For the diesel multiple unit that operated in the United Kingdom, see British Rail Class 101. For the electric locomotive operating in Germany, see DB Class 101; the BR-101 is a longitudinal highway of Brazil. It is the longest in the country with a length of nearly 4,800 km, it is considered the second most important, it crosses 12 Brazilian states: Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. It connects more state capitals than any other "rodovia" in the country. In total, 12 capitals are directly connected by BR-101, its northern terminus is located in the city of Touros-RN and its southern terminus is located in São José do Norte-RS. It follows the entire east coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte to Rio Grande do Sul; the highway has not been built between two stretches between Peruíbe and Iguape, between Cananéia and Garuva. It is part of the Pan-American Highway. Between Curitiba and Garuva, the highway was replaced by the BR 101 / BR 376 and was widened by the Paraná government, not by the federal government.
The northern section between Curitiba and the border with São Paulo was not built in order to preserve an area of the Atlantic Forest. The Rio-Niterói Bridge is part of the BR-101. In 1973 the first stretch was widened between Rio de Janeiro-RJ and Cubatão-SP. In the 1980s the stretch between Cubatão-SP and Curitiba-PR was widened. In the 1990s the 312 km stretch between Curitiba-PR and Florianópolis-SC has been widened; the 404 km stretch between Natal-RN and Palmares-PE was widened. The 350 km stretch that connects Florianópolis to Porto Alegre–RS from Palhoça to Osorio is being widened; the works on widening the road between Palmares-PE and Porto Real do Colégio-AL has started. The work in a 10 km stretch in Joaquim Gomes is halted due to the lack of licenses to wide the road inside the area which belongs to the Uassu-Cocal Indian tribe. One of the next sections to be widened soon is the stretch between Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. Transport in Brazil
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them. When the stream or rivers are associated with glaciers, ice sheets, or ice caps, the term glaciofluvial or fluvioglacial is used. Fluvial processes include the motion of erosion or deposition on the river bed. Erosion by moving water can happen in two ways. Firstly, the movement of water across the stream bed exerts a shear stress directly onto the bed. If the cohesive strength of the substrate is lower than the shear exerted, or the bed is composed of loose sediment which can be mobilized by such stresses the bed will be lowered purely by clearwater flow. However, if the river carries significant quantities of sediment, this material can act as tools to enhance wear of the bed. At the same time the fragments themselves are becoming smaller and more rounded. Sediment in rivers is transported as either suspended load. There is a component carried as dissolved material.
For each grain size there is a specific velocity at which the grains start to move, called entrainment velocity. However the grains will continue to be transported if the velocity falls below the entrainment velocity due to the reduced friction between the grains and the river bed; the velocity will fall low enough for the grains to be deposited. This is shown by the Hjulström curve. A river is continually picking up and dropping solid particles of rock and soil from its bed throughout its length. Where the river flow is fast, more particles are picked up. Where the river flow is slow, more particles are dropped. Areas where more particles are dropped are called alluvial or flood plains, the dropped particles are called alluvium. Small streams make alluvial deposits, but it is in the flood plains and deltas of large rivers that large, geologically-significant alluvial deposits are found; the amount of matter carried by a large river is enormous. The names of many rivers derive from the color. For example, the Huang He in China is translated "Yellow River", the Mississippi River in the United States is called "the Big Muddy".
It has been estimated that the Mississippi River annually carries 406 million tons of sediment to the sea, the Yellow River 796 million tons, the Po River in Italy 67 million tons. Body of water lacustrine – of or relating to a lake maritime – of or relating to a sea oceanic – of or relating to an ocean palustrine – of or relating to a marsh
Pernambuco is a state of Brazil, located in the Northeast region of the country. The state of Pernambuco includes the archipelago Fernando de Noronha. With an estimated population of 9.2 million people in 2013, it is the seventh most populous state of Brazil, is the sixth most densely populated and the 19th most extensive among the states and territories of the country. Its capital and largest city, Recife, is one of the most important economic and urban hubs in the country; as of 2013 estimates, Recife's metropolitan area is the fifth most populous in the country, the largest urban agglomeration in Northeast Brazil. In 1982, the city of Olinda, the second oldest city in Brazil, was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Recife, the state capital and Olinda have one of the most traditional Brazilian Carnivals. Both have architecture of Portugal, with centuries-old casarões and churches, kilometers of beaches and much culture; the proximity of the equator guarantees sunshine throughout the year, with average temperatures of 26 °C.
