by Tamotsu Iba as chairman. Jack Tretton and Phil Harrison were promoted to senior vice presidents of SCE; the PlayStation Portable was SCEI's first foray into the small handheld console market. Its development was first announced during SCE's E3 conference in 2003, it was unveiled during their E3 conference on May 11, 2004.
The system was released in Japan on December 12, 2004, in North America on March 24, 2005, in Europe and Australia on September 1, 2005. On September 14, 2005, SCEI formed Sony Computer Entertainment Worldwide Studios, a single internal entity to oversee all wholly owned development studios within SCEI, it became responsible for the creative and strategic direction of development and production of all computer entertainment software by all SCEI-owned studios—all software is produced for the PS family of consoles. Shuhei Yoshida was named as President of SCE WWS on May 16, 2008, replacing Kazuo Hirai, serving interim after Harrison left the company in early 2008. On December 8, 2005, video game developer Guerrilla Games, developers of the Killzone series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On January 24, 2006, video game developer Zipper Interactive, developers of the Socom series, was acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. In March 2006, Sony announced the online network for its forthcoming PlayStation 3 system at the 2006 PlayStation Business Briefing meeting in Tokyo, tentatively named "PlayStation Network Platform" and called just PlayStation Network.
Sony stated that the service would always be connected and include multiplayer support. The launch date for the PS3 was announced by Hirai at the pre-Electronic Entertainment Expo conference held at the Sony Pictures Studios in Los Angeles, California, on May 8, 2006; the PS3 was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, the U. S. date was November 17, 2006. The PSN was launched in November 2006. On November 30, 2006, president of SCEI, Ken Kutaragi, was appointed as chairman of SCEI, while Hirai president of SCEA, was promoted to president of SCEI. On April 26, 2007, Ken Kutaragi resigned from his position as chairman of SCEI and group CEO, passing on his duties to the appointed president of SCE, Hirai. On September 20, 2007, video game developers Evolution Studios and Bigbig Studios, creators of the MotorStorm series, were acquired by Sony Computer Entertainment as part of its SCE WWS. On April 15, 2009, David Reeves, president and CEO of SCE Europe, announced his forthcoming resignation from his post.
He had joined the company in 1995 and was appointed as chairman of SCEE in 2003, president in 2005. His role of president and CEO of SCEE would be taken over by Andrew House, who joined Sony Corporation in 1990; the PSP Go was released on October 1
In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change in one state of a deterministic nonlinear system can result in large differences in a state. The term associated with the work of Edward Lorenz, is derived from the metaphorical example of the details of a tornado being influenced by minor perturbations such as the flapping of the wings of a distant butterfly several weeks earlier. Lorenz discovered the effect when he observed that runs of his weather model with initial condition data, rounded in a inconsequential manner would fail to reproduce the results of runs with the unrounded initial condition data. A small change in initial conditions had created a different outcome; the idea that small causes may have large effects in general and in weather was earlier recognized by French mathematician and engineer Henri Poincaré and American mathematician and philosopher Norbert Wiener. Edward Lorenz's work placed the concept of instability of the earth's atmosphere onto a quantitative base and linked the concept of instability to the properties of large classes of dynamic systems which are undergoing nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos.
The butterfly effect can be demonstrated by simple systems. In The Vocation of Man, Johann Gottlieb Fichte says "you could not remove a single grain of sand from its place without thereby... changing something throughout all parts of the immeasurable whole". Chaos theory and the sensitive dependence on initial conditions were described in the literature in a particular case of the three-body problem by Henri Poincaré in 1890, he proposed that such phenomena could be common, for example, in meteorology. In 1898, Jacques Hadamard noted general divergence of trajectories in spaces of negative curvature. Pierre Duhem discussed the possible general significance of this in 1908; the idea that one butterfly could have a far-reaching ripple effect on subsequent historic events made its earliest known appearance in "A Sound of Thunder", a 1952 short story by Ray Bradbury about time travel. In 1961, Lorenz was running a numerical computer model to redo a weather prediction from the middle of the previous run as a shortcut.
