Viminacium or Viminatium was a major city and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia, the capital of Moesia Superior. As of 2018, only 3 to 4% of the site have been explored; the site is located 12 km from the modern town of Kostolac in Eastern Serbia. The city dates back to the 1st century AD, at its peak it is believed to have had 40,000 inhabitants, making it one of the biggest cities of that time, it lies on the Roman road Via Militaris. Viminacium was devastated by Huns in the 5th century, but was rebuilt by Justinian, it was destroyed with the arrival of Slavs in the 6th century. Today, the archaeological site occupies a total of 450 hectares, contains remains of temples, squares, palaces and Roman baths. Viminacium holds a distinction of having the largest number of graves discovered in any Roman archaeological site; until 2018, 15,000 graves have been discovered. The remains of Viminacium, the capital of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, are located on territories of the villages of Stari Kostolac and Drmno, about 12 km from the town of Kostolac and about 90 miles southeast of Belgrade.
Viminacium was one of the most important Roman cities and military camps in the period from 1st to 4th centuries. Its exceptional strategic importance was reflected both in the defense of the northern border of the Roman empire and in turn of communications and commercial transactions. No less appealing to the Romans was the hinterland of the Mlava river valley, rich in ore and grains. In Roman times, the town on the northern side of relying directly on the branch of the Danube, while the western side, touching the walls Mlava rivers. Only in the period, Viminacium spread to the left bank of Mlava. Thanks to the location and waterways, Viminacium represented one of those areas where the encounter of cultures between East and West was inevitable. Although these roads were the primary military and strategic function, they are taking place throughout antiquity lively traffic and contributed to the Viminacium become prosperous and an important trading and business headquarters. In Viminacium, Roman legion VII Claudia was stationed, a nearby civilian settlement emerged from the military camp.
In 117 during the reign of Hadrian it received city status. In the camp, 6.000 soldiers were stationed, 30-40.000 lived nearby. In the first half of the 3rd century the city was in full development, as evidenced by the fact that at that time it acquired the status of a Roman colony, the right to coin local money. Here, in 196, Septimius Severus declared his son Caracalla as successor with the status of "Caesar". In the mausoleum and the excavated tombs, the Roman emperor Hostilian, who died in 251, was buried. A legion may have been stationed here as early as Augustus. In 33/34 AD a road was built, linking Ratiaria. Claudius garrisoned Viminacium and Novae as camps for the Moesian legions; the first legion attested at Viminacium was the VII Claudia that came from Dalmatia in 52 AD. Emperor Trajan was headquartered here during the Dacian Wars, it became a colonia with minting privilege in 239 AD during the rule of Gordian III and housed the Legion VII and Legion IV. Emperor Hostilian was the son of the emperor Decius, killed in the ambush near the ancient city of Abrutus located in present-day Bulgaria.
According to the old manuscript, emperor Hostilian and his mother came to Viminacium to supervise the organization of defense of northern borders, but both of them died of the plague. Because of the distance and the fear of spreading the plague, he was buried with all honors in Viminacium. Viminacium was the provincial capital of Moesia Superior. In the late spring of 293-294, Diocletian journeyed through his realm and he re-organized Viminacium as the capital of the new province of Moesia Superior Margensis, he registered. Viminacium was the base camp of Legio VII Claudia, hosted for some time the IIII Flavia Felix, it had a Roman amphitheatre with room for 12,000 people. In 382 the city was the meeting place between Theodosius and Gratian amidst the Gothic Wars. Viminacium was destroyed in 441 by Attila the Hun, but rebuilt by Justinian I. During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Viminacium saw destruction by the Avars in 582 and a crushing defeat of Avar forces on the northern Danube bank in 599, destroying Avar reputation for invincibility.
Viminacium is located in Stari Kostolac a Serbian town on the Danube river, east of Belgrade. Viminacium is the location of the first archaeological excavation in Serbia, which started in 1882, by Mihailo Valtrović, founder of archaeology in Serbia and the first professor of archeology at the college in Belgrade, but himself a non-professional archaeologist; the only help he received was from twelve prisoners for manual work, because the state did not have enough resources to provide him with a better work force. His research was continued by Miloje Vasić, the first Serbian trained archaeologist, in the mid 1890s. Serbian Queen Draga Obrenović visited the site and donated 100 gold ducats for further excavations, considered the first donation in Serbia given to the exploration of the Antiquity, it has intensified in the last ten years in the area of the Roman city of the Roman legionary camps and cemeteries. Many studies suggest that the military camp at Viminacium had a rectangular plan, measuring 442 m × 385 m, and, not far from its western wall of civilian settlement in an area of approximat
Trier known in English as Treves and Triers, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. Founded by the Celts in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was conquered by the Romans in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum. Trier may be the oldest city in Germany, it is the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine; the Archbishop-Elector had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz and Koblenz.
