Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
North Sydney, New South Wales
North Sydney is a suburb and major district on the Lower North Shore of Sydney, Australia. North Sydney is located 3 kilometres north of the Sydney central business district and is the administrative centre for the local government area of North Sydney Council. Aborigines on the southern side of Port Jackson called the north side warung which meant the other side, while those on the northern side used the same name to describe the southern side; the first name used by European settlers was Hunterhill, named after a property owned by Thomas Muir of Huntershill, a Scottish political reformer. He purchased land in 1794 near the location of north pylon of the Sydney Harbour Bridge is now located, built a house which he named after his childhood home; this area north to Gore Hill became known as St Leonards. The township of St Leonards was laid out in 1836 in what is now North Sydney, bounded by what is now Miller, Walker and Berry Streets. By 1846 there were 106 houses here and by 1859, the commercial centre had extended from Milsons Point to Miller Street.
A bus service operated by Jeremiah Wall ran between Milsons Point and North Sydney Shops, North Sydney thus developed its own identity. The North Sydney municipality was incorporated in 1890 and after naming disputes, North Sydney was settled upon; the post office which opened in 1854 as St Leonards was changed to North Sydney in 1890. The first public school which opened in 1874 as St Leonards was renamed North Sydney in 1910. North Sydney underwent a dramatic transformation into a commercial hub in 1971–72. In this period no less than 27 skyscrapers were built; the history of the North Sydney tramway system can be divided into three periods – the first from the original opening in 1886 to 1909, when the McMahons Point line opened. The second period covers the time until the Wynyard line was opened across the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932, the third until construction of the Cahill Expressway on the eastern side of Sydney Harbour Bridge and the wider closure of the system in 1962; the first part of the North Sydney tramway system was a double-track cable tramway which commenced at the original Milsons Point Ferry wharf, located where the north pylon of the Harbour Bridge is now.
The line extended via Alfred St, Junction St, Blue St and Miller Sts to the engine house and depot in Ridge St. It used. A feature of these lines was the underground tram terminus at Wynyard railway station, the tracks over the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Trams ran from Blue St, North Sydney over a now-demolished steel arch bridge over the Harbour Bridge Roadway over the eastern side of the harbour bridge, through a tram platform at Milsons Point railway station, before descending underground into platforms 1 and 2 of Wynyard station. North Sydney has a number of heritage-listed sites, including those listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register: 36 Blue Street: Former North Sydney Technical High School 20 Edward Street: Graythwaite Falcon Street: North Sydney Sewer Vent 283a Miller Street: St Leonards Park 6 Napier Street: Don Bank 92-94 Pacific Highway: North Sydney Post Office 44 Union Street: KailoaThe following buildings are heritage-listed on other heritage registers: Chinese Christian Church, Alfred Street Christ Church and Lavender Streets Church of England Rectory, Lavender Street Houses: 11–37 Walker Street and 20–30 Walker Street Mercedes, 9 Walker Street St Francis Xavier's War Memorial Church, Mackenzie Street St Francis Xavier's Presbytery, Mackenzie Street St Francis Xavier's Church School Hall, Mackenzie Street St Peter's Presbyterian Church and Manse, Blues Point Road St Thomas's Church of England and Church Streets St Thomas's Kindergarten Hall, Church and McLaren Streets St Thomas's Church Rectory, McLaren Street Woodstock, Pacific Highway The commercial district of North Sydney includes the second largest concentration of office buildings in New South Wales, with a large representation from the advertising and information technology industries.
