In Greek mythology Sisyphus or Sisyphos was the king of Ephyra. He was punished for his self-aggrandizing craftiness and deceitfulness by being forced to roll an immense boulder up a hill only for it to roll down every time it neared the top, repeating this action for eternity. Through the classical influence on modern culture, tasks that are both laborious and futile are therefore described as Sisyphean. Linguistics Professor R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a pre-Greek origin and a connection with the root of the word sophos. German mythographer Otto Gruppe thought that the name derived from sisys, in reference to a rain-charm in which goats' skins were used. Sisyphus was the son of the brother of Salmoneus, he married the Pleiad Merope by whom he became the father of Glaucus, Thersander and Porphyrion. Sisyphus was the grandfather of Bellerophon through Glaucus, Minyas, founder of Orchomenus, through Almus. Sisyphus was the founder and first king of Ephyra. King Sisyphus was avaricious and deceitful.
He killed travellers and guests, a violation of xenia, which fell under Zeus's domain. He took pleasure in these killings. Sisyphus and his brother Salmoneus were known to hate each other, Sisyphus consulted the Oracle of Delphi on just how to kill Salmoneus without incurring any severe consequences for himself. From Homer onward, Sisyphus was famed as the craftiest of men, he seduced Salmoneus's daughter Tyro in one of his plots to kill Salmoneus, only for Tyro to slay the children she bore him when she discovered that Sisyphus was planning on using them to dethrone her father. King Sisyphus betrayed one of Zeus's secrets by revealing the whereabouts of Aegina, to her father in return for causing a spring to flow on the Corinthian acropolis. Zeus ordered Death to chain King Sisyphus down below in Tartarus. Sisyphus was curious as to why Charon, whose job it was to guide souls to the Underworld, had not appeared on this occasion. King Sisyphus slyly asked Thanatos to demonstrate; as Thanatos was granting him his wish, Sisyphus seized the opportunity and trapped Thanatos in the chains instead.
Once Thanatos was bound by the strong chains, no one died on Earth. This caused an uproar for Ares, so he intervened; the exasperated Ares turned King Sisyphus over to him. In another version, Hades was chained himself; as long as Hades was tied up, nobody could die. Because of this, sacrifices could not be made to the gods, those that were old and sick were suffering; the gods threatened to make life so miserable for Sisyphus that he would wish he were dead. He had no choice but to release Hades. Before King Sisyphus died, he had told his wife to throw his naked body into the middle of the public square; this caused King Sisyphus to end up on the shores of the river Styx. Complaining to Persephone, goddess of the Underworld, that this was a sign of his wife's disrespect for him, King Sisyphus persuaded her to allow him to return to the upper world. Once back in Ephyra, the spirit of King Sisyphus scolded his wife for not burying his body and giving it a proper funeral; when King Sisyphus refused to return to the Underworld, he was forcibly dragged back there by Hades.
In another version of the myth, Persephone was tricked by Sisyphus that he had been conducted to Tartarus by mistake, so she ordered that he be released. In Philoctetes by Sophocles, there is a reference to the father of Odysseus upon having returned from the dead. Euripides, in Cyclops identifies Sisyphus as Odysseus' father; as a punishment for his trickery, Zeus made King Sisyphus roll a huge boulder endlessly up a steep hill. The maddening nature of the punishment was reserved for King Sisyphus due to his hubristic belief that his cleverness surpassed that of Zeus himself. Zeus accordingly displayed his own cleverness by enchanting the boulder into rolling away from King Sisyphus before he reached the top, which ended up consigning Sisyphus to an eternity of useless efforts and unending frustration, thus it came to pass that interminable activities are sometimes described as Sisyphean. King Sisyphus was a common subject for ancient writers and was depicted by the painter Polygnotus on the walls of the Lesche at Delphi.
