Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans; the urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits. One of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco–Dacians inhabited the region and, after 279 BC, Celts settled the city, naming it Singidūn, it was conquered by the Romans under the reign of Augustus and awarded Roman city rights in the mid-2nd century. It was settled by the Slavs in the 520s, changed hands several times between the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish Empire, the Bulgarian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary before it became the seat of the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo.
It passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841. Northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918. In a fatally strategic position, the city was razed 44 times. Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918 to its dissolution in 2006. Belgrade has special administrative status within Serbia and it is one of the five statistical regions that make up the country, its metropolitan territory is divided into each with its own local council. The city of Belgrade covers 3.6% of Serbia's territory, around 24% of the country's population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta-Global City. Chipped stone tools found in Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras; some of these tools are of Mousterian industry—belonging to Neanderthals rather than modern humans.
Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have been discovered near the area, indicating some settlement between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, which flourished between 6200 and 5200 BC. There are several Starčevo sites including the eponymous site of Starčevo; the Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements and named for a site in the Belgrade region. The Vinča culture is known for its large settlements, one of the earliest settlements by continuous habitation and some of the largest in prehistoric Europe. Associated with the Vinča culture are anthropomorphic figurines such as the Lady of Vinča, the earliest known copper metallurgy in Europe, a proto-writing form developed prior to the Sumerians and Minoans known as the Old European script, which dates back to around 5300 BC. Within the city proper, on Cetinjska Street, a skull of a Paleolithic human was discovered in 1890.
The skull is dated to before 5000 BC. Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrade's geographical location comes from a variety of ancient myths and legends; the ridge overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, for example, has been identified as one of the places in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. In the time of antiquity, the area was populated by Paleo-Balkan tribes, including the Thracians and the Dacians, who ruled much of Belgrade's surroundings. Belgrade was at one point inhabited by the Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi. In 34–33 BC, the Roman army, led by Silanus, reached Belgrade, it became the romanised Singidunum in the 1st century AD and, by the mid-2nd century, the city was proclaimed a municipium by the Roman authorities, evolving into a full-fledged colonia by the end of the century. While the first Christian Emperor of Rome —Constantine I known as Constantine the Great—was born in the territory of Naissus to the city's south, Roman Christianity's champion, Flavius Iovianus, was born in Singidunum.
Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the site passed to the Eastern Byzantine Empire. Across the Sava from Singidunum was the Celtic city of Taurunum. In 442, the area was ravaged by Attila the Hun. In 471, it was taken by king of the Ostrogoths, who continued into Italy; as the Ostrogoths left, another Germanic tribe, the Gepids, invaded the city. In 539 it was retaken by the Byzantines. In 577, some 100,000 Slavs poured into Thrace and Illyricum, pillaging cities and more permanently settling the region; the Avars, under Bayan I, conquered the whole region and its new Slavic population by 582. Following Byzantine reconquest, the Byzantine chronicle De Administrando Imperio mentions the White Serbs, who had stopped in Belgrade on their way back home, asking the strategos for lands. In 829, Khan Omurtag was able to add its environs to the First Bulgarian Empire.
The first record of the name Belograd appeared on April, 16th, 878, in
The Pannonia Valeria or Valeria known as Pannonia Ripensis, was one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. It was formed in the year 296, during the reign of emperor Diocletian, in a division of Pannonia Inferior; the capital of the province was Sopianae. Pannonia Valeria included parts of present-day Croatia; the province continued as an entity under the rule of the Huns until the rise of the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths in the 5th century. It became the central Avar realm part of the Avar March grew into the Duchy of Pannonia and the Balaton Principality regaining Pannonia Secunda before being conquered by the Magyars. Pannonia Roman provinces Roman Empire "Pannonia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20. 1911. Pp. 680–681
Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper and Istria. Dalmatia is a narrow belt of the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south; the hinterland ranges in width from fifty kilometres in the north, to just a few kilometres in the south. Seventy-nine islands run parallel to the coast, the largest being Brač, Hvar; the largest city is Split, followed by Zadar, Šibenik. The name of the region stems from an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, who lived in the area in classical antiquity, it became a Roman province, as result a Romance culture emerged, along with the now-extinct Dalmatian language largely replaced with related Venetian. With the arrival of Croats to the area in the 8th century, who occupied most of the hinterland and Romance elements began to intermix in language and culture. During the Middle Ages, its cities were conquered by, or switched allegiance to, the kingdoms of the region.