Advertising, marketing businesses and associated trades such as printing have traditionally dominated the business life of the area though these have been supplanted to a certain extent by information technology businesses. Corporations whose offices are in North Sydney include, Cisco Systems, Vocus Communications, NBN Co, Sun Microsystems, AGL, Hyundai, AAMI, Symantec, Nando's, Vodafone NAB and until October 2007, Optus. Unlike other major suburban hubs within the Sydney metropolitan area, North Sydney has limited shopping facilities and no Sunday trading. There are four supermarkets; the main shopping complex is the Greenwood Plaza, connected to North Sydney station. Berry Square is another shopping centre in Berry Street known as North Sydney Shopping World. According to the 2016 census, there were 7,705 residents in North Sydney. 48.1% of residents were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were England 5.5%, India 4.3%, China 3.6%, New Zealand 3.2% and United States 1.9%. 63.6% of residents spoke only English at home.
Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 4.1%, Cantonese 2.9%, Hindi 2.0%, Spanish 1.7% and Japanese 1.7%. The most common responses for religion in North Sydney were No Religion 36.7% and Catholic 21.4%. North Sydney is directly linked to the Sydney CBD by rail across the Sydney Harbour Bridge. North Sydney railway station is on the North Shore, Northern & Western Line of the Sydney Trains network. Bus services by State Transit are present in Blue Street, connecting train and bus services towards North S
Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years. During his pontificate, Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council, which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States. Europe, including the Italian peninsula, was in the midst of considerable political ferment when the bishop of Imola, Giovanni Maria Cardinal Mastai-Ferretti, was elected pope, he took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the long-suffering prisoner of Napoleon, Pius VII. He had been elected by the faction of cardinals sympathetic to the political liberalization coursing across Europe, his initial governance of the Papal States gives evidence of his own moderate sympathies. A series of terrorist acts sponsored by Italian liberals and nationalists, which included the assassination of his Minister of the Interior, Pellegrino Rossi, which forced Pius himself to flee Rome in 1848, along with widespread revolutions in Europe, led to his growing skepticism towards the liberal, nationalist agenda.
Through the 1850s and 1860s, Italian nationalists made military gains against the Papal States, which culminated in the seizure of the city of Rome in 1870 and the dissolution of the Papal States. Thereafter, Pius IX refused to accept the Law of Guarantees from the Italian government, which would have made the Holy See dependent on legislation that the Italian parliament could modify at any time. Pius refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican", his ecclesiastical policies towards other countries, such as Russia, Germany or France, were not always successful, owing in part to changing secular institutions and internal developments within these countries. However, concordats were concluded with numerous states such as Austria-Hungary, Spain, Tuscany, Venezuela, Honduras, El Salvador, Haiti. Pius was a Marian pope. In 1854, he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, articulating a long-held Catholic belief that Mary, the Mother of God, was conceived without original sin.
He conferred the title Our Mother of Perpetual Help on a famous Byzantine icon from Crete entrusted to the Redemptorists. In 1862, he convened 300 bishops to the Vatican for the canonization of Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan, his 1864 Syllabus of Errors stands as a strong condemnation against liberalism, moral relativism and separation of church and state. Pius definitively reaffirmed Catholic teaching in favor of the establishment of the Catholic faith as the state religion in nations where the majority of the population is Catholic. However, his most important legacy is the First Vatican Council, convened in 1869, which defined the dogma of papal infallibility, but was interrupted as Italian nationalist troops threatened Rome; the council is considered to have contributed to a centralization of the church in the Vatican, while clearly defining the Pope's doctrinal authority. Many recent ecclesiastical historians and journalists question his approaches, his appeal for public worldwide support of the Holy See after he became "the prisoner of the Vatican" resulted in the revival and spread to the whole Catholic Church of Peter's Pence, used today to enable the Pope "to respond to those who are suffering as a result of war, natural disaster, disease".