He entered the initial condition 0.506 from the printout instead of entering the full precision 0.506127 value. The result was a different weather scenario. Lorenz wrote: "At one point I decided to repeat some of the computations in order to examine what was happening in greater detail. I stopped the computer, typed in a line of numbers that it had printed out a while earlier, set it running again. I went down the hall for a cup of coffee and returned after about an hour, during which time the computer had simulated about two months of weather; the numbers being printed were nothing like the old ones. I suspected a weak vacuum tube or some other computer trouble, not uncommon, but before calling for service I decided to see just where the mistake had occurred, knowing that this could speed up the servicing process. Instead of a sudden break, I found that the new values at first repeated the old ones, but soon afterward differed by one and several units in the last decimal place, began to differ in the next to the last place and in the place before that.
In fact, the differences more or less doubled in size every four days or so, until all resemblance with the original output disappeared somewhere in the second month. This was enough to tell me what had happened: the numbers that I had typed in were not the exact original numbers, but were the rounded-off values that had appeared in the original printout; the initial round-off errors were the culprits. In 1963 Lorenz published a theoretical study of this effect in a cited, seminal paper called Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow. Elsewhere he stated:One meteorologist remarked that if the theory were correct, one flap of a sea gull's wings would be enough to alter the course of the weather forever; the controversy has not yet been settled. Following suggestions from colleagues, in speeches and papers Lorenz used the more poetic butterfly. According to Lorenz, when he failed to provide a title for a talk he was to present at the 139th meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1972, Philip Merilees concocted Does the flap of a butterfly’s wings in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas? as a title.
Although a butterfly flapping its wings has remained constant in the expression of this concept, the location of the butterfly, the consequences, the location of the consequences have varied widely. The phrase refers to the idea that a butterfly's wings might create tiny changes in the atmosphere that may alter the path of a tornado or delay, accelerate or prevent the occurrence of a tornado in another location; the butterfly does not power or directly create the tornado, but the term is intended to imply that the flap of the butterfly's wings can cause the tornado: in the sense that the flap of the wings is a part of the initial conditions. The flapping wing represents a small change in the initial condition of the system, which cascades to large-scale alterations of events. Had the butterfly not flapped its wings, the trajectory of the system might have been vastly different—but it's equally possible that
Eurogamer is a website focused on video game journalism and other features. It is operated by Gamer Network Ltd. with headquarters in East Sussex. It was formed in 1999 by brothers Nick Loman while they were in secondary school. Gamer Network states that the site has the largest readership of any independent videogames website in Europe, was the first such site to subject its traffic to independent verification by the ABC Electronic system; the site caters to a UK/Ireland audience. Most of its reviews are of PAL releases of games. In February 2015, Eurogamer dropped its 10-point scale review scores system in favour of a "recommendation system," where games would either receive no specific recommendation or awards for being "Recommended," "Essential" or "Avoid." Eurogamer launched on 4 September 1999. Among its founders were Rupert Loman, a Quake and esports community organiser. Eurogamer's current editor is Oli Welsh, who took over the role from Tom Bramwell in September 2014; the editor prior to Bramwell was Kristan Reed.
Contributors to the site include past or present writers from PC Gamer, GamesTM, Rock, Shotgun, such as Kieron Gillen, Jim Rossignol, John Walker, Simon Parkin, Alec Meer, Richard Leadbetter, Dan Whitehead, as well as former GamesIndustry.biz editor Rob Fahey. Eurogamer founder Rupert Loman was interviewed in February 2007 by MCV magazine, he was featured in the Sunday Telegraph on 19 August 2007, speaking about the experience he has gained from choosing to run Eurogamer instead of attending university. At the Games Media Awards, Eurogamer won the categories of Best Games Website – News, Best Games Website – Reviews & Features in 2007; the two awards were consolidated in 2008 and the site went on to win the new award for Best Games Website every year it was awarded, from 2008 to 2013, making it the only website to win the award in its history. Deputy Editor Tom Bramwell won Best Writer in Specialist Digital Media and Eurogamer TV editor Johnny Minkley won Best Games-Dedicated Broadcast on Mainstream TV or Radio in 2007.