The longest-lasting rule was the one of the Republic of Venice, which controlled most of Dalmatia between 1420 and 1797, with the exception of the small but stable Republic of Ragusa in the south. Between 1815 and 1918, it was a province of the Austrian Empire known as the Kingdom of Dalmatia. After the Austro-Hungarian defeat in the First World War, Dalmatia was split between the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes which controlled most of it, the Kingdom of Italy which held several smaller parts, after World War II, SFR Yugoslavia took complete control over the area; the name Dalmatia derives from the name of the Dalmatae tribe, connected with the Illyrian word delme meaning "sheep". Its Latin form Dalmatia gave rise to its current English name. In the Venetian language, once dominant in the area, it is spelled Dalmàssia, in modern Italian Dalmazia; the modern Croatian spelling is Dalmacija, pronounced. Dalmatia is referenced in the New Testament at 2 Timothy 4:10, so its name has been translated in many of the world's languages.
In antiquity the Roman province of Dalmatia was much larger than the present-day Split-Dalmatia County, stretching from Istria in the north to modern-day Albania in the south. Dalmatia signified not only a geographical unit, but was an entity based on common culture and settlement types, a common narrow eastern Adriatic coastal belt, Mediterranean climate, sclerophyllous vegetation of the Illyrian province, Adriatic carbonate platform, karst geomorphology. Dalmatia is today a historical region only, not formally instituted in Croatian law, its exact extent is therefore subject to public perception. According to Lena Mirošević and Josip Faričić of the University of Zadar: …the modern perception of Dalmatia is based on the territorial extent of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia, with the exception of Rab island, geographically related to the Kvarner area and functionally to the Littoral–Gorski Kotar area, with the exception of the Bay of Kotor, annexed to another state after World War I; the southern part of Lika and upper Pounje, which were not a part of Austrian Dalmatia, became a part of Zadar County.
From the present-day administrative and territorial point of view, Dalmatia comprises the four Croatian littoral counties with seats in Zadar, Šibenik and Dubrovnik. "Dalmatia" is therefore perceived to extend to the borders of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia. However, due to territorial and administrative changes over the past century, the perception can be seen to have altered somewhat with regard to certain areas, sources conflict as to their being part of the region in modern times: The Bay of Kotor area in Montenegro. With the subdivision of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia into oblasts in 1922, the whole of the Bay of Kotor from Sutorina to Sutomore was granted to the Zeta Oblast, so that the border of Dalmatia was formed at that point by the southern border of the former Republic of Ragusa; the Encyclopædia Britannica defines Dalmatia as extending "to the narrows of Kotor". Other sources, such as the Treccani encyclopedia and the "Rough Guide to Croatia" still include the Bay as being part of the region.
The island of Rab, along with the small islands of Sveti Grgur and Goli, were a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and are and culturally related to the region, but are today associated more with the Croatian Littoral, due to geographical vicinity and administrative expediency. Gračac municipality and northern Pag. A number of sources express the view that "from the modern-day administrative point of view", the extent of Dalmatia equates to the four southernmost counties of Croatia: Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva; this definition does not include the Bay of Kotor, nor the islands of Rab, Sveti Grgur, Goli. It excludes the northern part of the island of Pag, part of the Lika-Senj County. However, it includes the Gračac Municipality in Zadar County, not a part of the Kingdom of Dalmatia and is not traditionally associated with the region; the inhabitants of Dalmatia are culturally subdivided into two groups. The urban families of the coastal cities known as Fetivi, are culturally akin to the inhabitants of the Dalmatian islands.
The two are together distinct, in the Mediterranean aspects of their culture, fr
Trier known in English as Treves and Triers, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. Founded by the Celts in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was conquered by the Romans in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum. Trier may be the oldest city in Germany, it is the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine; the Archbishop-Elector had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz and Koblenz.
The nearest major cities are Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, Koblenz. The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD, which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, the Academy of European Law are all based in Trier, it is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia; the first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri settled in the area of today's Trier; the city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. The historical record describes the Roman Empire subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum in 16 BC.
The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and as much as 100,000; the Porta Nigra dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418 in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles; the city was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens.
The Franks seized Trier from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages; the bishops of the city grew powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials were held the largest witch trial in European history, it was one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg witch trial, the Bamberg witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, was as such the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime.
This counts only those executed within the city itself, the real number of executions, counting those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century; the city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German
Ammianus Marcellinus was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from antiquity. His work, known as the Res Gestae, chronicled in Latin the history of Rome from the accession of the Emperor Nerva in 96 to the death of Valens at the Battle of Adrianople in 378, although only the sections covering the period 353–378 survive. Ammianus was born in the Greek-speaking East in Syria or Phoenicia, his native language was most Greek. The surviving books of his history cover the years 353 to 378. Ammianus served as a soldier in the army of Constantius II and Julian in Gaul and in the Roman–Persian Wars, he professes to have been "a former soldier and a Greek", his enrollment among the elite protectores domestici shows that he was of middle class or higher birth. Consensus is that Ammianus came from a curial family, but it is possible that he was the son of a comes Orientis of the same family name, he entered the army at an early age, when Constantius II was emperor of the East, was sent to serve under Ursicinus, governor of Nisibis in Mesopotamia, magister militum.