The nearest major cities are Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, Koblenz. The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD, which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, the Academy of European Law are all based in Trier, it is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia; the first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri settled in the area of today's Trier; the city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. The historical record describes the Roman Empire subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum in 16 BC.
The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and as much as 100,000; the Porta Nigra dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418 in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles; the city was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens.
The Franks seized Trier from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages; the bishops of the city grew powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials were held the largest witch trial in European history, it was one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg witch trial, the Bamberg witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, was as such the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime.
This counts only those executed within the city itself, the real number of executions, counting those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century; the city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German
The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south; the first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean. The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe, among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, with the Greeks applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs.
At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the Iapyges and Messapi, who are thought to have most followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria"; the term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Illyrius had multiple daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates and the Daors. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. A version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents Polyphemus and Galatea, who gave birth to Celtus and Illyrius, three brothers, progenitors of Celts and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to Celts and Gauls on the part of the mythographe.
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity. Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism; the specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis; the "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued that the'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe.
From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos". Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis, he points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age.
Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree ethnogenesis of Illyrians where'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation; the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities, they were competing fiercely through either conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
The Sava is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube. It flows through Slovenia, along the northern border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, through Serbia, discharging into the Danube in Belgrade, its central part is a natural border of Croatia. The Sava forms the northern border of the Balkan Peninsula, the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain; the Sava is 990 kilometres long, including the 45-kilometre Sava Dolinka headwater rising in Zelenci, Slovenia. It is the greatest tributary of the Danube by volume of water, second-largest after Tisza in terms of catchment area and length, it drains a significant portion of the Dinaric Alps region, through the major tributaries of Drina, Kupa, Vrbas, Kolubara and Krka. The Sava is one of the longest rivers in Europe and among a handful of European rivers of that length that do not drain directly into a sea; the population in the Sava River basin is estimated at 8,176,000, it connects three national capitals—Ljubljana and Belgrade.
The Sava is navigable for larger vessels from the confluence of the Kupa River in Sisak, Croatia two-thirds of its length. The name is believed to be derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *sewh1 and the ending *eh2, so that it means'that which waters'; the Sava River is formed from the Sava Dolinka and the Sava Bohinjka headwaters in northwest Slovenia. The river's headwater area encompasses several tributaries, including the 52-kilometre Sora, the 27-kilometre Tržič Bistrica and the 17-kilometre Radovna rivers—flowing into the Sava at confluences located as far east downstream as Medvode; the Sava Dolinka rises at the Zelenci Pools near Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, in a valley separating the Julian Alps from the Karavanke mountain range. The spring is located near the Slovene-Italian border at 833 metres above sea level, in a drainage divide between the Adriatic and Danube basins; the Sava Dolinka spring is fed by groundwater exhibiting bifurcation of source karst aquifer to the Sava and Soča basins.
Nadiža creek, a short losing stream flowing nearby, is the source of Zelenci Pools water. The Sava Dolinka is considered the Sava's 45-kilometre segment; the Sava Bohinjka originates in Ribčev Laz, at the confluence of the Jezernica, a short watercourse flowing out from Lake Bohinj and the Mostnica River. Some sources define the Jezernica as a part of the Sava Bohinjka, specifying the latter as flowing directly out of the lake, while another group of sources include Savica, rising at the southern flank of Triglav as the 78-metre Savica Falls, downstream from Triglav Lakes Valley, flowing into the lake, as a part of the Sava Bohinjka; the watercourse flows 41 kilometres —including the length of the Savica—east to Radovljica, where it discharges into the Sava Dolinka. Downstream from the confluence, the river is referred to as the Sava; the Sava is located in Southeast Europe, flowing through Slovenia, Croatia and along the Bosnia-Herzegovina border. Its total length is 990 kilometres, including the 45-kilometre Sava Dolinka and the 945-kilometre Sava proper.
