Roman is a city with the title of municipality located in the central part of Moldavia, a traditional region of Romania. It is located 46 km east of Piatra Neamț, in Neamț County at the confluence of the Siret and Moldova rivers, its name was taken from Moldavian Voivode Roman I of Moldavia. From here prince Roman has realized the centralization of Moldavia, Roman city being capital of Lower Country of Moldavia; the earliest mention of the city is in the Novgorod Chronicle. Five years the name appeared on a donation deed; the city is mentioned in a Moldavian document, signed by Moldavia's Voivode Roman I, on March 30. The document is one of the first of documents of the then-young state of Moldavia, being the first which holds a legible version of the Moldavia seal, bearing the aurochs, the moon, the star, the flower, still in use on Coat of Arms of Moldova. Roman became a diocesan see in September 14, 1408, when Voivode Roman I's son, Alexandru cel Bun, established an orthodox bishopric in the city.
The representatives of the Catholic population of Roman, shepherded by the Bishop of Baia, attended the Council of Constance in 1412. On in the late 15th century, Ştefan cel Mare build a new stone fortress on the left bank of the Siret river, to replace the old earthen one. Several documents from 1458, 1465 and 1488 during Ştefan's reign mention the Cathedral of Saint Paraskeva in Roman. In 1467, the fortress resisted the siege of the Hungarian army under King Matthias Corvinus, before the battle of Baia. In 1476, an Ottoman army, led by Mohamed II, besieged the new fortress again, with the Moldavians retreating after the Battle of Valea Albă. Petru Rareş ordered the construction of a new episcopal see on the same spot in 1542; the old fortress was destroyed by Dumitraşcu Cantacuzino, following Ottoman command, together with all other Moldavian fortresses. One of the last mentions of it dates back to 1561–1563 during the reign of Ioan Iacob Heraclid; the catholic community had its rights restored around the same time, in 1562, as Ioan Belusiuş, an agent of the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, wrote his master from Roman, after the severe limitations under Alexandru Lăpuşneanu.
In 1623, the catholic community was described by the Franciscan missionary Andreas Bogoslavici in a letter sent to Rome, as Hungarian that understood and used Romanian. The Catholics appear to have a church dedicated to Saint Peter. In 1569, Lady Ruxandra Lăpușneanu built an Orthodox church dedicated to the Holy Virgin on the same spot the eponym church is placed today. In 1595, the church Sfinţii Voievozi is built; the current Armenian Orthodox Church was built in 1610. Some demographic data from 1641, recorded by the Vicar of Sofia, passing through Roman, shows there were 1,500 Eastern Orthodox, 450 Armenian Orthodox and 30 Hungarian Catholics. A major personality of the city was orthodox bishop Dosoftei who translated the Psalter into Romanian in 1665–1671. In December 1691, Miron Costin, one of the first historians and writers in Romanian, was decapitated here on the orders of Prince Constantin Cantemir. Costin was in custody; the first hospital in Roman was built in 1798 on the place where the Municipal Hospital Precista Mare is located today.
Talmud Torah, one of the first Jewish schools in Principality of Moldova, was inaugurated in 1817, an important event in itself as Moldova did not grant citizenship to Jews. Roman became a railway hub in the 19th century, when the second railway in Romania was opened in December 1869, from Roman to Suceava. One year on December 27, 1870, The Bucharest-Galaţi-Roman railway was opened, linking Roman to the capital via Mărășești, Galaţi, Brăila and Buzău. Right after the inauguration, this railway was closed due to technical problems, but it was reestablished on September 13, 1872. At the same time, after a reluctant government gave its long-waited approval, the first high school of the city, Roman-Vodă, was opened on September 30 in the building, still in use today as that of School No. 1. In the communist era, the city lost the county capital status, being included, in 1950-52 and 1956-68, in Bacău Region, in 1952-56 in Iași Region, in 1968, in Neamț County, it became the target of industrialization: in 1957, the steel tubes factory started production.