According to the solar theory, King Sisyphus is the disk of the sun that rises every day in the east and sinks into the west. Other scholars regard him as a personification of waves rising and falling, or of the treacherous sea; the 1st-century BC Epicurean philosopher Lucretius interprets the myth of Sisyphus as personifying politicians aspiring for political office who are defeated, with the quest for power, in itself an "empty thing", being likened to rolling the boulder up the hill. Friedrich Welcker suggested that he symbolises the vain struggle of man in the pursuit of knowledge, Salomon Reinach that his punishment is based on a picture in which Sisyphus was represented rolling a huge stone Acrocorinthus, symbolic of the labour and skill involved in the building of the Sisypheum. Albert Camus, in his 1942 essay The Myth of Sisyphus, saw Sisyphus as personifying the absurdity of human life, but Camus conclu
Hanzhong is a prefecture-level city in the southwest of Shaanxi province, bordering the provinces of Sichuan to the south and Gansu to the west. Hanzhong is located at the nowadays headwater of the Han River, the largest tributary of the Yangtze River; however some modern historians suggested that the nearby Xihan River, a major tributary of the neighbouring Jialing River to the west drained into the Han River instead, was rerouted by a large earthquake at the Wudu Commandery in 186 BC, possible due to landslide damming. This might explain the city's name, since its location was once the middle point of the ancient Han River; the founder of the Han dynasty, Liu Bang, was once enfeoffed as the king of the Hanzhong region after overthrowing the Qin dynasty. During the Chu-Han contention, Liu Bang shortened his title to the King of Han, used it as the name of his imperial dynasty. In this way, Hanzhong was responsible for the naming of the Han dynasty, hailed as the first golden age in Chinese history, as well as the principal ethnic group who proudly inherited the name from the dynasty's prominence.
Hanzhong city consists of one urban district named Hantai. There are ten surrounding rural counties: and one national economics and technology development zone. In 2013, the population was 3.84 million. The local dialect of Hanzhong is the Chengdu-Chongqing dialect of Southwestern Mandarin. There are few references to Hanzhong before the Qin dynasty's unification of China in 221 BC; the Book of Documents refers to an area called Liangzhou, while Sima Qian's book Records of the Grand Historian speaks of a "Bao state", both of which are believed to refer to the area now called Hanzhong. From 900 BC, the area has been called Nanzheng; the ancient geographical treatise entitled Shui Jing Zhu records that Duke Huan of Zheng, a vassal lord from the Western Zhou dynasty, was slain in a battle with the nomadic Quanrong people, some of the Zheng citizens fled the capital to establish a new settlement to the south, giving rise to the area's name. However, the veracity of this story is controversial. In the Qin dynasty the area was governed as the Hanzhong Commandery, whose seat was in current day Nanzheng County, south of the Hanzhong urban area.
In 207 BC, the Qin dynasty collapsed. Liu Bang, who would become the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, was made lord of Hanzhong, he spent several years there before raising an army to challenge his archrival, Xiang Yu, during the Chu–Han Contention. In 206 BC, after the victory at Gaixia, Liu Bang named his imperial dynasty after his native district, as was customary. However, he chose Hanzhong rather than his birthplace Pei County. Thus, Hanzhong gave its name to the Han dynasty. In the second century AD, the Eastern Han dynasty weakened. Outsiders from the Ba region attacked the Hanzhong area; the Han dynasty lost power. Zhang Lu, supported by followers of a Taoist sect, Way of the Celestial Masters, led an independent theocratic government in Hanzhong. Thirty years after the Battle of Yangping, Zhang Lu surrendered Zanghong to the warlord, Cao Cao. Prior to and during the Three Kingdoms period, Hanzhong was a militarily strategically important site, it is located at a critical point along the route an army would take from the Central Plain to the Sichuan Basin.