He returned with Ursicinus to Italy when Ursicinus was recalled by Constantius to begin an expedition against Claudius Silvanus. Silvanus had been forced by the false accusations of his enemies into proclaiming himself emperor in Gaul. Ammianus campaigned in the East twice under Ursicinus. On one occasion, he became separated from the officer's entourage and took refuge in Amida during the siege of the city by the Sassanids under King Shapur II; when Ursicinus was dismissed from his military post by Constantius, Ammianus too seems to have retired from the military. He accompanied Julian, for whom he expresses enthusiastic admiration, in his campaigns against the Alamanni and the Sassanids. After Julian's death, Ammianus accompanied the retreat of the new emperor, Jovian, as far as Antioch, he was residing in Antioch in 372 when a certain Theodorus was thought to have been identified the successor to the emperor Valens by divination. Speaking as an alleged eyewitness, Marcellinus recounts how Theodorus and several others were made to confess their deceit through the use of torture, cruelly punished.
He settled in Rome and began the Res Gestae. The precise year of his death is unknown, but scholarly consensus places it somewhere between 392 and 400 at the latest. Modern scholarship describes Ammianus as a pagan, tolerant of Christianity. Marcellinus writes of Christianity as being a pure and simple religion that demands only what is just and mild, when he condemns the actions of Christians, he does not do so on the basis of their Christianity as such, his lifetime was marked by lengthy outbreaks of sectarian and dogmatic strife within the new state-backed faith with violent consequences and these conflicts sometimes appeared unworthy to him, though it was territory where he could not risk going far in criticism, due to the growing and volatile political connections between the church and imperial power. He was not blind to the faults of Christians or of pagans, and he condemns his hero Julian for excessive attachment to sacrifice, for his edict barring Christians from teaching posts. While living in Rome in the 380s, Ammianus wrote a Latin history of the Roman empire from the accession of Nerva to the death of Valens at the Battle of Adrianople, in effect writing a continuation of the history of Tacitus.
He completed the work before 391, as at 22.16.12 he praises the Serapeum in Egypt as the glory of the empire. The Res Gestae was composed of thirty-one books, but the first thirteen have been lost; the surviving eighteen books cover the period from 353 to 378. It constitutes the foundation of modern understanding of the history of the fourth century Roman Empire, it is lauded as a clear and impartial account of events by a contemporary. Although criticised as lacking literary merit by his early biographers, he was in fact quite skilled in rhetoric, which has brought the veracity of some of the Res Gestae into question, his work has suffered from manuscript transmission. Aside from the loss of the first thirteen books, the remaining eighteen are in many places corrupt and lacunose; the sole surviving manuscript from which every other is derived is a ninth-century Carolingian text, Vatican lat. 1873, produced in Fulda from an insular exemplar. The only independent textual source for Ammianus lies in Fragmenta Marbugensia, another ninth-century Frankish codex, taken apart to provide covers for account-books during the fifteenth
Nicomedia was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey. In 286 Nicomedia became the eastern and most senior capital city of the Roman Empire, a status which the city maintained during the Tetrarchy system; the Tetrarchy ended with the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324, when Constantine defeated Licinius and became the sole emperor. In 330 Constantine chose for himself the nearby Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire, it was founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian colony and was known as Astacus. After being destroyed by Lysimachus, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, has since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor; the great military commander Hannibal Barca came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa. The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the capital of the Roman province of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, it is referenced in Pliny the Younger's Epistles to Trajan during his tenure as governor of Bithynia.
Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia was at the center of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians which occurred under Diocletian and his Caesar Galerius. On 23 February 303 AD, the pagan festival of the Terminalia, Diocletian ordered that the newly-built church at Nicomedia be razed, its scriptures burnt, its precious stones seized; the next day he issued his "First Edict Against the Christians," which ordered similar measures to be taken at churches across the Empire. The destruction of the Nicomedia church incited panic in the city, at the end of the month a fire destroyed part of Diocletian's palace, followed 16 days by another fire. Although an investigation was made into the cause of the fires, no party was charged, but Galerius placed the blame on the Christians, he oversaw the execution of two palace eunuchs, who he claimed conspired with the Christians to start the fire, followed by six more executions through the end of April 303.