News editor Wesley Yin-Poole won Best News Writer in 2014. Rupert Loman was winner of Entrepreneur of the Year 2003 at the Sussex Business Awards and The Observer's "One to Watch" in Media 2007, he was selected as one of 30 "Young Guns" by Growing Business magazine in October 2008. Eurogamer is the principal site of the Gamer Network family of video game-related websites which it has either launched or acquired. Many of its sister sites were started with language/country-specific sites through 2006 to 2012. Eurogamer Germany; this was followed up with Eurogamer France in June 2007, Eurogamer Portugal in May 2008, Eurogamer Netherlands in August 2008, Eurogamer Spain and Eurogamer Italy in October 2008, Eurogamer Romania in March 2009, Eurogamer Czech in May 2009, Eurogamer Denmark in June 2009, Eurogamer Belgium in August 2009, Eurogamer Sweden in April 2010 and Eurogamer Poland in November 2012. In April 2011, Eurogamer Netherlands and Eurogamer Belgium merged to form Eurogamer Benelux. Eurogamer Romania closed down in 2011.
In November 2012, Eurogamer launched their first non-European site, Brasilgamer,In February 2018, Gamer Network was acquired by ReedPOP for an undisclosed sum. Other sites under the Gamer Network include: GamesIndustry.biz, which reports on the global video games industry, launched in May 2008. USgamer, a site following the same principles as the main Eurogamer website but helmed by American staff, launched around 2013. VG247, a video game news site started between Gamer Network and Patrick Garrett in 2008. Mod DB, a database for video game modifications launched in 2002, acquired by Gamer Network in 2015. Rock, Shotgun, a British-based website principally devoted to personal computer video games; the site was acquired into the Gamer Network in May 2017. Eurogamer has hosted the Digital Foundry channel since 2007. Digital Foundry evaluates video game hardware and software from a technical level comparing performances of the same game across different platforms. In February 2018, ReedPOP, a subsidiary of Reed Exhibitions that runs the PAX conventions, acquired the Gamer Network and its network of sites as to expanding into digital news and editorial content, as well as EGX, the largest video game convention in the United Kingdom.
No immediate changes were expected at other sites on the Gamer Network. Eurogamer.net GamesIndustry.biz
Forbidden Siren 2
Forbidden Siren 2, known in Japan as Siren 2 is a survival horror stealth game developed by Project Siren and published by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation 2 in 2006. It is a sequel to 2003's Siren. A film inspired by the game but featuring a different plot and characters, was released that same year; the game tells the story of several characters who become trapped on Yamijima Island, off the coast of mainland Japan. In 1976, during a blackout, the entire population of the island disappeared without a trace or explanation. Twenty-nine years in 2005, a journalist is visiting the island to conduct research for an article when the ferry he and a small group of other passengers are on capsizes. Shortly after this, a group of soldiers crash land on the island; the game is played from the perspective of these characters, out of chronological order, as the protagonists attempt to survive the island's monsters and discover its mystery. Like its predecessor, Forbidden Siren 2 is divided into numerous scenarios, organized chronologically in a table called the "Link Navigator".
In order to complete a scenario, the player must accomplish a primary mission objective that involves reaching an exit point, subduing certain enemies, or finding an item. Objectives in different scenarios are interconnected via a butterfly effect, a character's actions in one scenario can trigger a secondary objective in another; the game's defining feature is the characters' collective ability to "sightjack," or see and hear from the perspectives of nearby shibito, yamibito and other creatures. The process works to tuning into a radio frequency, with the left analog stick serving as the dial; the clarity of each target depends on the distance from the player, whilst the direction of the dial depends on the target's orientation to the player. Once a signal is found, it can be assigned to one of the controller's four face buttons to switch between multiple signals. Via sightjacking, the player can discover a shibito's position, patrol route and items of interest. However, the player is thus vulnerable to attack.
For Forbidden Siren 2, the sightjack system was altered by allowing the player to automatically sightjack the closest enemy without having to tune into its frequency. Character-specific features have been incorporated, such as Shu's ability to move while sightjacking, Ikuko's ability to control sightjacked enemies, Akiko's ability to reveal psychic impressions from the past when sightjacking in certain areas; the main gameplay itself builds upon that of its predecessor with some significant improvements. Context-sensitive interactions now require only a single button press when prompted, bringing up the in-game menu for common interactions no longer pauses the game. Important items remain in the inventory if a player is killed, whereas in the original games, items had to be reattained; the combat system has been given an overhaul. As well as single strong, but slow, characters can now utilize a three-hit combo attack and attack barehanded. Characters may use guns as melee weapons, there are many more weapons available than in the previous game.