At this time, Cao Cao lost control of Hanzhong to Liu Bei, who assumed the title of King of Hanzhong. Ruins and landmarks of the Three Kingdoms era remaining in Hanzhong include the tomb of the Shu Han chancellor Zhuge Liang. Much of this period of Hanzhong's history is retold in the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In Hanzhong, between the end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of the Tang dynasty there was political turmoil. In 784, when the capital, Chang'an was captured, the Emperor Dezong of Tang fled to Hanzhong. During the Northern Song dynasty, Hanzhong became economically wealthy with city tax revenue just behind that of regional capitals such as Kaifeng and Chengdu. In 1331, during the Ming dynasty in the reign of the Hongwu Emperor, extensive renovations were made to Hanzhong's infrastructure; this work brought Zanghong to its present form. The Wanli Emperor installed Zhu Changhao, as king of Hanzhong. Changhao built a luxurious palace in what is now the Children's Park.
The palace's Radiant Glass Wall was demolished during road construction in 1935. Since a 13.6 m section has been rebuilt on the eastern end of Sanpu Street. In 1643, Zhu Changhao fled south to Sichuan ahead of Li Zicheng's rebel army; as he departed, his Hanzhong palace was looted. Qing dynasty historians remembered the empty palace. In December 1949, in the Chinese Civil War, Hanzhong was captured by the People's Liberation Army as the Communist Party of China conquered the Kuomintang; the governance of Zanghong, including the municipal executive, the legislature and the judiciary are located in Hantai District. The offices of the Communist Party of China and the Public Security Bureau are located in Hantai District. In 2013, the Hanzhong regional gross domestic product was 88173 million yuan; the annual gross domestic product per capita was 25769 yuan. The 012 base was established in Hanzhong in the 19
Butthole Surfers is the debut studio EP by American rock band Butthole Surfers, released in July 1983. It is known as Brown Reason to Live and Pee Pee the Sailor. All songs were produced by Butthole Surfers; the album was released on Alternative Tentacles. The center label on vinyl printings invited listeners to play the record at 69 RPM, a joke referencing the famous sex position; the album's back cover features a mildly distorted image of famed Mexican luchador Santo. Kurt Cobain listed the EP in his top fifty albums of all time; the album consists of seven songs that feature distorted guitar with nonsensical intelligible lyrics, alternately sung by lead vocalist Gibby Haynes and guitarist Paul Leary. Haynes plays saxophone and drums on some tracks. Unlike Butthole Surfers albums, no electronic instrumentation is present. Having parted ways with their original drummer, Scott Matthews], shortly before entering the studio, Butthole Surfers used a number of different percussionists on this album.
The last of them, King Coffey, is still with the band to this day. Bassist Bill Jolly was a new addition, joining after original bass player Quinn Matthews quit at the same time as his brother, Scott. Jolly would play on the Surfers' first official live release, Live PCPPEP, their first full-length album, Psychic... Powerless... Another Man's Sac. Though this EP is known as Brown Reason to Live, Butthole Surfers is its official title. Firstly, "Butthole Surfers" were the only words to appear on the front cover of its original release. Furthermore, Latino Buggerveil's 2003 reissue of the EP, together with 1984's Live PCPPEP on a single CD, is titled Butthole Surfers/Live PCPPEP. Most it is listed as Butthole Surfers in the "Discography" section of the band's official website; that said, Brown Reason to Live has a strong claim to title rights, many fans refer to it by that name. The 12-inch vinyl edition was, still is, sold as Brown Reason to Live through original label Alternative Tentacles, but it is unclear if it was released as such.
Though the words "Brown Reason to Live" did not appear on the original album's packaging,'A BROWN REASON FOR LIVING' was etched into the run-out grooves of early pressings of this release and'Brown Reason To Live' was included below the band's name on Alternative Tentacles printings. Latino Buggerveil's reissue of this album is listed as Brown Reason to Live on iTunes; the sessions for Butthole Surfers were made possible by an earlier Butthole Surfers concert at Los Angeles, California's Whisky a Go Go, where they had opened for Dead Kennedys and T. S. O. L; the band gained an early admirer in Dead Kennedys' lead vocalist Jello Biafra, who ran Dead Kennedys' Alternative Tentacles record label. Biafra told the band that, if they got someone to loan them studio time, Alternative Tentacles would reimburse the studio once the album was complete. According to guitarist Paul Leary, the band talked Bob O'Neill, owner of San Antonio, Texas' BOSS Studios, into loaning them the required time. Joe Pugliese, a San Antonio music promoter, recalled that lead singer Gibby Haynes slept at the studio during these sessions.
