Gulf of Sirte
Gulf of Sirte, or Gulf of Sidra after the port of Sidra, is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya. It has been known as the Great Sirte or Greater Syrtis; the Gulf of Sirte has been a major centre for tuna fishing in the Mediterranean for centuries. It gives its name to the city of Sirte situated on its western side; the gulf measures 439 kilometres from the promontory of Boreum on the East side to the promontory of Cephalae on the West. The greatest extension of the gulf inland is 177 kilometres land inward and occupies an area of 57,000 square kilometers. Syrtis is referred to in the New Testament of the Bible, where the Apostle Paul relates being sent in chains to Rome to stand trial before the Roman emperor, Nero; the crew of his ship was worried about being driven by a storm into Syrtis, he took precautions to prevent it, but the ship was shipwrecked on the island of Malta, in the Mediterranean Sea. In ancient literature, the Syrtes were notorious sandbanks, which sailors always took pains to avoid.
The local climate features frequent calms and a powerful north wind. The shoreline between Cyrene in the east and Carthage in the west featured few ports. Ancient writers mention the sandbanks and their vicinity as dangerous for shipping; the Syrtes maiores are unusually tidal and feature a strong clockwise current, at the rising tide, which switches when the tide ebbs. That feature may explain the curious corkscrew shape in the area on the Peutinger Table; the landward side was a featureless plain which contrasted with the fertility of the rest of Tripolitania, to the west. Ancient writers mention serpents in this area. Strabo describes a march by the Roman general, Cato the Younger in 47 BC which took thirty days ‘ through deep and scorching sand’. Strabo gives a full account of the dangers for shipping: the difficulty with both the Greater and the Lesser Syrtes is that in many places the water is shallow, at the rise and fall of the tides ships sometimes fall into the shallows and settle there, it is rare for them to be saved.
Pomponius Mela gives a melodramatic description: The Syrtes … have no ports and are alarming because of the frequent shallows and more dangerous because of the reversing movements of the sea as it flows in and out...then a second Syrtes, equal in name and nature to the first, but about twice the size. These sources should not however be taken at face value: Mela goes on to say that there were no ports in the Greater Syrtes either, but his reliability on this point – and therefore others – is questionable: Pseudo-Scylax, writing in the early 4th century BC, records a port in the larger gulf, Strabo places a ‘very large emporium’ in the smaller one before Mela’s time. Furthermore, the ancient textual evidence is not unambiguous in its condemnation of the Syrtes. Plutarch gives a much less melodramatic account of Cato’s march than Strabo’s, saying that it took only seven days, that locals were engaged to protect his troops from serpents, and while Strabo pointed out the dangers of the sandbanks, he continues: On this account sailors travel along the coast at a distance, taking care lest they are caught off their guard and driven into these gulfs by winds.
As in Cato, they do not avoid the area, but take precautions against its relative dangers. Pliny’s warning that the gulf was ‘formidable because of the shallow and tidal water of the two Syrtes’ at Natural History 5.26 should be seen in the context of his broader claim in that work that all the coastlines of the Mediterranean were welcoming. Their infamous reputation is, found in Roman poetry, from Virgil on; the information in this section is taken from The Syrtes between East and West by Josephine Crawley Quinn. First Battle of Sirte, World War II naval battle between Regia Marina and Royal Navy in December 1941. Second Battle of Sirte, World War II naval battle between Regia Marina and Royal Navy in March 1942. After the coup d'état which brought Muammar Gaddafi to power in 1969, there were a number of international incidents concerning territorial claims of the Gaddafi regime over the waters of the Gulf of Sirte; the gulf was referred to by the US military in those times as'Gulf of Sidra', after the important oil port of Sidra on its shores.
