Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition. He had a lasting influence on the development of church music, his work is considered as the culmination of Renaissance polyphony. Palestrina was born in the town of Palestrina, near Rome part of the Papal States. Documents suggest that he first visited Rome in 1537, when he is listed as a chorister at the Santa Maria Maggiore basilica, he studied with Firmin Lebel. He spent most of his career in the city. Palestrina came of age as a musician under the influence of the northern European style of polyphony, which owed its dominance in Italy to two influential Netherlandish composers, Guillaume Dufay and Josquin des Prez, who had spent significant portions of their careers there. Italy itself had yet to produce anyone of comparable skill in polyphony. From 1544 to 1551, Palestrina was the organist of the Cathedral of St. Agapito, the principal church of his native city.
In 1551 Pope Julius III appointed Palestrina maestro di cappella or musical director of the Cappella Giulia, the choir of the chapter of canons at St. Peter's Basilica. Palestrina dedicated to Julius III a book of Masses, it was the first book of Masses by a native composer, since in the Italian states of Palestrina's day, most composers of sacred music were from the Low Countries, Portugal, Italy, or Spain. In fact the book was modeled on one by Cristóbal de Morales: the woodcut in the front is an exact copy of the one from the book by the Spanish composer. During the next decade, Palestrina held positions similar to his Julian Chapel appointment at other chapels and churches in Rome, notably St. John Lateran, St Mary Major. In 1571 he remained at St Peter's for the rest of his life; the decade of the 1570s was difficult for him personally: he lost his brother, two of his sons, his wife in three separate outbreaks of the plague. He seems to have considered becoming a priest at this time, but instead he remarried, this time to a wealthy widow.
This gave him financial independence and he was able to compose prolifically until his death. He died in Rome of pleurisy in 1594; as was usual, Palestrina was buried on the same day he died, in a plain coffin with a lead plate on, inscribed Libera me Domine. A five-part psalm for three choirs was sung at the funeral. Palestrina's funeral was held at St. Peter's, he was buried beneath the floor of the basilica, his tomb was covered by new construction and attempts to locate the site have been unsuccessful. Palestrina left hundreds of compositions, including 105 masses, 68 offertories, at least 140 madrigals and more than 300 motets. In addition, there are at least 72 hymns, 35 magnificats, 11 litanies, four or five sets of lamentations; the Gloria melody from Palestrina's Magnificat Tertii Toni is used today in the resurrection hymn tune, Victory. His attitude toward madrigals was somewhat enigmatic: whereas in the preface to his collection of Canticum canticorum motets he renounced the setting of profane texts, only two years he was back in print with Book II of his secular madrigals.
He published just two collections of madrigals with profane texts, one in 1555 and another in 1586. The other two collections were spiritual madrigals, a genre beloved by the proponents of the Counter-Reformation. Palestrina's masses show, his Missa sine nomine seems to have been attractive to Johann Sebastian Bach, who studied and performed it while writing the Mass in B minor. Most of Palestrina's masses appeared in thirteen volumes printed between 1554 and 1601, the last seven published after his death. One of his most important works, the Missa Papae Marcelli, has been associated with erroneous information involving the Council of Trent. According to this tale, it was composed in order to persuade the Council of Trent that a draconian ban on the polyphonic treatment of text in sacred music was unnecessary. However, more recent scholarship shows that this mass was in fact composed before the cardinals convened to discuss the ban. Historical data indicates that the Council of Trent, as an official body, never banned any church music and failed to make any ruling or official statement on the subject.
These stories originated from the unofficial points-of-view of some Council attendees who discussed their ideas with those not privy to the Council's deliberations. Those opinions and rumors have, over centuries, been transmuted into fictional accounts, put into print, incorrectly taught as historical fact. While Palestrina's compositional motivations are not known, he may have been quite conscious of the need for intelligible text, his characteristic style remained consistent from the 1560s until the end of his life. Roche's hypothesis that Palestrina's dispassionate approach to expressive or emotive texts could have resulted from his having to produce many to order, or from a deliberate decis
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation; the concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is in use for men; the word nun is used for female monastics. Although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable with terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, anchorite, hesychast, or solitary. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place: "Angels are a light for monks, monks are a light for laymen".
Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world. They do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, so not all monasteries are "cloistered"; the level of contact though will vary from community to community. Hermits, on the other hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, nor do they have Rules in the same sense as the Rule of St. Benedict. Rather, Eastern monastics study and draw inspiration from the writings of the Desert Fathers as well as other Church Fathers. Hesychasm is of primary importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Most communities are self-supporting, the monastic’s daily life is divided into three parts: communal worship in the catholicon.
Meals are taken in common in a sizable dining hall known as a trapeza, at elongated refectory tables. Food is simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the spiritual writings of the Holy Fathers; the monastic lifestyle takes a great deal of serious commitment. Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a common way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the monastic comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal with them. For this same reason, bishops are always chosen from the ranks of monks. Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms: anchoritic and the "middle way" between the two, known as the skete. One enters a cenobitic community first, only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced, become a solitary anchorite. However, one is not expected to join a skete or become a solitary. In general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families.
The purpose of the monastic life is union with God, the means is through leaving the world. After tonsure, Orthodox monks and nuns are never permitted to cut their hair; the hair of the head and the beard remain uncut as a symbol of the vows they have taken, reminiscent of the Nazarites from the Old Testament. The tonsure of monks is the token of a consecrated life, symbolizes the cutting off of their self-will; the process of becoming a monk is intentionally slow, as the vows taken are considered to entail a lifelong commitment to God, are not to be entered into lightly. In Orthodox monasticism after completing the novitiate, there are three ranks of monasticism. There is only one monastic habit in the Eastern Church, it is the same for both monks and nuns; each successive grade is given a portion of the habit, the full habit being worn only by those in the highest grade, known for that reason as the "Great Schema", or "Great Habit". The various profession rites are performed by the Abbot, but if the abbot has not been ordained a priest, or if the monastic community is a convent, a hieromonk will perform the service.
The abbot or hieromonk who performs a tonsure must be of at least the rank he is tonsuring into. In other words, only a hieromonk, tonsured into the Great Schema may himself tonsure a Schemamonk. A bishop, may tonsure into any rank, regardless of his own. Novice, lit. "one under obedience"—Those wishing to join a monastery begin their lives as novices. After coming to the monastery and living as a guest for not less than three days, the revered abbot or abbess may bless the candidate to become a novice. There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice, he or she simply
Testament and Death of Moses
The Testament and Death of Moses is a fresco attributed to the Italian Renaissance painters Luca Signorelli and Bartolomeo della Gatta, executed in around 1482 and located in the Sistine Chapel, Rome. On 27 October 1480 a group of Florentine painters left for Rome, where he had been called as part of the reconciliation project between Lorenzo de' Medici, the de facto ruler of Florence, Pope Sixtus IV; the Florentines started to work in the Sistine Chapel as early as the Spring of 1481, along with Pietro Perugino, there. Neither Bartolomeo della Gatta nor Luca Signorelli appear in the official contracts signed between the Papal court and the painters, but they were most among the assistants of Perugino, the general superintendent of the works. Signorelli is mentioned in the Sistine Chapel after his master left in 1482, as the author of the Disputation over Moses' Body on the entrance wall, it has been supposed that Perugino provided at least the layout of the fresco, while its realization, basing on a comment by Giorgio Vasari, had been assigned traditionally to Signorelli.
Studies by art historians such as Mario Salmi, reduced Signorelli's presence in the work, attributed most of the painting to Bartolomeo della Gatta, a painter influenced by the purity of Piero della Francesca and the early Perugino. The theme of the decoration was a parallel between the Stories of Moses and those of Christ, as a sign of continuity between the Old and the New Testament. A continuity between the divine law of the Tables and the message of Jesus, who, in turn, chose Peter as his successor: this would result in a legitimation of the latter's successors, the popes of Rome; the fresco portrays the last episode in Moses' life, in two sectors: a foreground one including two scenes, a background one, with three further scenes and, on the right, a landscape. Moses is always recognizable through his yellow garments and the green cloak, as in the rest of the cycle; the artist made an extensive use of gold painting. On the background Moses, on the Mount Nebo, receives by an angel the command baton, which gives him the authority to lead the Israelites towards the Promised Land.