Pernambuco comprises a comparatively narrow coastal zone, a high inland plateau, an intermediate zone formed by the terraces and slopes between the two. Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau, worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone. Ranges of these chapadas form the boundary lines with three states–the Serra dos Irmãos and Serra Vermelha with Piauí, the Serra do Araripe with Ceará, the Serra dos Cariris Velhos with Paraíba; the coastal area is fertile, was covered by the humid Pernambuco coastal forests, the northern extension of the Atlantic Forests of eastern Brazil. It is now placed to extensive sugar cane plantations, it has a humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds. The middle zone, called the agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation, including the semi-deciduous Pernambuco interior forests, where many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.
The inland region, called the sertão is high and dry, devastated by prolonged droughts. The climate is characterized by cool nights. There are two defined seasons, a rainy season from March to June, a dry season for the remaining months; the interior of the state is covered by the dry thorny scrub vegetation called caatinga. The Rio São Francisco is the main water source for this area; the climate is more mild in the countryside of the state because of the Borborema Plateau. Some towns are located more than 1000 meters above sea level, temperatures there can descend to 10 °C and 5 °C in some cities during the winter; the island of Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic Ocean, 535 km northeast of Recife, has been part of Pernambuco since 1988. The rivers of the state include a number of small plateau streams flowing southward to the São Francisco River, several large streams in the eastern part flowing eastward to the Atlantic; the former are the Moxotó, Pajeú, Terra Nova, Boa Vista and Pontai, are dry channels the greater part of the year.
The largest of the coastal rivers are the Goiana River, formed by the confluence of the Tracunhaem and Capibaribe-mirim, drains a rich agricultural region in the north-east part of the state. A large tributary of the Uná, the Rio Jacuhipe, forms part of the boundary line with Alagoas. Inhabited by numerous tribes of Tupi-Guarani speaking indigenous peoples, Pernambuco was first settled by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the French under Bertrand d'Ornesan tried to establish a French trading post at Pernambuco in 1531. Shortly after King John III of Portugal created the Hereditary Captaincies in 1534, Pernambuco was granted to Duarte Coelho, who arrived in Nova Lusitânia in 1535. Duarte directed military actions against the French-allied Caetés Indians and upon their defeat in 1537 established a settlement at the site of a former Marin Indian village, henceforth known as Olinda, as well as another village at Igarassu. Due to the cultivation of sugar and cotton, Pernambuco was one of the few prosperous captaincies.
With the support of the Dutch West India Company, sugar mills were built and a sugar-based economy developed. In 1612, Pernambuco produced 14,000 tons of sugar. While the sugar industry relied at first on the labor of indigenous peoples the Tupis and Tapuyas, high mortality and economic growth led to the importation of enslaved Africans from the late 17th century; some of these slaves escaped the sugar-producing coastal regions and formed independent inland communities called mocambos, including Palmares. In 1630, Pernambuco, as well as many Portuguese possessions in Brazil, was occupied by the Dutch until 1654; the occupation was resisted and the Dutch conquest was only successful, it was repelled by the Spaniards. In the interim, thousands of the enslaved Africans had fled to Palmares, soon the mocambos there had grown into two significant states; the Dutch Republic, who allowed sugar production to remain in Portuguese hands, regarded suppression of Palmares impor
Alagoas is one of the 27 states of Brazil and is situated in the eastern part of the Northeast Region. It borders: Pernambuco, it occupies an area of 27,767 km², being larger than Haiti. Its capital is the city of Maceió, it is made up of 102 municipalities and its most populous cities are Maceió, Palmeira dos Índios, Rio Largo, União dos Palmares, São Miguel dos Campos, Santana do Ipanema, Delmiro Gouveia, Marechal Deodoro, Campo Alegre. It is the second smallest Brazilian state in area, with Sergipe it is sometimes called the Rhode Island of Brazil, it is 16th in population. It is one of the largest producers of sugarcane and coconuts in the country, has an economy based on cattle raising. Land of the sururu, lagoon shellfish which serves as food for the coastal population, of coconut water, Alagoas possesses some of the country's richest folklore; the Alagoano territory constituted the southern part of the Captaincy of Pernambuco and only gained its autonomy in 1817. Its occupation pushed the expansion of the captaincy's sugarcane farming, which required new areas of cultivation, southward.