In 1973, Gaddafi claimed much of the Gulf of Sirte to be within Libyan internal waters by drawing a straight line at 32 degrees, 30 minutes north between a point near Benghazi and the western headland of the gulf at Misrata with an exclusive 62 nautical miles fishing zone. Gaddafi declared it The Line of Death; the US claimed its rights to conduct naval operations in international waters, using the modern international standard of 12-nautical-mile territorial limit from a country's shore as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Gaddafi claimed it to be a territorial sea, not just a coastal area. In response the United States authorized Naval exercises in the Gulf of Sidra to conduct Freedom of Navigation operations. On 21 March 1973, Libyan fighter planes intercepted and fired on a U. S. Air Force C-1
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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Rail transport in Libya
There have been no operational railways in Libya since 1965, but various lines existed in the past. An extensive system is now being developed and under construction; the Kingdom of Italy built in 400 km of railways with a gauge of 950 mm. A network centred on Tripoli was opened from 17 March 1912 as part of the Italian occupation campaign; this extended from Tripoli 120 km west to Zuwara, 100 km south to Gharyan, 10 km east to Tajura. A 750 mm gauge railway was built east from Benghazi; the main route to Marj, 110 km long, was opened in stages between 1911 and 1927. Benghazi had a 56 km branch to Suluq, opened in 1926. In summer 1941, the Italians started to build a Tripoli-Benghazi railway, but their defeat in World War II meant that work only progressed a few kilometres. Military extensions of some 40 km were made from Marj towards Derna in World War II; this was the final line to close, at the end of 1965. During World War II, the 1,435 mm gauge Western Desert Extension railway was built from a junction 10 km east of Mersa Matruh in Egypt, to assist in the Allied defence of the area, the Allied advance across North Africa.
The coastal railway had reached Sidi Barrani by October 1941 and Tobruk by December 1942, 640 km west of El Alamein. The 125 km Libyan section, west of Sallum, on the Egyptian border, was removed following its closure on 20 December 1946, but the Egyptian Railways Sollum line still sees occasional freight. Beginning in 1998, the Libyan government has been planning for a 3170 km 1,435 mm network. A line parallel to the coast will form part of a North African link between Tunisia and Egypt; the section from the border with Tunisia at Ras Ajdir via Tripoli to Sirte was under construction and was planned to open in 2009. China Railway Construction Corporation has contracts to start work in June 2008 on a 352 km route between Sirte and Khoms, to be finished by 2013; the east-west line will be double track. A second line will run 800 km from iron ore deposits at Wadi Shati near Sabha to the steel works and port at Misrata from 2012. A third line will run 554 km from Sirte to Benghazi in the East. In October 2007, RZD submitted a feasibility study for the project, in 2008 signed a contract to begin construction, planned to take 4 years to complete.
Work began on 30 August 2008. In August 2010, RZD awarded Ansaldo STS and SELEX Communications a contract to install signalling, power and ticketing systems, expected to take three years. Ansaldo STS and SELEX Communications are working on signalling on new lines between Sirte and the Tunisian border, the route to Sabha. A trans-Saharan line is planned, running south to Niger. Construction has ceased during the Libyan Civil War; as of March 2012, the plans have been delayed until further noticeIn February 2013, the pre-revolution railway project has been approved for resumption by the government. On 10 June 2007 a contract was signed with American General Electric Co. for supply of locomotives and training of Libyan nationals in operational and maintenance work. The contract includes the import of technical assistance; the first shipment will arrive Libya by mid-2009. Libya has bought one IC4 diesel multiple unit from AnsaldoBreda for evaluation, it is parked at 32 ° 49 ′ 43 ″ N 13 ° 6 ′ 41 ″ E.
Libya signed contracts with Bahne of Egypt and Jez Sistemas Ferroviarios for the supply of crossings and pointwork. November - GE to supply 15 diesel locomotives. 30 August - Russian Railways begins work on 554 km Sirte to Benghazi railway. 25 April - Russia to build coastal line from Sirte eastwards to Benghazi 500 km. This extends another project to build a 352 km line running from Sirte westwards via Misrata to Khoms. China Railway Construction wins $2.6b bids in Libya. A west-to-east coastal railway 352 km from Khoms to Sirte and a south-to-west railway 800 km long for iron ore transport from the southern city Sabha to Misrata. January - China Railway Construction signs contract to build 172 km from Tripoli to Ras Ajdir March - First 14 km of 554 km long Russian Railways Sirte - Benghazi track in place; the total track laying is expected to take four years. March - China Railway Group suspended work on the 3 projects valued in total at $4.24 billion with $3.55 billion of the project yet to be finished due to the rising violence levels in the Libyan Civil War.