Below, Moses descends from the mountain with the baton in his hand to Cosimo Rosselli's Descent from Mount Sinai nearby. In the foreground, on the right, is a 120-year-old Moses speaking at the crowd while holding the baton and a Holy Book: rays of light stem from his head. At his feet is the Ark of the Covenant, opened to show the Twelve Tables and the vase of the Manna. In the center, the procession includes a woman holding a child on her shoulders, wearing silk, an elegant youth portrayed from behind and a naked man sitting; the latter two characters are attributed to Luca Signorelli, as well as the man with a stick next the throne of Moses. On the left is the appointment of Joshua as Moses' successor. On the left background, is the corpse of Moses on a shroud, surrounded by the dismayed Israelites. Paolucci, Antonio. "Luca Signorelli". I pittori del Rinascimento. Florence: Scala. De Vecchi, Pierluigi. I tempi dell'arte, volume 2. Milan: Bompiani. ISBN 88-451-7212-0
Salesians of Don Bosco
The Salesians of Don Bosco is a Roman Catholic Latin Rite religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Italian priest Saint John Bosco to help poor children during the Industrial Revolution. The Salesians' charter describes the society's mission as "the Christian perfection of its associates obtained by the exercise of spiritual and corporal works of charity towards the young the poor, the education of boys to the priesthood"; the institute is named after an early-modern bishop from Geneva. In 1845 Don John Bosco opened a night school for boys in Valdocco, now part of the municipality of Turin in Italy. In the following years, he opened several more schools, in 1857 drew up a set of rules for his helpers, which became the Rule of the Society of St. Francis de Sales, which Pope Pius IX approved definitively in 1873; the Society grew with houses established in France and Argentina within a year of the Society's formal recognition. Its official print organ, the Salesian Bulletin, was first published in 1877.
Over the next decade the Salesians expanded into Austria, Britain and several countries in South America. The death of Don Bosco in 1888 did not slow the Society's growth. By 1911 the Salesians were established throughout the world, including Colombia, India, South Africa, Tunisia and the United States; the Society continues to operate worldwide. The Salesian Coat of Arms was designed by Professor Boidi, it was published for the first time in a circular letter of Don Bosco on 8 December 1885. It consist of a shining star, the large anchor, the heart on fire to symbolize the theological virtues of Faith and Charity; the figure of St. Francis de Sales recalls the Patron of the Society; the small wood in the lower part refers to the Founder of the society. The motto Da mihi animas, caetera tolle meaning "Give me souls, Take away the rest" is featured at the bottom; the logo of the Salesians of Don Bosco is made up of two superimposed images: in the background a stylised “S” in white is formed within a sphere like a globe, marked to the right and left by two cuttings between the hills/dunes.
The second image is in the centre of the globe bridging the “S” road. This is an arrow pointing upwards, resting on three perpendicular legs on top of which are three closed circles, making a stylised image of three people: the first of these in the middle and taller than the others is the point of the arrow, the other two beside it appear as it were to be embraced by the central figure; the three stylised figures with the arrow pointing upwards can be viewed as a simple dwelling with a sloping roof and with pillars holding it up. The logo contains elements from Brazilian provinces, it is designed with the central theme "Don Bosco and the Salesians walking with the young through the world." Don Bosco, the Salesian and young people: Three stylized figures represent St John Bosco reaching out to the young, his call for Salesians to continue his work The Salesian charism and the preventive system: The road represents an educational journey for the youth, the house represents Bosco's Oratories of Reason and Kindness.
The Salesian charism and worldwide: The background is a stylized heart, reminiscent of a globe. Color composition of the logo is: - Foreground: Cyan 6%, magenta 100%, yellow 82%, black 0%. - Background: Magenta 22%, Yellow 44% The new logo is the result of combining two logos established for years in some parts of the Congregation: the German logo and the Brazilian logo. The idea of combining the two came out of suggestions from an enquiry about the new logo conducted throughout the Congregation and from contributions by the General Council; the combination, besides profiting from the mutual enrichment of the elements, is intended to be an expression of communion and of intercultural dialogue. The artistic work of combining the two was carried out by the designer Fabrizio Emigli, from the Litos Company, in Rome; the Salesians of Don Bosco are headed by the society's general council. These officers serve six-year terms; each local Salesian community is headed by a superior, called a Rector, appointed to a three-year term and can be renewed for a second three-year term.