Soon after Galerius declared Nicomedia to be unsafe and ostentatiously departed the city for Rome, followed soon after by Diocletian. Nicomedia remained as the eastern capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324. Constantine resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium the new capital. Constantine died in a royal villa in the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance after the foundation of Constantinople. A major earthquake, however, on 24 August 358, caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia, was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was on a smaller scale. In the sixth century under Emperor Justinian I the city was extended with new public buildings. Situated on the roads leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center, playing an important role in the Byzantine campaigns against the Caliphate.
In 451, the local bishopric was promoted to a Metropolitan see under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The metropolis of Nicomedia was ranked 7th in the Notitiae Episcopatuum among the metropolises of the patriarchate. In the eighth century the Emperor Constantine V established his court there for a time, when plague broke out in Constantinople and drove him from his capital in 746–47. From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi. By that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurdadhbih as lying in ruins, with settlement restricted to the hilltop citadel. In the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, the First and Second Crusades both encamped there; the city was held by the Latin Empire following the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204: in late 1206 the seneschal Thierry de Loos made it his base, converting the church of Saint Sophia into a fortress.
The city remained in Byzantine control for over a century after that, but following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302, it was threatened by the rising Ottoman beylik. The city was twice sieged and blockaded by the Ottomans before succumbing in 1337. During the Empire, Nicomedia was a cosmopolitan and commercially prosperous city which received all the amenities appropriate for a major Roman city. Nicomedia was well known for having a bountiful water supply from two to three aqueducts, one of, built in Hellenistic times. Pliny the Younger complains in his epistulae to Trajan, written in 110 AD, that the Nicomedians wasted 3,518,000 sesterces on an unfinished aqueduct which twice ran into engineering troubles. Trajan instructs him to take steps to complete the aqueduct, to investigate possible official corruption behind the large waste of money. Under Trajan, there was a large Roman garrison. Other pub
The term "tetrarchy" describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire. This tetrarchy lasted until c. 313, when mutually destructive civil wars eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, Licinius in control of the eastern half. Although the term "tetrarch" was current in antiquity, it was never used of the imperial college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders; the tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. The term was understood in the Latin world as well, where Pliny the Elder glossed it as follows: "each is the equivalent of a kingdom, part of one"; as used by the ancients, the term describes not only different governments, but a different system of government from the Diocletianic arrangements.
The Judaean tetrarchy was a set of four independent and distinct states, where each tetrarch ruled a quarter of a kingdom as they saw fit. When authors described the period, this is what they emphasized: Ammianus had Constantius II admonish Gallus for disobedience by appealing to the example in submission set by Diocletian's lesser colleagues. Only Lactantius, a contemporary of Diocletian and a deep ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state, referred to the tetrarchs as a simple multiplicity of rulers. Much modern scholarship was written without the term. Although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a "New Empire", he never used the term "tetrarchy", it did not appear in the literature until used in 1887 by schoolmaster Hermann Schiller in a two-volume handbook on the Roman Empire, to wit: "die diokletianische Tetrarchie". So, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897; the first phase, sometimes referred to as the diarchy, involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar in 285, followed by his promotion to Augustus in 286.
Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian took charge of the western regions. In 293, Diocletian thought that more focus was needed on both civic and military problems, so with Maximian's consent, he expanded the imperial college by appointing two Caesars —Galerius and Constantius Chlorus. In 305, the senior emperors jointly abdicated and retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated in rank to Augustus, they in turn appointed two new Caesars—Severus II in the west under Constantius, Maximinus in the east under Galerius—thereby creating the second Tetrarchy. The four tetrarchs based themselves not at Rome but in other cities closer to the frontiers intended as headquarters for the defence of the empire against bordering rivals and barbarians at the Rhine and Danube; these centres are known as the tetrarchic capitals. Although Rome ceased to be an operational capital, Rome continued to be nominal capital of the entire Roman Empire, not reduced to the status of a province but under its own, unique Prefect of the City.
The four tetrarchic capitals were: Nicomedia in northwestern Asia Minor, a base for defence against invasion from the Balkans and Persia's Sassanids was the capital of Diocletian, the eastern Augustus. Sirmium was the capital of the eastern Caesar. Mediolanum was the capital of the western Augustus. Augusta Treverorum was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border; this quarter became the prefecture Galliae. Aquileia, a port on the Adriatic coast, Eboracum, were significant centres for Maximian and Constantius respectively. In terms of regional jurisdiction there was no precise division among the four tetrarchs, this period did not see the Roman state split up into four distinct sub-empires; each emperor had his zone of influence within the Roman Empire, but little more high command in a'war theater'. Each tetrarch was himself in the field, while delegating most of the administration to the hierarchic bureaucracy headed by his respective Pretorian Prefect, each supervising several Vicarii, the governors-general in charge of another, lasting new administrative level, the civi