February - Talks started between RZD and Libyan authorities to resume construction Economy of Libya Transport in Libya Robinson, Neil. World Rail Atlas and Historical Summary. Volume 7: North and Central Africa. Barnsley, UK: World Rail Atlas Ltd. ISBN 978-954-92184-3-5. About the Railway Executive Board Earthworks 60% complete on first section of Libyan network, Railway Gazette International January 2001. History of railways in colonial Libya
Ghat is one of the districts of Libya. Its capital is Ghat. To the west, Ghat borders two provinces of Algeria: Tamanghasset in the far southwest, Illizi Province, it has a short border with the Agadez Department of Niger in the far south. Domestically, it borders Wadi Al Hayaa in northeast and Murzuq in the east. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans; the average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per sq. km. Per 2006 census, there were 8,218 economically active people in the district. Since 2014, the district has been under the control of independent Tuareg and Tebu militias fighting each other for dominion. Libya has a flat undulating plain and occasional plateau, with an average elevation of around 423 m. Around 91 per cent of the land is covered by desert, with only 8.8 per cent agricultural land and 0.1 per cent of forests.
The major resources are petroleum and natural gas. Along the coastal regions, the climate is Mediterranean in coastal areas, while it is desert climate in all other parts. Dust storms lasting four to eight days is pretty common during Spring. Triplotania is the northwest region, while it is Fezzen in southwest. Fezzen is full of deserts; the region receives an annual rainfall of 2.5 in. There are no perennial rivers in the region. Libya became independent in 1951 from the colonial empire and known for its oil rich resources. All the powers rested centrally with the President Gaddafi for 42 years till the 2011 armed rebellion which topple him; as per the constitution, Libya is the most decentralized Arab nation, but all powers are vested on central government on account of control over the oil revenues. Local governmental institutions manage the administration of education and communities; as a part of decentralization in 2012, the country is administratively split into 13 regions from the original 25 municipalities, which were further divided in 1,500 communes.
Since 2015, the chief of the state is a Chairman of Presidential Council, while the Prime Minister is the head of the state. The House of Representatives is an elected body, elected on universal suffrage and popular vote; as of 2016, there were 22 administrative divisions in the country in the form of districts. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans; the average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per sq. km. Per 2006 census, there were 8,218 economically active people in the district. There were 4,700 government employees, 1,529 employers, 2,928 first level workers and 000 second level workers. There were 2,703 workers in state administration, 1,419 in agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, 1,468 in agriculture & hunting, 1,229 in education, 566 in private enterprises, 670 in health & social work, 369 in production, 1,245 in technical work and 296 service workers.
The total enrollment in schools was 8,094 and the number of people above secondary stage and less than graduation was 441. As per the report from World Health Organization, there were 1 communicable disease centres, 0 dental clinics, 1 general clinics, 0 in-patient clinics, 0 out-patient clinics, 2 pharmacies, 13 PHC centres, 0 polyclinics, 0 rural clinics and 0 specialized clinics
Transport in Tunisia
Tunisia has a number of international airports to service its sizable tourist trade. Tunis is the center of the transport system as the largest city having the largest port and a light transit system. Tunisia inherited much of its rail transport system from the French and the Tunisian Government has developed infrastructure further; the railways are operated by the Société Nationale de Chemins de Fer Tunisiens, the Tunisian national railway. A modernisation program is underway, it has a total of 2,152 km consisting of 468 km of 1,435 mm standard gauge railways and 1,674 kilometres of 1,000 mm metre gauge. Tunis has a light rail system. In the south of Tunisia, there is a narrow gauge railway called the Sfax-Gafsa Railway which delivers phosphates and iron ore to the harbour at Sfax. Tunisia has rail links with the neighbouring country of Algeria via the Ghardimaou-Souk Ahras line, another connection to Tébessa, the latter link is not used. There are no railways yet in neighbouring Libya though some are under construction in 2008.