After his death in 1878, his canonization process was opened on 11 February 1907 by Pope Pius X, it drew considerable controversy over the years. It was closed on several occasions during the pontificates of Pope Benedict XV and Pope Pius XI. Pope Pius XII re-opened the cause on 7 December 1954, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him Venerable on 6 July 1985, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 after the recognition of a miracle. Pius IX was assigned the liturgical feast day of the date of his death. Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti was born on 13 May 1792 in Senigallia, he was the ninth child born into the noble family of Girolamo dei conti Ferretti, was baptized on the same day of his birth with the name of Giovanni Maria Giambattista Pietro Pellegrino Isidoro. He was educated in Rome; as a young man in the Guardia Nobile the young Count Mastai was engaged to be married to an Irishwoman, Miss Foster, arrangements were made for the wedding to take place in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi. Mastai's parents opposed the marriage and, in the event, he did not appear at the church on the appointed day.
As a theology student in his hometown Sinigaglia, in 1814 he met Pope Pius VII, who had returned from French captivity. In 1815, he was soon dismissed after an epileptic seizure, he threw himself at the feet of Pius VII, who elevated him and supported his continued theological studies. The pope insisted that another priest should assist Mastai during Holy Mass, a stipulation, rescinded, after the seizure attacks became less frequent. Mastai was ordained a priest on 10 April 1819, he worked as the rector of the Tata Giovanni Institute in Rome. Shortly before his death, Pius VII sent him as Auditor to Chile and Peru in 1823 and 1825 to assist the Apostolic Nuncio, Monsignore Giovanni Muzi and Monsignore Bradley Kane, in the first mission to post-revolutionary South America; the mission had the o
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order. Traditionally some plain garb recognisable as a religious habit has been worn by those leading the religious eremitic and anchoritic life, although in their case without conformity to a particular uniform style. In the typical Roman Catholic or Anglican orders, the habit consists of a tunic covered by a scapular and cowl, with a hood for monks or friars and a veil for nuns. Modern habits are sometimes eschewed in favor of a simple business suit. Catholic Canon Law requires only that it be in some way identifiable so that the person may serve as a witness of Gospel values; this requires creativity. For instance in Turkey, a Franciscan might wear street clothes. In many orders, the conclusion of postulancy and the beginning of the novitiate is marked by a ceremony, during which the new novice is accepted clothed in the community's habit by the superior. In some cases the novice's habit will be somewhat different from the customary habit: for instance, in certain orders of women that use the veil, it is common for novices to wear a white veil while professed members wear black, or if the order wears white, the novice wears a grey veil.
Among some Franciscan communities of men, novices wear a sort of overshirt over their tunic. In some orders, different types or levels of profession are indicated by differences in habits. Kāṣāya, "chougu" are the robes of Buddhist nuns, named after a brown or saffron dye. In Sanskrit and Pali, these robes are given the more general term cīvara, which references the robes without regard to color. Buddhist kāṣāya are said to have originated in India as set of robes for the devotees of Gautama Buddha. A notable variant has a pattern reminiscent of an Asian rice field. Original kāṣāya were constructed of discarded fabric; these were stitched together to form three rectangular pieces of cloth, which were fitted over the body in a specific manner. The three main pieces of cloth are the antarvāsa, the uttarāsaṅga, the saṃghāti. Together they form tricīvara; the tricīvara is described more in the Theravāda Vinaya. A robe covering the upper body, it is worn over antarvāsa. In representations of the Buddha, the uttarāsaṅga appears as the uppermost garment, since it is covered by the outer robe, or saṃghāti.
The saṃghāti is an outer robe used for various occasions. It comes over the upper robe, the undergarment. In representations of the Buddha, the saṃghāti is the most visible garment, with the undergarment or uttarāsaṅga protruding at the bottom, it is quite similar in shape to the Greek himation, its shape and folds have been treated in Greek style in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhāra. Other items that may have been worn with the triple robe were: a waist cloth, the kushalaka a buckled belt, the samakaksika In India, variations of the kāṣāya robe distinguished different types of monastics; these represented the different schools that they belonged to, their robes ranged from red and ochre, to blue and black. Between 148 and 170 CE, the Parthian monk An Shigao came to China and translated a work which describes the color of monastic robes utilized in five major Indian Buddhist sects, called Dà Bǐqiū Sānqiān Wēiyí. Another text translated at a date, the Śariputraparipṛcchā, contains a similar passage corroborating this information, but the colors for the Sarvāstivāda and Dharmaguptaka sects are reversed.
