Sisters of Charity

Many religious communities have the term Sisters of Charity in their name. Some Sisters of Charity communities refer to the Vincentian tradition, or in America to the tradition of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton, but others are unrelated; the rule of Vincent de Paul for the Daughters of Charity has been adopted and adapted by at least sixty founders of religious institutes for sisters around the world. In 1633 Vincent de Paul, a French priest and Louise de Marillac, a widow, established the Company of the Daughters of Charity as a group of women dedicated to serving the "poorest of the poor", they set up soup kitchens, organized community hospitals, established schools and homes for orphaned children, offered job training, taught the young to read and write, improved prison conditions. Louise de Marillac and Vincent de Paul both died in 1660, by this time there were more than forty houses of the Daughters of Charity in France, the sick poor were cared for in their own dwellings in twenty-six parishes in Paris.

The French Revolution shut down all convents, but the society was restored in 1801 and spread to Austria, Hungary, Israel, Turkey and the Americas. In 1809 American Elizabeth Ann Seton, founded the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph's, adapting the rule of the French Daughters of Charity for her Emmitsburg, Maryland community. In 1817, Mother Seton sent three Sisters to New York City to establish an orphanage. In 1829, four Sisters of Charity from Emmitsburg, Maryland traveled to Cincinnati, to open St. Peter’s Girl’s Orphan Asylum and School. In 1850, the Sulpician priests of Baltimore negotiated that the Emmitsburg community be united with the international community based in Paris; the foundations in New York and Cincinnati decided to become independent diocesan congregations. Six separate religious congregations trace their roots to the beginnings of the Sisters of Charity in Emmitsburg. In addition to the original community of Sisters at Emmitsburg, they are based in New York City. In 2011, the Daughters of Charity established The Province of St. Louise, bringing together the West Central, East Central and Northeast Provinces of the United States.

Los Altos Hills in California remains a separate province. Sisters of Charity Federation in the Vincentian-Setonian Tradition: Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de PaulSisters of Charity of New YorkSisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth Sisters of Charity of the Immaculate Conception Les Religieuses de Notre-Dame-du-Sacré-Cœur, Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul Sisters of Saint Martha Sisters of Charity of CincinnatiSisters of Charity of Seton Hill Sisters of Charity of Nazareth Vincentian Sisters of Charity; this was where Catholics believe Sister Catherine Labouré received the vision of Immaculate Mary on the eve of St. Vincent's feastday, 1830 and the dispensation of the Miraculous Medal. Religious Sisters of Charity, founded by Mary Aikenhead in 1815. Sisters of Charity are one of the orders involved in labour abuse. In May 2013 it was announced that the new National Maternity Hospital, Dublin would relocate to the site of St. Vincent's University Hospital, Elm Park, founded in 1834 by Mother Mary Aikenhead, foundress of the Religious Sisters of Charity, with the Sisters having ownership, involvement in management, representation on the board.

This caused protest. On 29 May 2017, in response to weeks of pressure and public outrage, the Sisters of Charity announced that they were ending their role in St Vincent's Healthcare Group and would not be involved in the ownership or management of the new hospital, she is an amazing example because she wanted to get closer to God and help other people get closer to God. Congregation Of The Sisters Of Charity, Heule in ODIS - Online Database for Intermediary Structures

Sébastien Michaëlis

Sébastien Michaelis was a French inquisitor and prior of the Dominican order who lived during the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His Histoire admirable de la possession et conversion d'une penitente, includes a classification of demons which has passed into general use in esoteric literature. Michaelis was vice-inquisitor in Avignon during the 1580s and was involved in a number of witch trials: a series of cases in 1581 and 1582 led to at least fourteen women being convicted and burnt. In 1587 he published a tract on demons called Pneumologie: Discours des esprits. By 1610 he was prior of the Dominican community at Saint-Maxim near Aix-en-Provence. See Aix-en-Provence possessions In 1610 Michaelis became involved in a case of demonic possession at the Ursuline convent at Aix-en-Provence; this began when Sebastian Amira Jean-Baptiste Romillon diagnosed one of the nuns, a young girl of noble birth from Marseilles named Madeleine Demandols de la Palud, as possessed. Madeleine made accusations against her confessor, Father Louis Gaufridy, priest of the parish of the Acoules in Marseilles.

She claimed that Gaufridy had sexually enchanted her and inducted her into witchcraft, causing her body to be invaded by demons which would leave only when the priest was converted, dead, or punished. She claimed her principal demonic occupant to be Beelzebub. Unable to exorcise her, Romillon referred the case to the papal territory of Avignon and the jurisdiction of Michaelis. Another Dominican, Francois Doncieux, served as fellow chief investigator alongside Michaelis. Other nuns soon confessed to similar possessions, the demons in many cases prompting them to sermonize at length. One nun, Louise Capeau Amira claimed to speak with the voice of a demon named Verin and on 27 December 1610 announced the coming of the Apocalypse. Beelzebub, speaking through Madeleine Demandols, maintained there to be a total of 6,660 devils involved in the possession. Gaufridy was examined for the "devil's mark" by Jacques Fontaine, professor of medicine at the University of Aix, when in early 1611 the required marks were found the priest was arrested under orders from the Parlement of Aix.