Libya - railways under construction Algeria - yes - Same gauge - 1,435 mm TGM Lézard rouge, a tourist train Métro léger de Tunis Réseau Ferroviaire Rapide As of 2004, there were 18,997 km of highway including 12,310 of paved road and 6,387 of unpaved road. The major cities are all linked by road through the interior. In 2002, Tunisia borrowed €300 million from the European Investment Bank in 2002 to be used to improve roads in the country including €120 million towards building a motorway between Tunis and Sfax. A1 motorway A3 motorway A4 motorway Route 1 in the Trans-African Highway network passes through Tunisia, linking it to North African nations including Algeria, Morocco and Egypt, to West African nations via Mauritania. In addition a feeder road links Tunisia to the Trans-Sahara Highway from Algeria to West Africa. Tunisia has an extensive pipeline network including 3,059 km of gas pipelines, 1,203 kilometres of oil pipeline and 345 km of refined products. Petrochemicals are Tunisia's third most important export despite the small size of its oil and gas fields as compared to Libya and Algeria.
It gets a royalty rate of 5 per cent on the Algerian gas that runs through Tunis to Sicily through the Trans-Mediterranean gas pipeline. Libya's National Oil Corporation formed a joint venture with Societe Tunisienne de l'Electricite et du Gaz to construct a national gas pipeline between the two countries. Tunis is the most significant port in Tunisia with other significant ports on the Mediterranean Sea including Bizerte, Gabès, La Goulette, Sfax and Zarzis. Tunisia's merchant marine consisted of 14 ships as at 2002; as of 2002, Tunisia had 30 airports including several international airports. The most important one is the Tunis-Carthage International Airport but other significant airports serve Sfax, Djerba-Zarzis, Monastir and Tabarka. Tunisair is the national airline. Tunisia CIA World Factbook 2006 Transportation in Tunisia "Tunisia" Encyclopædia Britannica Online page 16 accessed 18 March 2006 "North Africa" Encyclopædia Britannica Online page 20 accessed 18 March 2006 Railways in Northern Africa Tourism Tunisia Airports Tunisia360 SNCFT-Thread Air Freight Tunisia // Forwarding transit Tunisia
Al Wahat District
Al Wahat spelt Al Wahad or Al Wahah is one of the districts of Libya. Its capital and largest city is Ajdabiya; the district is home to much of Libya's petroleum extraction economic activity. Traditionally Al Wahat was the western part of Cyrenaica. With the division of Libya into ten governorates in 1963, Al Wahat became part of the Misrata Governorate. In the 1973 reorganization it became part of Al Khalji Governorate. In 1983 Al Khalji was divided into a number of baladiyat, with what is now Al Wahat being included in the Ajdabiya baladiyah and the Jalu baladiyah. In the 1988 reorganization, Jalu was subsumed within Ajdabiya baladiyah; the status of the area in the reorganization of 1995 which created thirteen districts is unclear. In 2001 the area was divided between Al Wahat Ajdabiya District. In 2007 the former Al Wahat district was enlarged to include what had been the Ajdabiya District and part of Kufra District, it now has the boundaries that the baladiyah of Ajdabiya did from 1988 to 1995.
Al Wahat has a short border with Egypt, borders the following Libyan districts, Butnan in east and northeast, Kufra in south, Jufra in southwest, Sirte in west, Benghazi in north, Marj in north, Jabal al Akhdar and Derna in the north. The district is located in Cyrenacia, semi arid in nature; the region receives an annual rainfall of 5 in. There are no perennial rivers in the region; the largest water course in Libya, Wadi Al Hamim, runs through northern Al Wahat and is thought to be the course of the ancestral Nile. Per 2006 census, there were 54,593 economically active people in the district. There were 20,225 government employees, 6,585 employers, 23,074 first level workers and 024 second level workers. There were 9,586 workers in state administration, 7,212 in agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, 7,621 in agriculture & hunting, 8,715 in education, 8,517 in private enterprises, 1,820 in health & social work, 4,340 in production, 9,931 in technical work and 492 service workers; the total enrollment in schools was 61,849 and the number of people above secondary stage and less than graduation was 3,882.
