Shishak, Shishaq or Susac was, according to the Hebrew Bible, an Egyptian pharaoh who sacked Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. He is identified with the pharaoh Shoshenq I. Shishak's campaign against the Kingdom of Judah and his sack of Jerusalem is contained in the Hebrew Bible. According to these books of the Hebrew Bible, Shishak had provided refuge to Jeroboam during the years of Solomon's reign, upon Solomon's death, Jeroboam became king of the tribes in the north, which became the Kingdom of Israel. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak swept through the Kingdom of Judah with a powerful army of 60,000 horsemen and 1,200 chariots, in support of his ally Jeroboam, the king of Israel. According to 2 Chronicles 12:3, he was supported by the Lubim, the Sukkiim, the Kushites. Shishak took away treasures of the Temple of Yahweh and the king's house, as well as shields of gold which Solomon had made. According to Second Chronicles, When Shishak king of Egypt attacked Jerusalem, he carried off the treasures of the temple of the Lord and the treasures of the royal palace.
He took everything, including the gold. Flavius Josephus in Antiquities of the Jews adds to this a contingent of 400,000 infantrymen. According to Josephus, his army met with no resistance throughout the campaign, taking Rehoboam's most fortified cities "without fighting", he conquered Jerusalem without resistance, because "Rehoboam was afraid." Shishak did not destroy Jerusalem, but forced King Rehoboam of Judah to strip the Temple and his treasury of their gold and movable treasures. Texts written in various ancient languages seem to indicate that the first vowel was both long and round, the final vowel was short. For example, the name is written in the Hebrew Bible as שישק; the variant readings in Hebrew, which are due to confusion between the letters < י > Yod and < ו > Vav that are common in the Masoretic Text, indicate that the first vowel was long in pronunciation. The Septuagint uses Σουσακιμ, derived from the marginal reading שושק of Hebrew; this indicates during the 2nd century BC Hebrew-speakers or Alexandrian Greek-speakers pronounced the name with an initial long close back rounded vowel.
In the early years after the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs, on chronological and linguistic grounds, nearly all Egyptologists identified Shishak with Shoshenq I of the 22nd dynasty, who invaded Canaan following the Battle of Bitter Lakes. This position was maintained by most scholars since, is still the majority position; the fact that Shoshenq I left behind "explicit records of a campaign into Canaan, including a stela at Megiddo" supports the traditional interpretation. There are however some notable exceptions, such as Jerusalem itself, not mentioned in any of his campaign records; the Bubastite Portal, a relief discovered at Karnak, in Upper Egypt, similar reliefs on the walls of a small temple of Amun at el-Hibeh, shows Pharaoh Shoshenq I holding in his hand a bound group of prisoners. The names of captured towns are located in the territory of the kingdom of Israel, with a few listed in the Negeb, Philistia; some of these include a few of the towns. The portal is believed to record a historical campaign of Sheshonq I in Judah, but it makes no mention of Jerusalem being sacked, nor of Rehoboam or Jeroboam.
Various explanations of this omission of Jerusalem have been proposed: its name may have been erased, the list may have been copied from an older pharaoh's list of conquests, or Rehoboam's ransoming the city would have saved it from being listed. It has been claimed that the numbers of Egyptian soldiers given in Chronicles can be "safely ignored as impossible" on Egyptological grounds; the treasures taken by Shishak are highly unlikely. Firstly, no United Monarchy of Israel and Judah occurs in Shoshenq's list of conquered enemies. Israel Finkelstein concludes that the looting narrative "should be seen as a theological construct rather than as historical references". Other identifications of Shishak have been put forward by chronological revisionists, arguing that Shoshenq's account does not match the Biblical account closely, but these are considered fringe theories. In his book Ages in Chaos, Immanuel Velikovsky identified him with Thutmose III of the 18th dynasty. More David Rohl's New Chronology identified him with Ramesses II of the 19th dynasty, Peter James has identified him with Ramesses III of the 20th dynasty.