The current Rector Major of the Salesians of Don Bosco is the Very Reverend Father Ángel Fernández Artime. Father Artime, a Spaniard who most served as provincial in southern Argentina, was elected on 25 March 2014. Fr. Fernandez was born in Gozon-Luanco in Spain in 1960, made his first profession in 1978, he took perpetual profession in 1984, was ordained a priest in 1987. He holds a doctorate in pastoral theology, a licentiate in philosophy and pedagogy, he has served the congregation as director of the school at Ourense. He was a member of the provincial council of Leon serving as vice provincial, provincial from 2000 to 2006. In 2009, he was appointed Salesian provincial for southern Argentina, a post he hel
Pope Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378. He was the most recent French pope. In 1377, Gregory XI returned the Papal court to Rome, ending nearly 70 years of papal residency in Avignon, France, his death shortly after was followed by the Western Schism. He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort in Maumont in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, around 1330; the nephew of Pope Clement VI, he succeeded Pope Urban V at the papal conclave of 1370 and was the seventh and last of the Avignon Popes. During his pontificate, vigorous measures were taken against proponents of Lollardy, which had found acceptance in Germany and other parts of Europe. Efforts were made to reform corrupt practices in the various monastic orders, such as collecting fees from persons visiting holy sites and the exhibiting of faux relics of saints. Gregory confirmed a treaty between Sicily and Naples at Villeneuve-lès-Avignon on 20 August 1372, which brought about a permanent settlement between the rival kingdoms, which were both papal fiefs.
John Wycliffe's 19 reformation articles on church-related items as he wrote in his On Civil Dominion and 21 proposed reformation articles of Johannes Klenkok's Decadicon that he wrote against the Sachsenspiegel law-book. The Decadicon was submitted to Pope Gregory XI in the early part of the 1370s by French canonist and cardinal of the Curia Pierre de la Vergne. Gregory formally condemned fourteen articles of the Sachsenspiegel in 1374 and nineteen propositions of Wycliffe's On Civil Dominion in 1377, his decision to return to Rome is attributed in part to the incessant pleas and threats of Catherine of Siena. A return had been attempted by Gregory's predecessor, Urban V, but the demands of the Hundred Years' War brought him north of the Alps again, Avignon was still the seat of the Bishop of Rome; the project of returning again to Rome was delayed by a conflict between the pope and Florence, known as the War of the Eight Saints. The pope put Florence under interdict during 1376; the return of the Curia to Rome began on 13 September 1376 and was concluded with the arrival of Gregory XI on 17 January 1377.
Gregory XI did not long survive this trip, dying in Rome on 27 March 1378. He was buried the following day in the church of Santa Maria Nuova. After his death the College of Cardinals was pressured by a Roman mob that broke into the voting chamber to force an Italian pope into the papacy; the Italians chose Urban VI. Soon after being elected, Urban gained the Cardinals' enmity; the cardinals withdrew from Rome to Fondi, where they annulled their election of Urban and elected a French pope, Clement VII, before returning to Avignon in 1378. Subsequently, the Western Schism created by the selection of rival popes forced the people of Europe into a dilemma of papal allegiance; this schism was not resolved until the Council of Constance was called by a group of cardinals. Boldly, the council, in 1417, elected Martin V as their successor; the chaos of the Western Schism thus brought about reforming councils and gave them the power over, elected, replacing the College of Cardinals. List of popes Ameilh, Pierre.
Le voyage de Grégoire XI ramenant la Papauté d'Avignon à Rome, 1376-1377 suivi du texte latin et de la traduction franç. de l'Itinerarium Gragerii XI de Pierre Ameilh.. Florence: Coppini. Hanawalt, G. Barbara; the Middle Ages: An Illustrated History, 1998, Oxford Univ. Press, p. 143 Cairns, E. Earl. Christianity Throughout the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church, 1996, Zondervan, pp. 241 & 248–250. Gherardi, Alessandro. La guerra dei Fiorentini con Papa Gregorio XI detta la guerra degli otto santi memoria compilata sui documenti dell' archivio fiorentino. Firenze: Tipi di Cellini. Jugie, Pierre. La formation intellectuelle du cardinal Pierre Roger de Beaufort, le pape Grégoire XI: nouveau point sur la question. Florence: Sismel. Mirot, Léon. La politique pontificale et le retour du Saint-Siège à Rome en 1376. Paris: É. Bouillon. Ocker, Johannes Klenkok: a friar's life, c. 1310–1374, American Philosophical Society, 1993, ISBN 0-87169-835-8 Thibault, Paul R.. Pope Gregory XI: the failure of tradition.