In traditions of Tibetan Buddhism, which follow the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya, red robes are regarded as characteristic of the Mūlasarvāstivādins. According to Dudjom Rinpoche from the tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, the robes of ordained Mahāsāṃghika monastics were to be sewn out of more than seven sections, but no more than twenty-three sections; the symbols sewn on the robes were the endless knot and the conch shell, two of the Eight Auspicious Signs in Buddhism. In Chinese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called gāsā. During the early period of Chinese Buddhism, the most common color was red; the color of the robes came to serve as a way to distinguish monastics, just as they did in India. However, the colors of a Chinese Buddhist monastic's robes corresponded to their geographical region rather than to any specific schools. By the maturation of Chinese Buddhism, only the Dharmaguptaka ordination lineage was still in use, therefore the color of robes served no useful purpose as a designation for sects, the way that it had in India.
In Japanese Buddhism, the kāṣāya is called kesa. In Japan, during the Edo and Meiji periods, kesa were sometimes pieced together from robes used in Noh theatre; the Eastern Orthodox Church does not have distinct religious orders such as those in the Catholic Church. The habit is the same throughout the world; the normal monastic color is symbolic of repentance and simplicity. The habits of monks and nuns are identical; the habit is bestowed as the monk or nun advances in the spiritual life. There are three degrees: the beginner, known as the Rassaphore the intermediate, known as the Stavrophore, the Great Schema worn by Great Schema Monks or Nuns. Only the last, the Schemamonk or S
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia and the Americas. A distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, opossums and Tasmanian devils; some lesser-known marsupials are the dunnarts and cuscuses. Marsupials represent the clade originating from the last common ancestor of extant metatherians. Like other mammals in the Metatheria, they give birth to undeveloped young that reside in a pouch located on their mothers’ abdomen for a certain amount of time. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur on the Australian continent; the remaining 100 are found in the Americas — in South America, but thirteen in Central America, one in North America, north of Mexico. The word marsupial comes from the technical term for the abdominal pouch. It, in turn, is borrowed from Latin and from the ancient Greek μάρσιππος mársippos, meaning "pouch".
Marsupials are taxonomically identified as members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia, first described as a family under the order Pollicata by German zoologist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger in his 1811 work Prodromus Systematis Mammalium et Avium. However, James Rennie, author of The Natural History of Monkeys and Lemurs, pointed out that the placement of five different groups of mammals - monkeys, tarsiers, aye-ayes and marsupials - under a single order did not appear to have a strong justification. In 1816, French zoologist George Cuvier classified all marsupials under the order Marsupialia. In 1997, researcher J. A. W. Kirsch and others accorded infraclass rank to Marsupialia. There are two primary divisions: Australian marsupials. Marsupialia is further divided as follows:† - Extinct Superorder Ameridelphia Order Didelphimorphia Family Didelphidae: opossums Order Paucituberculata Family Caenolestidae: shrew opossums Superorder Australidelphia Order Microbiotheria Family Microbiotheriidae: monito del monte Order †Yalkaparidontia Order Dasyuromorphia Family †Thylacinidae: thylacine Family Dasyuridae: antechinuses, dunnarts, Tasmanian devil, relatives Family Myrmecobiidae: numbat Order Notoryctemorphia Family Notoryctidae: marsupial moles Order Peramelemorphia Family Thylacomyidae: bilbies Family †Chaeropodidae: pig-footed bandicoots Family Peramelidae: bandicoots and allies Order Diprotodontia Suborder Vombatiformes Family Vombatidae: wombats Family Phascolarctidae: koalas Family †Diprotodontidae: Giant wombats Family †Palorchestidae: Marsupial tapirs Family †Thylacoleonidae: marsupial lions Suborder Phalangeriformes Family Acrobatidae: feathertail glider and feather-tailed possum Family Burramyidae: pygmy possums Family †Ektopodontidae: sprite possums Family Petauridae: striped possum, Leadbeater's possum, yellow-bellied glider, sugar glider, mahogany glider, squirrel glider Family Phalangeridae: brushtail possums and cuscuses Family Pseudocheiridae: ringtailed possums and relatives Family Tarsipedidae: honey possum Suborder Macropodiformes Family Macropodidae: kangaroos and relatives Family Potoroidae: potoroos, rat kangaroos, bettongs Family Hypsiprymnodontidae: musky rat-kangaroo Comprising over 300 extant species, several attempts have been made to interpret the phylogenetic relationships among the different marsupial orders.