Roman became an important industrial center in Romania. After the fall of communism, most of the heavy industry, relying on state subsidies, went bankrupt and Roman's economy struggled; the steel tubes factory was privatized, it is now owned by the Mittal Steel Company N. V. and the economy started to recover. Roman is located in north-eastern Romania, in Neamț County, in the historic region of Moldavia, at the mouth of the Moldova River, a tributary to the Siret; the nearest large city is Bacău, 40 km away on the Suceava-Bucharest railway. Ion S. Antoniu F. Brunea-Fox Sergiu Celibidache Gheorghe Flondor Ion Ionescu de la Brad Dumitru Irimia Mihail Jora Andreea Marin George Radu Melidon Simona Spiridon Tereza Pîslaru Paul Riegler Nae Roman Roman is twinned with: ROMAN-Romania.ro - website Ziarul de Roman - Local newspaper History of Roman Jews Melidonium magazine "Roman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Dolhasca is a town in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania. It is situated in the historical region of Moldavia. Dolhasca is the eighth largest urban settlement in the county, with a population of 9,792 inhabitants, according to the 2011 census, it was declared a town in 2004, along with seven other localities in Suceava County. The town administers seven villages: Budeni, Poiana, Probota, Siliștea Nouă and Valea Poienei. Despite being a town, Dolhasca looks like a rural settlement in many aspects, the main occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture; the Probota Monastery, built in 1530 by Moldavian ruler Petru Rareș, is close to the town. Among Dolhasca's notable natives are comedian Alexandru Arșinel and neurosurgeon Constantin N. Arseni. In 2002, Dolhasca had a population of 11,009 inhabitants, 90% of which were Romanians and the rest Roma. At that time, it was one of the most populated rural localities in Suceava County. Dolhasca Town Hall official site Ecomunitate – Dolhasca web page Suceava County site – Dolhasca web page
The Bistrița is a river in the Romanian regions of Maramureș, Bukovina and Moldavia. It is a right tributary of the river Siret. Near Bacău it flows into the Siret, its source is at the foot of the Gârgalău peak. It flows through the counties Bistrița-Năsăud, Neamț and Bacău; the towns Vatra Dornei, Piatra Neamț, Buhuși and Bacău lie along the Bistrița. The Bistrița is 283 km long, its basin area is 7039 km²; the upper reach is known as Bistrița Aurie. The following dams have been constructed on the river Bistrița: Topoliceni Izvorul Muntelui Pângărați Vaduri Piatra Neamț Reconstrucția Racova Gârleni Lilieci Bacău The following towns and villages are situated along the river Bistrița, from source to mouth: Șesuri, Cârlibaba Nouă, Valea Stânei, Botoș, Ciocănești, Argestru, Vatra Dornei, Cozănești, Gheorghițeni, Sunători, Cojoci, Satu Mare, Holda, Holdița, Broșteni, Frasin, Mădei, Pârâul Cârjei, Soci, Pârâul Pântei, Bușmei, Farcașa, Popești, Frumosu, Pârâul Fagului, Săvinești, Poiana Teiului, Topoliceni, Roșeni, Poiana Largului, Călugăreni, Ceahlău, Chirițeni, Grozăvești, Buhalnița, Ruginești, Izvoru Alb, Capșa, Tarcău, Oanțu, Pângărați, Vaduri, Viișoara, Agârcia, Piatra Neamț, Văleni, Dumbrava Roșie, Brășăuți, Săvinești, Roznov, Șovoaia, Zănești, Podoleni, Costișa, Buhuși, Blăgești, Buda, Gura Văii, Gârlenii de Sus, Gârleni, Itești, Bacău, Galbeni The following rivers are tributaries to the river Bistrița: Left: Bârjaba, Vulcănescu, Șes, Tinosu Mare, Bretila, Țibău, Cârlibaba, Valea Stânei, Botoș, Gropăria, Oița, Brezuța, Argestru, Biliceni, Gheorghițeni, Rusca, Stânișoara, Călinești, Frumușana, Izvorul Arseneasa, Arama, Cojoci, Fieru, Pârâul Fagului, Izvorul Casei, Leșu, Holdița, Cotârgași, Pietroasa, Săbașa, Fărcașa, Largu, Stâna, Vârlanu, Letești, Buhalnița, Capșa, Pângărați, Pângărăcior, Cracău, Câlneș, Români, Lețcana, Racova Right: Putreda, Tomnatecu Mare, Tomnatecu Mic, Lala, Izvorul Șes, Rusaia, Măgura, Fundoaia, Stânișoara, Valea Bâtcii, Gândac, Humor, Scoruș, Pârâul Rece, Suhărzelu Mic, Suhărzelu Mare, Ciotina, Dorna, Neagra Șarului, Arinaș, Cozănești, Bolătău, Rusca, Oșoiu, Sunători, Valea Lutului, Izvoru Rău, Bârnărel, Pârâul Cornului, Pârâul Ciucului, Bârnaru, Căboaia, Neagra Broșteni, Stejaru, Ruseni, Zahorna, Roșeni, Pârâul Duruitorilor, Schitu, Răpciunița, Țiflic, Valea Strâmtorilor, Izvorul Alb, Izvoru Muntelui, Coșușna, Crasnița, Potoci, Tarcău, Oanțul, Secu-Vaduri River, Râul Grădinii, Agârcia, Neamț, Pârâul Mănăstirii, Afinișul, Calul, Mastacăn, Poloboc, Dragova, Blăgești, Trebeș Institutul de Meteorologie și Hidrologie – Rîurile României – București 1971 Trasee turistice – județul Bacău Trasee turistice – Județul Neamț Trasee turistice – Județul Suceava Munții Rarău și Giumalău Munții Rodnei Munții Suhard Munții Rarău-Giumalău Munții Rarău
Bacău is the main city in Bacău County, Romania. At the 2016 national estimation it had a population of 196,883, making it the 12th largest city in Romania; the city is situated in the historical region of Moldavia, at the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, on the Bistrița River. The Ghimeș Pass links Bacău to the region of Transylvania; the town's name, which features in Old Church Slavonic documents as Bako, Bakova or Bakovia, comes most from a personal name. Men bearing the name Bakó or Bako are documented in medieval Transylvania and in 15th-century Bulgaria, but according to Victor Spinei the name itself is of Turkic – most of Cuman or Pecheneg – origin. Nicolae Iorga believes. Another theory suggests that the town's name has a Slavic origin, pointing to the Proto-Slavic word byk, meaning "ox" or "bull", the region being suitable for raising cattle. In German it is known in Hungarian as Bákó and in Turkish as Baka. To most urban centers in Moldavia, Bacău emerged on a ford that allowed water passage.