As per the report from World Health Organization, there were 2 communicable disease centres, 4 dental clinics, 2 general clinics, 0 in-patient clinics, 10 out-patient clinics, 27 pharmacies, 47 PHC centres, 1 polyclinics, 1 rural clinics and 0 specialized clinics. As of the 2007 reorganization, Al Wahat District was subdivided into seventeen Basic People's Congresses, Zueitina, East Ajdabiya, West Ajdabiya, North Ajdabiya, Bashir, Sultan, al`Arqub, El Agheila, Antalat, Marsa Brega, Awjila, Jalu and Maradah; the following major towns are located within Al Wahat District, as of 2007: Ajdabiya, Labba, El Agheila, Jalu and Sultan
Misrata spelt Misurata or Misratah, is a sha'biyah in northwestern Libya. Its capital is the city of Misrata. In 2007 the district was enlarged to include what had been the Bani Walid District and the northernmost strip of coast of the Gulf of Sidra, that from 2001 to 2007 had been part of Sirte District. In the north and east, Misrata has a shoreline on the Mediterranean Sea. On land, it borders Sirte in south and east, Murqub in north and west and Jabal al Gharbi in south and west. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans; the average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per km2. Per 2006 census, there were 148,352 economically active people in the district. Libya has a flat undulating plain and occasional plateau, with an average elevation of around 423 m.
Around 91 per cent of the land is covered by desert, with only 8.8 per cent agricultural land and 0.1 per cent of forests. The major resources are petroleum and natural gas. Along the coastal regions, the climate is Mediterranean in coastal areas, while it is desert climate in all other parts. Dust storms lasting four to eight days is pretty common during Spring. Triplotania is the northwest region, while it is Fezzen in southwest. Triplotania runs from north to south and has set of coastal oases and limestone plateaus having an elevation of 2,000 ft to 3,000 ft; the region receives an annual rainfall of 16 in. There are no perennial rivers in the region. Most of the major cities of Libya are located in the coastal regions. According to the 1936 census, which allowed citizens to declare their ethnicity, Misrata's native population was made up of 70.1% Arabs, 13.4% Berbers, 11.6% Turks, 3.4% Blacks and 1.5% Others. Per the census of 2012, the total population in the region was 157,747 with 150,353 Libyans.
The average size of the household in the country was 6.9, while the average household size of non-Libyans being 3.7. There were 22,713 households in the district, with 20,907 Libyan ones; the population density of the district was 1.86 persons per km2. Per 2006 census, there were 148,352 economically active people in the district. There were 57,904 government employees, 17,387 employers, 73,053 first level workers and 259 second level workers. There were 21,444 workers in state administration, 11,309 in agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, 12,455 in agriculture & hunting, 30,819 in education, 20,976 in private enterprises, 4,514 in health & social work, 15,978 in production, 33,497 in technical work and 1,950 service workers; the total enrollment in schools was 186,168 and the number of people above secondary stage and less than graduation was 6,697. As per the report from World Health Organization, there were two communicable disease centres, 25 dental clinics, three general clinics, nine in-patient clinics, 27 out-patient clinics, 81 pharmacies, 68 PHC centres, four polyclinics, one rural clinic and two specialized clinics.
Islam is the state and major religion of the country. Libya became independent in 1951 from the colonial empire and known for its oil rich resources. All the powers rested centrally with the president, for 42 years till the 2011 armed rebellion which topple him; as per the constitution, Libya is the most decentralized Arab nation, but all powers are vested on central government on account of control over the oil revenues. Local governmental institutions manage the administration of education and communities; as a part of decentralization in 2012, the country is administratively split into 13 regions from the original 25 municipalities, which were further divided in 1,500 communes. Since 2015, the chief of the state is a chairman of Presidential Council, while the prime minister is the head of the state; the House of Representatives is an elected body, elected on universal suffrage and popular vote. As of 2016, there were 22 administrative divisions in the country in the form of districts. Index: Populated places in Misrata District