Studies differ on whether Didelphimorphia or Paucituberculata is the sister group to all other marsupials. Though the order Microbiotheria is found in South America, morphological similarities suggest it is related to Australian marsupials. Molecular analyses in 2010 and 2011 identified Microbiotheria as the sister group to all Australian marsupials. However, the relations among the four Australidelphid orders are not as well understood; the cladogram below, depicting the relationships among the various marsupial orders, is based on a 2015 phylogenetic study. DNA evidence supports a South American origin for marsupials, with Australian marsupials arising from a single Gondwanan migration of marsupials from South America to Australia. There are many small arboreal species in each group; the term "opossum" is used to refer to American species, while similar Australian species are properly called "possums". Marsupials have the typical characteristics of mammals—e.g. Mammary glands, three middle ear bones, true hair.
There are, striking differences as well as a number of anatomical features that separate them from Eutherians. In addition to the front pouch, which contains multiple nipples for the protection and sustenance of their young, marsupials have other common structural features. Ossified patellae are absent in most modern marsupials and epipubic bones are present. Marsupials lack a gross communication between the right and left brain hemispheres; the skull has peculiarities in comparison to placental mammals. In general, the skull is small and tight. Holes are located in the front of the orbit; the cheekbone extends further to the rear. The angular extension of the lower jaw is bent toward the center. Another feature is the hard palate which, in contrast to the placental mammals' foramina, always have more openings. The
Cathedral of St Stephen, Brisbane
The Cathedral of St Stephen is the heritage-listed cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Brisbane and seat of its archbishop. The cathedral is located on a site bounded by Elizabeth and Edward Streets, in the Australian city of Brisbane, Queensland. Built between 1864 and 1922, with extensions made in 1989, the cathedral was established with James Quinn as its first bishop. Quinn planned to construct a large cathedral to accommodate a growing congregation. On 26 December 1863, the Feast of St Stephen, Quinn laid the foundation stone for a grand cathedral designed by Benjamin Backhouse. Backhouse's original design was changed and downsized numerous times over the course of the cathedral's completion for economic reasons. St Stephen's is a gothic revival cathedral with a cruciform shape in plan. While this is a plain cathedral by comparison it still has a selection of striking features such as the spire topped sandstone towers, imported stained glass windows from Munich, the organ, the altar and the newer Blessed Sacrament Chapel at the rear of the building.
Of particular note is the stained glass window by Harry Clarke, known as the "Mayne" window, located above the sanctuary on the east wall. The cathedral is made predominantly of Brisbane freestone; the Blessed Sacrament Chapel is made from reinforced concrete and the restored spires from glass reinforced concrete. Inside the cathedral the stained glass windows are vividly illuminated by the sun and cast coloured patterns on the floor and walls; some of them are small with intimate pictures of Christ and his followers, while the great window over the main door stands tall and proud as it depicts Christ's ascension casts its majesty down the length of the great space. The lightweight plaster ceilings arc gracefully overhead. There is a noted contrast between the exterior qualities of space; the interior has a refreshing quality. By the 1980s the cathedral had fallen into a state of disrepair; the interior layout of the building was unsuitable for the new Catholic liturgy. When it became clear that the planned Holy Name Cathedral, the construction of which had never proceeded beyond the completion of its crypt in 1934, would not proceed, it was decided that St Stephen's and its grounds would undergo major refurbishment which would involve preserving the fabric of the building but replacing all furnishings and interior fittings.