There is archaeological evidence of human settlement in the centre of Bacǎu dating from the 6th and the 7th centuries. A number of vessels found here are ornamented with crosses, hinting that the inhabitants were Christians. Pechenegs and Cumans controlled the Bistriţa valley during the 11th and 12th centuries. Colonists played a significant role in the development of the town. Archaeological finds, some surface or semi-buried dwellings from the second half of the 15th century, suggest that Hungarians started to settle in the region after 1345–1347 when the territory was under the control of the Kingdom of Hungary, they occupied the flat banks of the river Bistriţa. Discoveries of a type of 14th-century grey ceramic, found in Northern Europe suggests the presence of German colonists from the north; the town focused around the Roman Catholic community that settled near a regular local market frequented by the population of the region on the lower reaches of the river. The town was first mentioned in 1408 when Prince Alexander the Good of Moldavia listed the customs points in the principality in his privilege for Polish merchants.
The customs house in the town is mentioned in Old Church Slavonic as krainee mîto in the document which may indicate that it was the last customs stop before Moldavia's border with Wallachia. An undated document reveals that the şoltuz in Bacău, the head of the town elected by its inhabitants, had the right to sentence felons to death, at least for robberies, which hints to an extended privilege, similar to the ones that royal towns in the Kingdom of Hungary enjoyed, thus this right may have been granted to the community when the territory was under the control of the Kingdom of Hungary. The seal of Bacău was oval, exceptional in Moldavia where the seals of other towns were round. Alexander the Good donated the wax collected as part of the tax payable by the town to the nearby Orthodox Bistrița Monastery, it was most his first wife named Margaret who founded the Franciscan Church of the Holy Virgin in Bacău. But the main Catholic church in the town was dedicated to Saint Nicholas. A letter written by John of Rya, the Catholic bishop of Baia refers to Bacău as a civitas which implies the existence of a Catholic bishopric in the town at that time.
The letter reveals that Hussite immigrants who had undergone persecutions in Bohemia, Moravia, or Hungary were settled in the town and granted privileges by Alexander the Good. The monastery of Bistrița was granted the income from the customs house of Bacău in 1439. In 1435 Stephen II of Moldavia requested the town's judges not to hinder the merchants of Brașov, an important center of the Transylvanian Saxons in their movement. From the 15th century ungureni, Romanians from Transylvania began to populate the area north of the marketplace where they would erect an Orthodox church after 1500. A small residence of the princes of Moldova was built in the town in the first half of the 15th century, it was rebuilt and extended under Stephen III the Great of Moldavia who erected an Orthodox church within it. But the rulers soon began to donate the neighboring villages that had thereto supplied their local household to monasteries or noblemen, thus the local princely residence was abandoned after 1500.