Shishak is mentioned in Steven Spielberg's action-adventure film Raiders of the Lost Ark as the pharaoh who seized the Ark of the Covenant from the Temple of Solomon during his raids on Jerusalem and hid it in the Well of Souls in Tanis. Rohl, David M.. Pharaohs and Kings: A Biblical Quest. New York: Crown Publishers, inc. Ad Thijs,'From the Lunar Eclipse of Takeloth II back to S
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Sisak-Moslavina County is a Croatian county in eastern Central Croatia and southwestern Slavonia. It is named after the region Moslavina just across the river Sava. According to 2011 census it is inhabited by 172,000 people; this county features the ancient Roman city of Siscia—today's Sisak. Siscia was the largest city of the whole region back a Pannonian capital due to its position on the confluence of the Kupa and Sava rivers; the city's patron saint is its first Christian bishop, St. Kvirin, tortured and killed during Diocletian's persecution of Christians. Legend has it that they tied him to a millstone and threw him into a river, but he freed himself from the weight and continued to preach his faith; the town may have lost importance with the fall of one empire, but it recovered it soon enough with the rise of another: Sisak became famous for crucial battles between European armies and the Ottoman Turks. In particular, the battle of 1593 when the Ottoman army first suffered a large defeat.
The ban Toma Bakač Erdedi who led the defense in this battle became famous throughout Europe. Today, Sisak features the largest oil refinery; these are coupled with the petrochemical facilities in the nearby town of Kutina, the first recorded mention of, in 1256 by king Béla IV. Moslavina is the most picturesque part of this county, with the natural park Lonjsko polje near the rivers Lonja and Pakra; this county extends far to the south to the border with Bosnia, in this southern part of the county one can find a small town of Topusko, which has another one of those spas typical for Central Croatia, although this one stands out with seniority because it dates back to the neolithic age. Sisak-Moslavina County borders on the Karlovac County in the west, Zagreb County in the north, Bjelovar-Bilogora County and Požega-Slavonia County in the northeast, Brod-Posavina County in the east. Sisak-Moslavina county is subdivided as follows: As of the 2011 census, the county had 172,439 residents; the population density is 39 people per km2.
Ethnic Croats form the majority with 82.4% of the population, followed by Serbs at 12.2%. Population change 1857-2011 Roman Catholic Diocese of Sisak Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Gornji Karlovac Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Slavonia Official website
The Illyrians were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans. The territory the Illyrians inhabited came to be known as Illyria to Greek and Roman authors, who identified a territory that corresponds to Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, part of Serbia and most of central and northern Albania, between the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Drava river in the north, the Morava river in the east and the mouth of the Aoos river in the south; the first account of Illyrian peoples comes from the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, an ancient Greek text of the middle of the 4th century BC that describes coastal passages in the Mediterranean. The name "Illyrians", as applied by the ancient Greeks to their northern neighbors, may have referred to a broad, ill-defined group of peoples; the Illyrian tribes never collectively regarded themselves as'Illyrians', it is unlikely that they used any collective nomenclature for themselves. In fact, Illyrians seems to be the name of a specific Illyrian tribe, among the first to come in contact with the ancient Greeks during the Bronze Age, with the Greeks applying pars pro toto the name Illyrians to all people with similar language and customs.
At present it is unclear to what extent the Illyrians were linguistically and culturally homogeneous. In fact, Illyric origin was and still is attributed to a few ancient peoples residing in Italy: the Iapyges and Messapi, who are thought to have most followed Adriatic shorelines to the Italian peninsula from the geographic "Illyria"; the term "Illyrians" last appears in the historical record in the 7th century, referring to a Byzantine garrison operating within the former Roman province of Illyricum. In Greek mythology, Illyrius was the son of Cadmus and Harmonia who ruled Illyria and became the eponymous ancestor of the whole Illyrian people. Illyrius had multiple daughters. From these, sprang the Taulantii, Dardani, Autariates and the Daors. Autareius had a son Pannonius or Paeon and these had sons Scordiscus and Triballus. A version of this mythic genealogy gives as parents Polyphemus and Galatea, who gave birth to Celtus and Illyrius, three brothers, progenitors of Celts and Illyrians expresses perceived similarities to Celts and Gauls on the part of the mythographe.