He confessed while in prison, on 11 April 1611 he was publicly tortured and burnt at Aix-en-Provence. Michaelis and Doncieux co-authored a report on the case, Histoire admirable de la possession d'une penitente, dedicated to Queen Regent Marie de' Medici; the book contains a detailed hierarchy of devils named by the nuns. The Gaufridy affair aroused great public interest, an English translation of Michaelis's work, The Admirable History of Possession and Conversion of a Penitent Woman: Seduced by a Magician that Made Her to Become a Witch, was published in 1613 by William Aspley. In the same year, Michaelis became vicar-general of the Dominican order and founded its new Paris community; the nineteenth-century historian Jules Michelet included an account of the Aix case in La Sorcière, known in English as Satanism and Witchcraft. In that book, Gaufridy is referred to as "Gauffridi," and Doncieux as "Doctor Dompt, from Louvain." Michelet's version appears to have served as a source for many subsequent accounts.

Loudun possessions Louviers possessions Opera: Demandolx Clark, Stuart. Thinking With Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Oxford University Press. Pearl, Jonathan L.. The Crime of Crimes: Demonology and Politics in France, 1560-620. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Pearl, Jonathan L.. "French Catholic Demonologists and Their Enemies in the Late Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries". Church History. Church History, Vol. 52, No. 4. 52: 457–467. Doi:10.2307/3165566. JSTOR 3165566

France–New Zealand relations

France–New Zealand relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and France. Relations between France and New Zealand have been rocky at times, but more become much closer. Bilateral relations have been good since World War I and World War II, with both countries working during the conflicts, but the relationship was jeopardised by the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland on 10 July 1985 by French Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure agents. Relations between the two nations had been strained earlier, in 1973 the New Zealand government suspended for a time postal relations with France. Following the French attack on the Rainbow Warrior, France demanded New Zealand release the agents captured after the attack. To enforce their demand, the French Government put New Zealand under fierce economic strain. Since there has been animosity among New Zealanders towards the French, though there has been thawing as the events receed into history; the New Zealand Prime Minister's official visit to France in 2003 opened a new chapter in bilateral relations, moving on from the past and focussing in rekindling both countries' ties in the South Pacific.

With the exception of the transport of nuclear material, major political objectives are being worked-towards within the South Pacific. While the New Zealand Government seeks closer dialogue and cooperation for political and financial reasons, France wishes to encourage the integration of the communities of the Pacific into the New Zealand regional environment. Relations between France and New Zealand were strained for two short periods in the 1980s and 1990s over the French nuclear tests at Moruroa and the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland harbour; the latter was regarded as an act of state terrorism against New Zealand's sovereignty and was ordered by French President François Mitterrand, although he denied any involvement at the time. These events worked to strengthen New Zealand's resolve to retain its anti-nuclear policy, but relations had been cordial in the decades prior to the Rainbow Warrior incident, epitomised by New Zealand's swift reaction in both World Wars, siding both times with allied forces.

The New Zealand government entered into the war without hesitation, despite its geographic isolation and small population. In France, the New Zealand Division participated in the Battle of the Somme, where they advanced three kilometres and captured eight kilometres of enemy front line. 7,048 had become casualties. In June 1917, the New Zealand Division further distinguished itself in the storming of Messines ridge and the capture of the village of Messines. During the fighting at Passchendaele in the following October, however, it was bloodily repulsed in its second attack, with 850 dead in exchange for no more than 500 yards of ground gained; this was the first time the division had failed in a major operation and remains the worst disaster in New Zealand's history in terms of lives lost in a single day. New Zealand entered the Second World War by declaring war on Nazi Germany at 9.30 pm 3 September 1939. Diplomatically, New Zealand had expressed vocal opposition to fascism in Europe and to the appeasement of Fascist dictatorships.

New Zealand participated in many European campaigns, including the Battle of Greece and the Battle of Crete and in the Italian Campaign, Royal New Zealand Air Force personnel took part in fighting in France during 1940 and 1944. The New Zealand–France Maritime Delimitation Agreement was signed on 30 June 2003; as a boundary delimitation agreement, it established the maritime boundary between Tokelau and Wallis and Futuna. The FRANZ agreement was signed on 22 December 1992 by dignitaries of France, Australia & New Zealand, it commits its signatories to "exchange information to ensure the best use of their assets and other resources for relief operations after cyclones and other natural disasters in the region". While cyclones remain the chief natural disaster across the South Pacific, FRANZ has in practice been an effective system against the wide range of disasters experienced in the region; the FRANZ Agreement applies to South Pacific and includes Australia, the Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Vanuatu and Futuna, others decided on a case by case basis.

In the wake of the Christchurch mosque shootings on 15 March 2019, New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and French President Emmanuel Macron co-hosted the Christchurch Call to Action Summit in May 2019, which pledged to counter violent extremism on the Internet. Codenamed Operation Satanic, the Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior took place in New Zealand's Auckland Harbour on 10 July 1985, it was an attack carried out by French DGSE agents aimed at sinking the flagship craft of the Greenpeace Organization to stop her from interfering in a nuclear test by the French Government at Mururoa Atoll in the South Pacific. Greenpeace was opposed to testing and had planned to lead a flotilla of yachts to the atoll to protest against the test, including an illegal incursion into French military zones; the incident occurred late at night when two agents Captain Dominique Prieur and Commander Alain Mafart attached two Limpet mines to the hull of the ship and detonated them 10 minutes apart. The attack resulted in the death of Greenpeace photographer Fernando Pereira and lead to a huge uproar over the first attack on New Zealand Sovereignty.

The act sparked one of the most intense police investigations in New Zealand history and led to the capture of both Mafart and Prieur passing themselves off as "Sophie and Alain Turenge." Bo