The town was destroyed more than one time in the 15th and 16th centuries. For example, in 1467 King Matthias I of Hungary during his expedition against Stephen the Great set fire to all towns, among them Bacău in his path; the customs records of Brașov shows that few merchants from Bacău crossed the Carpathian Mountains into Transylvania after 1500, their merchandise had no high value which suggests that the town was declining in this period. The Catholic bishop of Arges whose see in Wallachia had been destroyed by the Tatars moved to Bacău in 1597. From the early 17th century the bishops of Bacău were Polish priests who did not reside in the town, but in the Kingdom of Poland, they only travelled time to time to their see. According to Archbishop Marco Bandini's report of the canonical visitation of 1646, the şoltuz in Bacău was elected among Hungarians one year, another, among Romanians; the names of most of 12 inhabi
The Trotuș is a river in eastern Romania, a right tributary of the river Siret. It emerges from the Ciuc Mountains in the Eastern Carpathians and joins the Siret after passing through Comănești and Onești in Bacău County; the total length of the Trotuș from its source to its confluence with the Siret is 162 km. Its basin area is 4,456 km2; the following towns and villages are situated along the river Trotuș, from source to mouth: Lunca de Sus, Lunca de Jos, Ghimeș-Făget, Palanca, Agăș, Comănești, Dărmănești, Târgu Ocna, Onești, Adjud. The following rivers are tributaries to the river Trotuș: Left: Gârbea, Valea Întunecoasă, Valea Rece, Bolovăniș, Tărhăuș, Șanț, Cuchiniș, Camenca, Dracău, Agăș, Ciungi, Asău, Urmeniș, Larga, Cucuieți, Vâlcele, Caraclău, Tazlău, Pârâul Mare, Gârbova Right: Comiat, Bothavaș, Boroș, Valea Capelei, Aldămaș, Ciugheș, Grohotiș, Sulța, Ciobănuș, Supan, Uz, Dofteana, Slănic, Nicorești, Oituz, Cașin, Găureana, Gutinaș, Bogdana, Căiuți, Popeni, Bâlca, Domoșița Institutul de Meteorologie și Hidrologie - Rîurile României - București 1971 Trasee turistice - județul Bacău Újvari, Iosif - Geografia apelor României, Ed.
Științifică, București, 1972 Harta Munții Ciucului Harta Munții Tarcău Harta Munții Nemira Harta județului Harghita
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc 1,500 km long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the third-longest mountain range in Europe after the Ural Mountains with 2,500 km and Scandinavian Mountains with 1,700 km. They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species; the Carpathians and their foothills have many thermal and mineral waters, with Romania having one-third of the European total. Romania is home to the second-largest surface of virgin forests in Europe after Russia, totaling 250,000 hectares, most of them in the Carpathians, with the Southern Carpathians constituting Europe's largest unfragmented forested area; the Carpathians consist of a chain of mountain ranges that stretch in an arc from the Czech Republic in the northwest through Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine Serbia and Romania in the southeast.
The highest range within the Carpathians is the Tatras, on the border of Slovakia and Poland, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m. The second-highest range is the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m; the divisions of the Carpathians are in three major sections: Western Carpathians—Austria, Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary Eastern Carpathians—southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia and Romania Southern Carpathians—Serbia and RomaniaThe term Outer Carpathians is used to describe the northern rim of the Western and Eastern Carpathians. The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are: Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia, Kraków in Poland, Cluj-Napoca and Braşov in Romania, Uzhhorod in Ukraine. In modern times, the range is called Karpaty in Czech and Slovak and Карпати in Ukrainian, Карпати / Karpati in Serbian, Carpați in Romanian, Karpaten in German, Kárpátok in Hungarian. Although the toponym was recorded by Ptolemy in the second century of the Christian era, the modern form of the name is a neologism in most languages.
For instance, Havasok was its medieval Hungarian name. Sources, such as Dimitrie Cantemir and the Italian chronicler Giovanandrea Gromo, referred to the range as "Transylvania's Mountains", while the 17th-century historian Constantin Cantacuzino translated the name of the mountains in an Italian-Romanian glossary to "Rumanian Mountains"; the name "Carpates" is associated with the old Dacian tribes called "Carpes" or "Carpi" who lived in a large area from the east, north-east of the Black Sea to Transylvanian plains on the present day Romania and Moldova. The name Carpates may be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word karpë, the Slavic word skála via a Dacian cognate which meant mountain, rock, or rugged; the archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots, or trunks". The more common word skarpa means other vertical terrain; the name may instead come from Indo-European *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" and Greek καρπός karpós "wrist" referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape.
In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name, first recorded in Ptolemy's Geographia. In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which relates ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum. "Inter Alpes Huniae et Oceanum est Polonia" by Gervase of Tilbury, has described in his Otia Imperialia in 1211. Thirteenth- to fifteenth-century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal, or less Montes Nivium; the northwestern Carpathians begin in southern Poland. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania; the total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km. The highest altitudes of the Carpathians occur; the system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the southern Tatra Mountains group – the highest range, in which Gerlachovský štít in Slovakia is the highest peak at 2,655 m above sea level.
The Carpathians cover an area of 190,000 km2, after the Alps, form the next-most extensive mountain system in Europe. Although referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps; the Carpathians, which attain an altitude over 2,500 m in only a few places, lack the bold peaks, extensive snowfields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. It was believed that no area of the Carpathian range was covered in snow all yea
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m