Mike Taylor, an engineer at BOSS Studios, assisted with the EP's production. Taylor would record and assemble the contents of 1984's Live PCPPEP. All songs produced by Butthole Surfers. "The Shah Sleeps in Lee Harvey's Grave" – 2:09 "Hey" – 2:06 "Something" – 4:36 "Bar-B-Q Pope" – 3:36 "Wichita Cathedral" – 2:22 "Suicide" – 1:24 "The Revenge of Anus Presley" – 2:25 Gibby Haynes - lead vocals, saxophone Paul Leary - guitar, lead vocals Bill Jolly - bass King Coffey - drums Brad Perkins - drums on "The Shah Sleeps in Lee Harvey's Grave" and "The Revenge of Anus Presley" Various musicians - drums
Wajid Ali Khan is a Canadian businessman and politician. Until 2008, he was a member of the House of Commons of Canada, representing the riding of Mississauga—Streetsville as a Conservative Member of Parliament. In March 2018, he was arrested by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and charged with three counts of fraud, three counts of false pretense and one count of uttering a forged document. Khan served as an officer and a pilot in the Pakistan Air Force from 1966 to 1973, he took part in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 as a Shenyang J-6 fighter pilot. He moved to Toronto, Canada, in 1974. Khan entered politics as a member of the Liberal Party, supported Paul Martin for the party leadership in 2003, he was elected with over 50% support in Mississauga—Streetsville in the 2004 federal election, defeating Conservative Nina Tangri by nearly a 20 percentage point margin. Along with Yasmin Ratansi, Khan was the first Muslim Member of Parliament to be elected for the Liberal Party. Khan voted against his government's same-sex marriage bill on June 28, 2005.
Khan was re-elected in the 2006 federal election, defeating Conservative Raminder Gill by an 11% margin. After his reelection, he was appointed Associate Critic for National Defence, more Associate Critic for Treasury Board. Khan supported Joe Volpe in the 2006 Liberal leadership campaign, joined Volpe in throwing his support behind Bob Rae; as a Liberal, Khan voted against the extension of Canada's combat mission in Afghanistan until 2009. When Khan began attending the Ar-Rahman mosque in the summer of 2005, Qayyum Jamal introduced him to the congregation saying that he had come to bring messages from the government, countered that he would like to send the government a message of his own - that Canadian troops in Afghanistan were not doing any good. Khan interrupted Jamal to state that such comments would not be tolerated, before walking out of the mosque angrily. "I took issue with him. I think we have to be vigilant in the Muslim community. We have to watch out for people who are trying to teach disaffected youths that it's the Muslims against the rest, a war of civilizations.
Anyone talking through his hat should be kicked out and reported." Khan referred to the altercation, saying he pushed Jamal aside because he was "speaking nonsense" and referred to him as an "idiot" with "piss-poor" command of the English language. Khan, chastised by Jamal's wife in the past reported Jamal's behaviour to the authorities, leading to his being charged in the as the ringleader of a Toronto terrorism plot, jailed for two years before being found innocent. Macleans reported that "the possibility that a member of Parliament was among those who raised the alarm about Jamal is an intriging twist in the complex story of how police built their case leading to the arrests", he was appointed as special advisor to Prime Minister Stephen Harper for the Middle East and Afghanistan on August 8, 2006. In response to criticisms about providing support for his Conservative political opponents, Khan emphasized the non-partisan nature of his appointment, noting that he sought and received the approval of Liberal leader Bill Graham prior to taking on the responsibility.