Another major addition to the sequel is the introduction of a new type of enemy - the yamibito, although much more resilient and intelligent than the shibito, function the same way. Their main weakness is that they are repelled by light, meaning that they can be weakened by focusing a flashlight on them or turning on the lights in a room. Like the shibito, a yamibito is revived when a yamirei re-enters the corpse. Eliminating the yamirei renders the yamibito unconscious indefinitely. However, due to their improved intelligence and strength, yamibito will not fall for distractions that may have worked on shibito, they are much harder to defeat in combat. Like the original game, there are miscellaneous items scattered throughout each scenario that give the player further insight into the story's background. Once obtained, these items are placed into a catalog called "Archives" and can be viewed at any time during the game; the catalog has been expanded upon in the sequel to include additional media types such as audio and other interactive supplements.
Chronologically, the sequence of events in the game begins millennia ago. Mother is an ancient water deity, imprisoned below the earth upon the creation of light. At the same time, Mother's mate, fled to the depths of the ocean. Over time, Mother has remained always determined to return to the surface, as such, has sent out avatars to prepare the way for her return. However, they continually fail to achieve their mission, never return to the Underworld. In 1976, an underwater cable was cut, all power to Yamijima Island was lost; the four-year-old Shu Mikami finds a young woman washed up on the shore of the island. The woman, bears an extraordinary resemblance to Shu's dead mother, he and Kanae soon become inseparable, as she moves in with Shu and his father. However, the Yamijima locals instinctively fear
A player character is a fictional character in a role-playing game or video game whose actions are directly controlled by a player of the game rather than the rules of the game. The characters that are not controlled by a player are called non-player characters; the actions of non-player characters are handled by the game itself in video games, or according to rules followed by a gamemaster refereeing tabletop role-playing games. The player character functions as a fictional, alternate body for the player controlling the character. Video games have one player character for each person playing the game; some games offer a group of player characters for the player to choose from, allowing the player to control one of them at a time. Where more than one player character is available, the characters may have different abilities and weaknesses to make the game play style different. A player character may sometimes be based on a real person in sports games that use the names and likenesses of real sports people.
Historical people and leaders may sometimes appear as characters too in strategy or empire building games such as in Sid Meier's Civilization series. Curiously, in the case of Civilization, a player's chosen historical character is the same throughout the course of the game despite the fact that a campaign can last several hundred years before and after the lifetime of the real historical persona; such a player character is more properly an avatar as the player character's name and image have little bearing on the game itself. Avatars are commonly seen in casino game simulations. In many video games, first-person shooters, the player character is a "blank slate" without any notable characteristics or backstory. Pac-Man, Crono and Chell are examples of such characters; these characters are silent protagonists. Some games will go further, never showing or naming the player-character at all; this is somewhat common in first-person videogames, such as in Myst, but is more done in strategy video games such as Dune 2000 and Emperor: Battle for Dune.
In such games, the only real indication that the player has a character, is from the cutscenes during which the character is being given a mission briefing or debriefing. In gaming culture, such a character was called Ageless, Gender-Neutral, Culturally Ambiguous Adventure Person, abbreviated as AFGNCAAP. Fighting games have a larger number of player characters to choose from, with some basic moves available to all or most characters and some unique moves only available to one or a few characters. Having many different characters to play as and against, all possessing different moves and abilities, is necessary to create a larger gameplay variety in such games. In role playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons or Final Fantasy, a player creates or takes on the identity of a character that may have nothing in common with the player; the character is of a certain race and class, each with strengths and weaknesses. The attributes of the characters are given as numerical values which can be increased as the gamer progresses and gains rank and experience points through accomplishing goals or fighting enemies.