As a right tributary of the Danube, the river belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin. The Sava River is the third longest tributary of the Danube shorter than the 966-kilometre Tisza and the 950-kilometre Prut—the Danube's two longest tributaries—when the Sava Dolinka headwater is excluded from its course, it is the largest tributary of the Danube by discharge. The river course is sometimes used to describe the northern boundary of the Balkans, the southern border of the Central Europe. Before the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, the river was located inside Yugoslav borders and it was the longest river with its entire course within the country; the Sava Dolinka rises in the Zelenci Pools, west of Podkoren in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia at 833 metres above sea level, flows east, past Kranjska Gora to Jesenice, where it turns southeast. At Žirovnica, the river enters the Ljubljana Basin and encounters the first hydroelectric dam—Moste plant—before proceeding to the east of the glacial Lake Bled towards Radovljica and confluence of the Sava Bohinjka, at 411 metres a.s.l.
Downstream of Radovljica, the Sava proceeds southeast towards Kranj. Between Kranj and Medvode, its course comprises the Lake Trboje and the Lake Zbilje reservoirs, built for the Mavčiče and the Medvode power plants; the Sava flows through the capital of Slovenia, where another reservoir is located on the river, adjacent to the Tacen Whitewater Course. There the river course turns east and leaves the Ljubljana Basin via Dolsko, at 261 metres a.s.l.. The course continues through the Sava Hills, where it passes the Litija Basin with the mining and industrial town of Litija, the Central Sava Valley with the mining towns of Zagorje ob Savi and Hrastnik, turns to the southeast and runs through the Lower Sava Valley with the towns of Radeče, Krško; the course through the Sava Hills forms the boundary of traditional regions of Lower Carniola and Styria, At Radeče, the Vrhovo hydroelectric dam reservoir is located. The latter is site of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, which uses the Sava River water to dissipate excess heat.
The easternmost stretch of the Sava River course in Slovenia runs to the south of Brežice, where it is joined by the Kr
Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum
The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was one of four praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. The administrative centre of the prefecture was Sirmium, after 379, Thessalonica, it took its name from the older province of Illyricum, which in turn was named after ancient Illyria, in its greatest expanse encompassed Pannonia, Noricum and most of the Balkan peninsula except for Thrace. Unlike the other three "classical" prefectures that are mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum, the early administrative history of Illyricum as a prefecture during the 4th century involved its abolition, re-establishment and division several times; the territories comprising the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum belonged to the Prefecture of Italy and Africa. It was as established as a praetorian prefecture in its own right during the dynastic struggles between the sons of Constantine the Great which followed his death in 337, it seems that the three dioceses of Macedonia and Pannonia were first grouped together in a separate praetorian prefecture in 347 by Constans by removing them from the praetorian prefecture of Italy and Illyricum or that this praetorian prefecture was formed in 343 when Constans appointed a prefect for Italy.
It remained in existence until 361, when it was abolished by emperor Julian, revived under Gratian between 375-379. In that year the Diocese of Pannonia was again added to Italy as the "Diocese of Illyricum", while Macedonia and Dacia were ruled directly by Theodosius I from Thessalonica. During the years 384-395 they were again incorporated in the Italian prefecture, except a short period in 388-391, when the two dioceses formed a separate prefecture. Only after the death of Theodosius in 395 and the division of the Empire did the Illyricum assume the permanent form which appears in the Notitia, incorporating the dioceses of Macedonia and Dacia, with Thessalonica as capital. However, the Western Empire during the regency of Stilicho, continued claim them until 437 when, as part of the dowry of Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian III recognized the East's sovereignty over the prefecture. On this occasion, it appears that the prefecture's capital was to Sirmium, but the move is debated, as the northern Balkans were at the time ravaged by invasions.