As part of the refurbishment the cathedral grounds were enlarged and a carpark was built under the extended east end of the cathedral. The last stage of the cathedral restoration was completed in 2000 when the Jubilee Pipe Organ was installed above the sanctuary. In addition to the cathedral, the site contains numerous buildings that support the cathedral and the Archdiocese of Brisbane. St Stephen's Chapel stands to the south of the cathedral; the chapel was designed by English architect Augustus Pugin and built between 1847 and 1850. The first Mass was celebrated in the completed building on 12 May 1850. In June 1859 it became the cathedral for the first Bishop of Brisbane, it is the oldest Catholic church in Queensland. Old St Stephen's School is a three level building facing Charlotte Street; this building was the location of St Stephen's School until the 1960s. The building now contains offices for the Archdiocese of Brisbane; the Francis Rush Centre was completed in July 2005. The two storey building is the location for the cathedral's administration centre, the offices of the bishops, the choir room and several function and meeting rooms.
A new under cover outdoor liturgical space was constructed as part of this development and facilitates special liturgies such as the Easter Vigil and Palm Sunday. The cathedral has three choirs, which perform in the liturgical-north transept where they are amply and able to be heard from the nave both in liturgical works and in leading and complementing the cathedral's customary vigorous congregational hymn-singing; the current cathedral choir was formed in 1970 and is an all-male choir in the English choral tradition. The choir sings at the 10:00am mass every Sunday except during school holiday periods in June and July and January. In addition to this weekly commitment the choir sings at most major events at the cathedral including Easter and ordinations; the choir has enjoyed high standards throughout its 30-year history during which it has made numerous recordings. The most recent of these was of traditional Christmas carols. In addition to the choir the cathedral has a chamber ensemble called The Schola of the Cathedral of St Stephen.
The group was formed as part of the restructuring of the cathedral's music department in 2000 and is professional. The Schola augments the cathedral choir at major events. Both the cathedral choir and The Schola are conducted by Ralph Morton, the cathedral's organist and director of music; the cathedral has a community choir of 20 voices called St Stephen's Chorale. The chorale sings at the noon Mass once a month; the chorale is conducted by Gregory Mayer. Cathedral website
Quorn, South Australia
Quorn is a township and railhead in the Flinders Ranges in the north of South Australia, 39 km northeast of Port Augusta. At the 2016 census, the locality had a population of 1,230. Quorn is the home of the Flinders Ranges Council local government area, it is in the federal Division of Grey. The town was surveyed by Godfrey Walsh in 1878 and named after Quorndon in Leicestershire, United Kingdom, as part of the preparations for building the railway line from Port Augusta northwards; the railway line from Port Augusta to Quorn opened in 1879 and was subsequently extended north to Government Gums in 1882, Marree in 1884, Oodnadatta in 1890 and Alice Springs in 1929. This railway line became known as the Great Northern Railway and the Central Australia Railway. In 1917, Quorn became the crossroads of any north–south or east–west travel in Australia, when the Trans-Australian Railway was completed between Port Augusta and Kalgoorlie; this made Quorn an important town, given that any person travelling east–west or north–south in Australia would need to pass through Quorn.