Scholars have long recognized a "difficulty in producing a single theory on the ethnogenesis of the Illyrians" given their heterogeneous nature. Modern scholarship is unable to refer to the Illyrians as a unique and compact people and agrees that they were a sum of ill-defined communities without common origins that never merged to a single ethnic entity. Older Pan-Illyrian theories are now dismissed by scholars, based as they were on racialistic notions of Nordicism and Aryanism; the specific theories have found little archaeological corroboration, as no convincing evidence for significant migratory movements from the Luzatian culture into the west Balkans have been found. Rather, archaeologists from the former Yugoslavia highlighted the continuity between the Bronze and succeeding Iron Age developing the so-called "autochthonous theory" of Illyrian genesis; the "autochthonous" model was most elaborated upon by Alojz Benac and B. Čović. They argued that the'proto-Illyrians' had arrived much earlier, during the Bronze Age as nomadic Indo-Europeans from the steppe.
From that point, there was a gradual Illyrianization of the western Balkans leading to historic Illyrians, with no early Iron Age migration from northern Europe. He did not deny a minor cultural impact from the northern Urnfield cultures, however "these movements had neither a profound influence on the stability.. of the Balkans, nor did they affect the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian ethnos". Aleksandar Stipčević raised concerns regarding Benac's all-encompassing scenario of autochthonous ethnogenesis, he points out "can one negate the participation of the bearers of the field-urn culture in the ethnogenesis of the Illyrian tribes who lived in present-day Slovenia and Croatia" or "Hellenistic and Mediterranean influences on southern Illyrians and Liburnians?". He concludes that Benac's model is only applicable to the Illyrian groups in Bosnia, western Serbia and a part of Dalmatia, where there had indeed been a settlement continuity and'native' progression of pottery sequences since the Bronze Age.
Following prevailing trends in discourse on identity in Iron Age Europe, current anthropological perspectives reject older theories of a longue duree ethnogenesis of Illyrians where'archaeological continuity' can be demonstrated to Bronze Age times. They rather see the emergence of historic Illyrians tribes as a more recent phenomenon - just prior to their first attestation; the impetus behind the emergence of larger regional groups, such as "Iapodes", "Liburnians", "Pannonians" etc. is traced to increased contacts with the Mediterranean and La Tène'global worlds'. This catalyzed "the development of more complex political institutions and the increase in differences between individual communities". Emerging local elites selectively adopted either La Tène or Hellenistic and Roman cultural templates "in order to legitimise and strengthen domination within their communities, they were competing fiercely through either conflict and resistance to Roman expansion. Thus, they established more complex political alliances, which convinced
Quirinus of Sescia
Quirinus is venerated as an early bishop of Sescia, now Sisak in Croatia. He is mentioned by Eusebius of Caesarea. A Passio, considered unreliable, states that Quirinus was killed during the persecutions of Diocletian after being arrested in 309. Quirinus was imprisoned, he managed to convert his jailer, named Marcellus, to Christianity. After three days, the governor of Pannonia Prima, ordered him taken to Sabaria, where after attempting to make Quirinus abjure his faith, he had the bishop thrown into the local Gyöngyös River with a millstone around his neck. A variant of the legend states that he was killed during Diocletian's persecution of Christians: the authorities tied him to a millstone and threw him into a river, but he freed himself from the weight and continued to preach his faith. Saint Florian, another saint associated with Pannonia, was said to have been executed by drowning with a stone tied around his neck; the Acts of the martyrdom of the saint were collected in, a hymn was written in his honour by Prudentius.
Local Christians of Savaria recovered his body and buried it near the gate known as the "Scarabateus". Upon the incursion of the barbarians into Pannonia at the end of the fourth century and at the beginning of the fifth, his relics were taken to Rome and deposited in a mausoleum or vaulted chamber named Platonia, behind the apse of the Basilica of San Sebastiano fuori le mura on the Appian Way; the "Platonia" was a construction at the rear of the basilica. His cult became popular, as attested by the Itineraries of the 7th century; some sources state that his relics were translated to various locations, including Correggio, Emilia-Romagna, Milan and the Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome. His relics may have been carried to Tivoli. There is a cult of Saint Quirinus of Tivoli, who may not be the same saint. A church is dedicated to him at Croatia, his feast is observed on 4 June. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Sts.