A secret or unlockable character is a playable character in a video game available only after completing the game or meeting another requirement. In some video games, characters that are not secret but appear only as non-player characters like bosses or enemies become playable characters after completing certain requirements, or sometimes cheating. Alternate character Avatar Non-player character
Computer facial animation
Computer facial animation is an area of computer graphics that encapsulates methods and techniques for generating and animating images or models of a character face. The character can be a humanoid, an animal, a fantasy creature or character, etc.. Due to its subject and output type, it is related to many other scientific and artistic fields from psychology to traditional animation; the importance of human faces in verbal and non-verbal communication and advances in computer graphics hardware and software have caused considerable scientific and artistic interests in computer facial animation. Although development of computer graphics methods for facial animation started in the early-1970s, major achievements in this field are more recent and happened since the late 1980s; the body of work around computer facial animation can be divided into two main areas: techniques to generate animation data, methods to apply such data to a character. Techniques such as motion capture and keyframing belong to the first group, while morph targets animation and skeletal animation belong to the second.
Facial animation has become well-known and popular through animated feature films and computer games but its applications include many more areas such as communication, scientific simulation, agent-based systems. With the recent advancements in computational power in personal and mobile devices, facial animation has transitioned from appearing in pre-rendered content to being created at runtime. Human facial expression has been the subject of scientific investigation for more than one hundred years. Study of facial movements and expressions started from a biological point of view. After some older investigations, for example by John Bulwer in the late 1640s, Charles Darwin’s book The Expression of the Emotions in Men and Animals can be considered a major departure for modern research in behavioural biology. Computer based facial expression modelling and animation is not a new endeavour; the earliest work with computer based facial representation was done in the early-1970s. The first three-dimensional facial animation was created by Parke in 1972.
In 1973, Gillenson developed an interactive system to edit line drawn facial images. In 1974, Parke developed a parameterized three-dimensional facial model. One of the most important attempts to describe facial movements was Facial Action Coding System. Developed by Carl-Herman Hjortsjö in the 1960s and updated by Ekman and Friesen in 1978, FACS defines 46 basic facial Action Units. A major group of these Action Units represent primitive movements of facial muscles in actions such as raising brows and talking. Eight AU's are for rigid three-dimensional head movements. FACS has been used for describing desired movements of synthetic faces and in tracking facial activities; the early-1980s saw the development of the first physically based muscle-controlled face model by Platt and the development of techniques for facial caricatures by Brennan. In 1985, the animated short film Tony de Peltrie was a landmark for facial animation; this marked the first time computer facial expression and speech animation were a fundamental part of telling the story.
The late-1980s saw the development of a new muscle-based model by Waters, the development of an abstract muscle action model by Magnenat-Thalmann and colleagues, approaches to automatic speech synchronization by Lewis and Hill. The 1990s have seen increasing activity in the development of facial animation techniques and the use of computer facial animation as a key storytelling component as illustrated in animated films such as Toy Story, Antz and Monsters, Inc. and computer games such as Sims. Casper, a milestone in this decade, was the first movie in which a lead actor was produced using digital facial animation; the sophistication of the films increased after 2000. In The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, dense optical flow from several high-definition cameras was used to capture realistic facial movement at every point on the face. Polar Express used a large Vicon system to capture upward of 150 points. Although these systems are automated, a large amount of manual clean-up effort is still needed to make the data usable.
Another milestone in facial animation was reached by The Lord of the Rings, where a character specific shape base system was developed. Mark Sagar pioneered the use of FACS in entertainment facial animation, FACS based systems developed by Sagar were used on Monster House, King Kong, other films; the generation of facial animation data can be approached in different ways: 1.) Marker-based motion capture on points or marks on the face of a performer, 2.) Markerless motion capture techniques using different type of cameras, 3.) Audio-driven techniques, 4.) Keyframe animation. Motion capture uses cameras placed around a subject; the subject is fitted either with reflectors or sources that determine the subject's position in space. The data recorded by the cameras is digitized and converted into a three-dimensional computer model of the subject; until the size of the detectors/sources used by motion capture systems made the technology inappropriate for facial capture. However and other advancements have made motion capture a viable tool for computer facial animation.
Facial motion capture was used extensively in Polar Express by Imageworks where hundreds of motion points were captured. This film was accomplished a