Thus arose Porto Calvo and Penedo, nuclei which guided the colonization and social life of the region for a long time. The Dutch invasion in Pernambuco was extended to Alagoas in 1631; the invaders were expelled in 1645, after intense fighting in Porto Calvo, leaving the economy in ruins. The escape of African slaves during the Dutch invasion created a serious labour shortage problem on the sugarcane plantations. Grouped in villages called quilombos, the Africans were only dominated at the end of the 17th century with the destruction of the most important quilombo, Palmares. During the empire, the separatist and republican Confederation of the Equator received the support of noteworthy Alagoano figures. Throughout the 1840s, political life was marked by the conflict between the lisos and the cabeludos, liberals. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Alagoano hinterland lived through the pioneering experience of Delmiro Gouveia, a Pernambucano entrepreneur who installed the Estrela thread factory, which came to produce 200 spools daily.
Delmiro Gouveia was killed in October 1917 in circumstances still unclarified, after being pressured, according to rumor, to sell his factory to competing foreign firms. After his death, his machines would be thrown into Paulo Afonso Falls. Nicknamed the Land of the Marshals, for being the birthplace of Deodoro da Fonseca and Floriano Peixoto, Alagoas gave the country numerous illustrious Brazilians among whom are the anthropologist Arthur Ramos, the maestro Hekel Tavares, the philologist Aurélio Buarque de Holanda, the musicians Djavan and Hermeto Pascoal the poet Jorge de Lima, the jurists Pontes de Miranda and Marcos Bernardes de Mello, besides the writers Lêdo Ivo and Graciliano Ramos; the Latin lacus, "reservoir, lake" is the origin, in the primitive vocabulary heritage, of the Portuguese and Italian lago, French lac, one of its derivatives, the Latin lacuna, "pitfall, hole", "lack, neglect", explains the Spanish and Italian laguna. But the Portuguese lagoa, coincidentally with the Spanish lagona and Mirandese llagona, suggests a change in suffix documented in a 938 document from Valencia, under the spelling lacona, in another from 1094, in Sahagún, under the spelling lagona.
The Portuguese lagoa under the spelling lagona, is documented in the 14th century, alternated with the other for a long time. The name appears as a competitor with the names of the lagoons of Manguaba, a lagoa do sul, Mundaú, a lagoa do norte in the 16th century, when settlements were founded near the Alagoa do Norte and the Alagoa do Sul, the Alagoas, with the inclusion of the rest of the lagoons in the area; the suffix -ano is characteristic of Brazil, alagoano, baiano and acriano. The state's name originates with the lakes along its coast near the city of Maceió; the coast is bordered by many fine beaches. Behind the beaches, sometimes only hundreds of meters and defined by steep scarps, lies a stretch of green coastal hills having enough rainfall for considerable agriculture and scarce remnants of the Mata Atlântica that now is limited to steep hill tops or steep valley sides and bottoms; this is the area long dominated by sugar cane. Still farther inland lies the Sertão of the Northeast region of the nation.
The Sertão is a high dry region dominated by scrub, thorn-filled and sometimes toxic, the caatinga. This area and its people are famed in song, it is the land of the cowboy, clad from head to toe with thick leather to avoid the sharp vegetation. See also: History of Alagoas During the first three centuries of its history, Alagoas was part of the captaincy of Pernambuco, only changing into an independent captaincy in 1817; as a reprisal against the Pernambucan Revolution, the King John VI of Portugal ordered a vast portion of the Pernambucan territory to be taken
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Tamandaré is a coastal municipality about 103 km south of Recife, the capital city of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. State - Pernambuco Region - Zona da mata Pernambucana Boundaries - Rio Formoso and Sirinhaém. Tamandaré beachUrbanized, has two kilometers long of sand and a number of tourist facilities. Has small waves and fine sand. Easy to reach from Recife and Caruaru. Boca da Barra beachAt. Suitable for swimming, has a dense mangrove vegetation in the estuary of Canoa quebrada River, its possible to reach the Mamocambilhas beach in Barreiros by walking. Campas beachThree kilometers long, is good for swimming, in front of the Marinas hotel, the sea allows natural anchorages of boats, it is possible to rent equipment such as banana boats and boats. Carneiros beachStill deserted, just has a few summer houses and bars, it has five kilometers of landscape mixed between the reefs, coconut trees and low waves water. The main economic activities in Tamandaré are based in tourism, artisanal fishing and beverage industry and agriculture coconuts.
Economy by Sector 2006