Khan was sent to the Middle East on a 16-day trip to prepare a report on conditions there. Early in January 2007, media outlets began reporting speculation that Khan was considering crossing the floor to join the Conservative Party. Liberal leader Stéphane Dion had stated that he would not permit Khan to continue in his role as an advisor to Stephen Harper while sitting as a Liberal MP. On January 5, Khan crossed the floor to the Conservatives. Following his defection to the Tories, there were calls from Khan's former Liberal colleagues for his Middle East report to be made public as promised. Khan's businesses lent nearly $180,000 to the riding association in a two-year period. While loans to riding associations are permissible, the magnitude of the loans from Khan's business was considered unusual. However, Elections Canada ruled. On November 15, 2007, Khan was charged under the Elections Act with overspending by $30,000 in the previous election campaign. Khan, his business, his riding president were charged with election spending unauthorized by his official agent.
On November 23, 2007, he announced that he would withdraw from the Conservative caucus and sit as an Independent MP. On February 3, 2008, Chief Government Whip Jay Hill announced that Khan had concluded the matter with Elections Canada and had been readmitted to the Conservative caucus. In the October 14, 2008 federal election, Khan lost his reelection bid to Liberal candidate Bonnie Crombie by 4,725 votes. In March 2018, Khan and his business partner, Nadeem Imtiaz Ahmed of Mississauga, were arrested and charged by RCMP in an investment fraud scheme; the RCMP Sensitive and International Investigative Section, which focuses on “criminal activity that poses a threat to Canada’s government institutions, public officials, the integrity of the Crown, or that imperils Canada’s political and social integrity,” began an investigation into the matter in early 2015. After a nearly 3-year investigation by the RCMP's financial crimes unit, Khan was charged with three counts of fraud, three counts of false pretense and one count of uttering a
My Wedding and Other Secrets is a 2011 romantic comedy film directed by Roseanne Liang, written by Liang and Angeline Loo, produced by South Pacific Pictures. The film is based on Liang's real-life cross-cultural romance. A Romeo and Juliet story set in Auckland, New Zealand, Emily Chu is the daughter of traditional Chinese parents, whose only wishes are that she marries a good Chinese boy and becomes a doctor, but life seems to have other ideas for Emily, who dreams of becoming a world-famous director and falls in love with a white boy from university, James Harrison. When she and James, two kindred nerd spirits fall clumsily into love they must overcome the expectations of her parents. A Kiwi-Asian, Emily considers herself a banana, but her father Dr Chu has a different perspective, his past threats of disownment on her sister hangs over Emily's head. With their secret marriage, Emily's documentary, James' ultimatum to learn Mandarin or lose Emily, life becomes busy for the young pair. Emily is faced with the difficult decision of having to choose between long-suffering James and her parents who have made countless sacrifices to bring their family to New Zealand.
It seems Emily must learn the hard way that love and family require sacrifice and not everybody can be happy. Significant themes in My Wedding and Other Secrets are those of cultural differences between migrant parents and their native-born children, of filial piety, of love. Roseanne Liang sought to produce My Wedding and Other Secrets titled Girl Meets Boy, a film based on her award-winning 2005 documentary Banana in a Nutshell, entered into negotiations with South Pacific Pictures. Filming for My Wedding and Other Secrets commenced on 14 February 2010 in Auckland. Auckland-based Chinese New Zealander director and playwright Roseanne Liang and Angeline Loo, a friend of Liang's from university days, wrote the script based on her life, for My Wedding and Other Secrets over four years; the character of Emily is based on Roseanne herself. Liang was born in New Zealand and, like her character, was set to attend medical school and become a doctor. Many of the events depicted in the film are based on events that occurred during Liang and Harris' courtship, including Harris' learning basic Mandarin to win over Liang's parents' approval, as part of Chinese pre-wedding customs.