Quirinus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Bridge of Independent Lists
The Bridge of Independent Lists is a political party in Croatia founded in 2012. The party is led by Božo Petrov, its founder and the former Mayor of Metković and Speaker of the Croatian Parliament from 14 October 2016 to 5 May 2017; the Bridge of Independent Lists was founded in Metković on 17 November 2012 as a regionalist political platform. Božo Petrov was chosen as the first party president. In 2013, the Bridge of Independent Lists participated in the local elections in the town of Metković; the party won 46.25% of votes, 9 out of 17 seats in the City Council. Božo Petrov won 45.78% of the votes and entered the second round of elections for the Mayor against Stipe Gabrić Jambo, incumbent mayor since 1997. In the second round Petrov won with 67.94% of the votes and became the mayor of Metković. At the same election, Bridge of Independent Lists won 9.97% of the vote in county elections and entered the County Assembly of the Dubrovnik-Neretva County. For the 2015 parliamentary election the party went national and was joined by independent local politicians from other parts of the country.
The party campaigned for fiscal responsibility, reduction of government spending and public debt, tax cuts, reforms in the public sector and the reduction of administrative divisions in Croatia. The party supported an expansionary monetary policy and monetary reforms that would include the Croatian National Bank introducing a low interest policy to foster economic growth; the party won 19 seats in the Croatian Parliament and came third behind the ruling centre-left Croatia is Growing coalition, led by the Social Democratic Party of Croatia, the centre-right opposition Patriotic Coalition, led by the Croatian Democratic Union. Four MPs left Most in the aftermath of the election; when the 8th Parliament assembly was formed, Most had 15 MPs. After more than 40 days of negotiations and numerous turnarounds, Most decided to form a government with the Patriotic Coalition, giving them a slim majority of 78 seats, they nominated the Croatian-Canadian businessman Tihomir Orešković to be the next Prime Minister of Croatia.
The government cabinet was formed on 22 January 2016 and party president Božo Petrov was named Deputy Prime Minister, together with HDZ's president Tomislav Karamarko. Along with Petrov, six ministers in the new government were proposed by Most: Interior, Administration, Economy and Environment; the new government was marked by strained relations between Most and the Patriotic Coalition over the INA, Croatia's national oil company, the Ministry of the Interior. Several legislative proposals by the party were rejected by HDZ, including an amendment for reducing benefits of MPS, the adoption of a new waste management plan. In May 2016 Most called for Karamarko's resignation over a conflict of interest, which the latter refused to do. After Orešković requested his resignation, a vote of no confidence in the Prime Minister was initiated by HDZ. Three MPs of Most sided with HDZ and formed their own party. 125 MPs voted in favour, 15 voted against, 2 abstained. Both the HDZ and most of the opposition voted in favour.
Following the collapse of the Orešković government in June 2016, an attempt was made by the Croatian Democratic Union to assemble a parliamentary majority which would support a new government, to be headed by Finance Minister Zdravko Marić. This attempt failed and the main opposition party in Parliament, the Social Democratic Party of Croatia, began to gather signatures for an early dissolution of parliament so elections could be held by the end of the year. Following consultations within Most, its Members of Parliament agreed to sign the opposition's petition for an early dissolution, with the successful parliamentary vote on the issue taking place on 20 June 2016 and taking effect on 15 July 2016. President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović set 11 September 2016 as the date on which elections were to be held. Most contested the early parliamentary election on its own and won 13 seats, a decline of 6 seats compared to the previous parliamentary election; however if post-election changes in the MPs party membership are taken into account following the previous election, Most gained one seat more than it held on the day parliament was dissolved on 15 July 2016.
Following the announcement of parliamentary election results Most chairman Božo Petrov declared that Most would be open to negotiations with either one of the larger parties if they accepted Most's seven conditions. The following is a summary of the party's results in legislative elections for the Croatian parliament. List of political parties in Croatia
Odra is a river in central Croatia. It is 83 km long and its basin covers an area of 604 km2, its source is in southwest of Zagreb. It flows eastwards, passes south of Velika Gorica turns south-east, more or less parallel to the river Sava, it flows into the river Kupa near Odra Sisačka, just northeast of Sisak just before the Kupa joins the river Sava. The upper flow of Odra has been altered by humans, by the digging of the 32 km long canal Sava-Odra south of Zagreb, as a measure against flooding. There are several etymologies suggested for the name "Odra". One is that it comes from the Croatian word "oderati"; the other is that it comes from the Indo-European root *wodr