Lanham MD USA: University Press of America. ISBN 978-0-8191-5463-7
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
A college-preparatory school is a type of secondary school. The term can refer to public, private independent or parochial schools designed to prepare students for higher education. In the United States, there are public and charter college preparatory schools and they can be either parochial or secular. Admission is sometimes based on specific selection criteria academic, but some schools have open enrollment. Fewer than 1% of students enrolled in school in the United States attend an independent, private preparatory school, compared to 9% who attend parochial schools and 88% who attend public schools. Public and charter college preparatory schools are connected to a local school district and draw from the entire district instead of the closest school zone; some offer specialized courses or curricula that prepare students for a specific field of study, while others use the label as a promotional tool without offering programs that differ from a conventional high school. The term "prep school" in the U.
S. is associated with private, elite institutions that have selective admission criteria and high tuition fees. Prep schools can be day schools, boarding schools, or both, may be co-educational or single-sex. Day schools are more common than boarding, since the 1970s co-educational schools are more common than single-sex. Unlike the public schools which are free, they charge tuition; some prep schools are affiliated with a particular religious denomination. Unlike parochial schools, independent preparatory schools are not governed by a religious organization, students are not required to receive instruction in one particular religion. While independent prep schools in the United States are not subject to government oversight or regulation, they are accredited by one of the six regional accreditation agencies for educational institutions. In most parts of Europe, such as Germany, the Netherlands, France and Scandinavia, there are state-funded secondary schools specializing in university-preparatory education.
These go by many names depending on the country but may be called gymnasia, athenaea, a lycee or a liceo, depending on the nation. In France, certain private or public secondary schools offer special post-secondary classes called classes préparatoires, equivalent in level to the first years of university, for students who wish to prepare for the competitive exams for the entrance in the Grandes écoles, prestigious graduate schools. Unlike American prep schools they begin after high-school graduation; the most famous French classes préparatoires are exceptionally intensive and selective, taking only the best students graduating from high schools but not charging fees. As a result, 90% of the students in the scientific classes préparatoires become engineers or scientists. High school graduates that chooses to attend a classe préparatoire have the choice between 3 main curriculums: Science and litterature. To gain admission into engineering or business grandes écoles. A Gymnasium is a particular type of school in Germany and other countries in Europe, with the goal to prepare its pupils to enter a university.
Germany's oldest Gymnasien include Gymnasium Paulinum, Gymnasium Theodorianum and Gymnasium Carolinum. In Italy, there are several kinds of high schools, both public and private, whose curriculum has as a primary aim the preparation for university; these are called "Liceo", plural "Licei". The name comes from "Lyceum", the Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek Λύκειον, the name of a gymnasium in Classical Athens dedicated to Apollo Lyceus; this original Lyceum is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Until 1969, the Liceo Classico was the only secondary education track that allowed a student access to any kind of Italian university, while other secondary education tracks allowed only a restricted access path. There are four main types of Liceo: Liceo Classico, Liceo Scientifico, Liceo Artistico (focusing on artistic subjects as Art History and Drawing and Liceo Linguistico. Other kind of high schools referred to as "technical institutes" offer the possibility to attain university after graduation, although they form students to have some kind of professional prospective after graduation.
In the Netherlands, the official terminology is voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs meaning "preparatory academic education". The vwo is divided into the gymnasium; these are identical in duration and level of education, except that the gymnasium includes Latin and Ancient Greek as compulsory subjects in the first few years, a pupil must include at least one of these classical languages in his final exams. In the Netherlands, education is state funded for both special schools. In the Slovak Republic, gymnázium is one of the school types providing secondary education that leads to the maturita exam, a prerequisite for higher education. Gymnáziums