The intention of Justinian I to move the capital to his new city of Justiniana Prima in the 540s remained unfulfilled. Following the Slavic invasions in the 7th century, most of the Balkan hinterland was lost by the Byzantines, who only retained control of the parts of Thrace nearest Constantinople and its environs, some coastal strips in Greece. A praetorian prefect is attested in the sources as governor of Thessalonica as late as the first years of the 9th century, one of the last survivals of the old Constantinian administrative system in the entire Empire. At that point however, the wars with the rising power of Bulgaria necessitated a reorganization of the provinces, Thessalonica was constituted as a distinct theme under a strategos sometime before 840. Vulcacius Rufinus Quintus Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus Mavortius Anatolius Florentius Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius Vettius Agorius Praetextatus Flavius Eutychianus Anatolius Herculius Leontius Flavius Junius Quartus Palladius Gessius Flavius Anthemius Isidorus Flavius Simplicius Reginus Eubulus Thalassius Apraeumius Eulogius Valentinianus Callicrates Iohannes Basilides Notitia dignitatum Bury, John B.
A history of the Eastern Roman empire from the fall of Irene to the accession of Basil I. London: Macmillan and Co. Janković, Đorđe. "The Slavs in the 6th Century North Illyricum". Гласник Српског археолошког друштва. 20: 39–61. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 Morrison, Cécile, ed. Le Monde Byzantin I - L'Empire romain d'orient, Athens: Polis Editions, ISBN 978-960-435-134-3 The Times History of Europe, Times Books, London, 2001. Map - The Roman Empire in 337
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy. The city was settled by the Insubres around 600 BC, conquered by the Romans in 222 BC, developed into a key centre of Western Christianity and capital of the Western Roman Empire, it declined under the ravages of the Gothic War, its capture by the Lombards in 569, their decision to make Ticinum the capital of their Kingdom of Italy. During the Principate the population was 40,000 in 200 AD. Mediolanum appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic Insubres, after whom this region of northern Italy was called Insubria. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province Cisalpine Gaul— "Gaul this side of the Alps"— and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain."
Mediolanum was important for its location as a hub in the road network of northern Italy. Polybius describes the country as abounding in wine, every kind of grain, in fine wool. Herds of swine, both for public and private supply, were bred in its forests, the people were well known for their generosity. During the Augustan age Mediolanum was famous for its schools. A large stone wall encircled the city in Caesar's time, was expanded in the late third century AD, by Maximian. Mediolanum was made the seat of the prefect of Liguria by Hadrian, Constantine made it the seat of the vicar of Italy. In the third century Mediolanum possessed a horreum and imperial mausoleum. In 259, Roman legions under the command of Emperor Gallienus soundly defeated the Alemanni in the Battle of Mediolanum. In 286 Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum, he chose leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan. Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain.
Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers, it was from Milan that the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of the Empire. Constantine was in Milan to celebrate the wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. There were Christian communities in Mediolanum, which contributed its share of martyrs during the persecutions, but the first bishop of Milan who has a firm historical presence is Merocles, at the Council of Rome of 313. In the mid-fourth century, the Arian controversy divided the Christians of Mediolanum. Auxentius of Milan was a respected Arian theologian. At the time of the bishop St. Ambrose, who quelled the Arians, emperor Theodosius I, Mediolanum reached the height of its ancient power; the city possessed a number of basilicas, added in the late fourth century AD.
These are San Simpliciano, San Nazaro, San Lorenzo and the chapel of San Vittore, located in the basilica of Sant'Ambrogio. In general, the Late Empire encouraged the development of the applied arts in Mediolanum, with ivory and silver work being common in public building projects. In the crypt of the Duomo survive ruins of the ancient church of Saint Tecla and the baptisty where St. Augustine of Hippo was baptized. In 402, the city was besieged by the Goths and the Imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. In 452, it was besieged again by Attila, but the real break with its Imperial past came in 538, during the Gothic War, when Mediolanum was laid to waste by Uraia, a nephew of Witiges, King of the Goths, with great loss of life; the Lombards took Ticinum as their capital, Early Medieval Milan was left to be governed by its archbishops. Some of the monuments of the Roman Mediolanum still to be seen in Milan: in the basilica of S. Ambrogio: the Chapel of S. Vittore, with Late Antique mosaics the so‑called "Tomb of Stilicho", assembled from a Roman sarcophagus and other material.
A large collection of inscriptions. The Colonne di San Lorenzo, a colonnade in front of the church of S. Lorenzo. Roman lapidary material in the Archi di Porta Nuova; the scant remains of a large amphitheatre, now in an archaeological park dedicated to their preservation. A tower of the circus, now inside the Convento di San Maurizio Maggiore. A bit of moenia and a tower with 24 sides the church of San Lorenzo and the