As a result, many fine buildings were built as the town expanded. Quorn's role as a crossroads was lost when a standard gauge railway connection was opened between Port Pirie Junction and Port Augusta in 1937, meaning east–west trains bypassed Quorn. However, during World War II, Quorn was a vital service point for trains heading north to Alice Springs and carried over 1,000,000 troops heading to Darwin and on to Papua New Guinea. Trains services through Quorn peaked at over 50 per day during and after the period of World War II. Services during this time included coal mined at Leigh Creek being moved to the newly opened Playford A Power Station in Port Augusta. During the 1950s a new standard gauge line was built that passed on the western side of The Dutchmans Stern, Mount Arden and Mount Eyre, from Stirling North to Brachina and roughly following the original narrow gauge route through Leigh Creek and to Marree, thus bypassing Quorn; this bypass took away the last railway traffic through the Pichi Richi Pass, the last major freight traffic through Quorn.
The only services left operating through Quorn were freight between Hawker. As a result, Quorn's importance diminished and in 1980s the railway was closed as the last freight was moved to road transport. One unusual aspect of the railway working from Peterborough to Quorn and on to Hawker was the need for the engine to be turned and attached to the opposite end of the train when arriving at Quorn, as it was not a "through" station for the trip from Peterborough to Hawker. In 1973, a group of railway enthusiasts assembled with the desire to preserve the unique bridges and stone work built in the previous century that formed the railway through the Pichi Richi Pass between Quorn and Stirling North, thus the Pichi Richi Railway Preservation Society was formed. Although the intention was to just preserve the railway through the Pichi Richi Pass, they acquired operable railway rollingstock and locomotives and today provide a tourist railway service through the Pichi Richi Pass from Quorn to Port Augusta.
There is at least one book by preservationists showing the line in its heyday. Quorn has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Arden Vale Road: Mt Arden Station 37 First Street: Savings Bank of South Australia, Quorn 45-47 First Street: Foster's Store Quorn-Port Augusta Road: Woolshed Flat Railway Bridge Railway Terrace: Catholic Church of the Immaculate Conception, Quorn Railway Terrace: Quorn railway station 20 Railway Terrace: Quorn Institute 2 Railway Terrace: Dunn's Flour Mill 6 Railway Terrace: Bank of Adelaide, Quorn 11 Railway Terrace: National Bank, Quorn 14-15 Railway Terrace: Transcontinental Hotel, Quorn 16 Railway Terrace Austral Hotel, Quorn 17 Railway Terrace: Bruse's Hall 18 Railway Terrace: Criterion Hotel, Quorn 19 Railway Terrace: Quorn Courthouse 20 Railway Terrace: Quorn Town Hall 25 Railway Terrace: Grand Junction Hotel 15 Seventh Street: St Matthew's Anglican Church, Quorn A main attraction in Quorn is the Pichi Richi Railway. There are a self-guided walking tours in the town, included several based around the town's historic old buildings, the railway yards and other historic locations.
The Flinders Ranges Visitor Information Centre / Pichi Richi Railway in the Quorn railway station provide visitor information, bookings for the railway, accommodation and souvenirs. There are a number of restaurants and cafes in town: at the four hotels on Railway Terrace, Emily's Bistro, Quorn Café, Quandong Café, the Willows Brewery Restaurant, 10 km out of Quorn on the road to Port Augusta; the Heysen Trail and the Mawson Trail, pair of long distance trails dedicated to walking and cycling, pass through town and there are many bushwalks and four-wheel drive tracks. Quorn is home to country music artist Jedd Hughes, was the birthplace of politician Brian Harradine and champion SANFL footballer Fos Williams. Former Australian of the year and AC, CBE, Lowitja O'Donoghue spent a huge portion of her childhood at the Aboriginal mission in Quorn at the Colebrook Children's Home. Quorn is a stopover for many travellers coming via Adelaide to explore the Flinders Ranges; the tourist office on the main street, manned by volunteers every week day, provides free information and trails to safely see the best sites in the Flinders, including Warren Gorge, Kanyaka Station, Proby's Grave and Itali Itali.
Quorn has been the location for several major films, including The Shiralee, Sunday Too Far Away, Wolf Cr