The choice to cast Kenneth Tsang and Cheng Pei-pei, as opposed to Australian Chinese and New Zealand Chinese actors and actresses, was intentional. On this decision, Roseanne Liang said, "What I wanted above all was authenticity", with her adding that, "All of the New Zealand and Australian Chinese actors were Chinese people who had grown up in New Zealand or Australia. I wanted actors who could speak Hong Kong-accented Cantonese as well as Cantonese-accented English". However, middle Chu daughter, Melanie Chu, is portrayed by United Kingdom-based New Zealand Chinese actress Celeste Wong; the following songs are featured in the film: Bic Runga — "Hello, Hello" Bic Runga — "Mama Hao" Bic Runga — "Say After Me" Bic Runga — "This Girl's Prepared for War" Esther Mitchell — "Shining Star" Johnny Barker — "Spiderman's Secret" K Nielson — "The Inhaler Song" Thrill Kill — "The Cad" Xiang Lan Li — "Mei Hua" My Wedding and Other Secrets received positive reviews from major publications in New Zealand.
Peter Calder of the New Zealand Herald gave the film a five-star review, calling it "utterly charming" and the writing "The logical extension of the idea into a feature film has turned out a cracker - a heartfelt and mildly goofy comedy with a strong thread of pathos that tells a story we should all listen to". Christine Powley of the Otago Daily Times gave a five-star review and recommended viewers to "See it with your girlfriends for a nice time sneak back by yourself to enjoy just how well-crafted it is". Richard Kuipers of Variety gave a favourable review, adding "Liang's brisk and breezy direction is complemented by Richard Harling's appropriately simple and effective lensing around Auckland. Snippets of Liang's Super 8 homemovies are delightful. Other technical work is solid on a modest budget". Melbourne International Film Festival 2011 Asian American International Film Festival 2011 - winner Audience Choice award Feel Good Film Festival 2011 Singafest Asian Film Festival 2011 Friars Club Comedy Film Festival 2011 - winner Audience Choice Award Hawaii International Film Festival 2011 China Golden Rooster & Hundred Flowers Festival 2011 San Diego Asian Film Festival 2011 Australia New Zealand Film Festival 2011 Aotearoa Film & Television Awards 2011 – winner Best Screenplay.
Spain has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 59 times since making its debut in 1961, where they finished ninth. Since 1999, Spain has been one of the "Big Five", along with France, Germany and the United Kingdom, who are automatically allowed to participate in the final because they are the five biggest financial contributors to the European Broadcasting Union. Spain has competed in the contest continuously since the country's debut in 1961; the only country with a longer run of uninterrupted Eurovision appearances is the United Kingdom, ever-present since 1959. Spain has won the contest twice, first in 1968 with the song "La, la, la" sung by Massiel and again in 1969, when Salomé's "Vivo cantando" was involved in a four-way tie with France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the 1969 contest in Madrid is the only time Spain has hosted the event, since lots were drawn after 1969's four-way tie and the 1970 contest was hosted by the Netherlands. Spain has finished second in the contest four times, with Karina in 1971, Mocedades in 1973, Betty Missiego in 1979 and Anabel Conde in 1995, third in 1984 with Bravo.
The country finished last with "Nul points" three times: in 1962, 1965 and 1983, finished last in 1999 and 2017. Since 2005, Spain have only twice reached the top 10, with both Pastora Soler and Ruth Lorenzo finishing 10th, have now failed to reach the top 20 in 10 of the last 15 contests, including for five consecutive years; as of 2019, Spain is the current participating country with more years without a victory, with a total of 50 years. Spain has changed the selection process used in order to find the country's entry for the contest, either a national final or internal selection has been held by the broadcaster at the time. Between 1977 and 1999, Spain's entries were selected internally by TVE. Before that, internal selections and national contests, like Pasaporte a Dublín in 1971, were alternated. From 2000, Spain has used various selection formats with different results. In 2000 and 2001, TVE organised a national final called Eurocanción, where the Spanish representative was selected for the contest.
From 2002 to 2004, the reality television talent competition Operación Triunfo was used to select the entry, a format that renewed the Spanish audience's interest in the contest and brought three top 10 results in a row, until TVE decided not to host any further editions of the series. In 2005, the national final Eurovisión 2005: Elige nuestra canción was organised, where the audience chose their favourite song among a pre-selection made by TVE of unknown artists submitted to them by record labels; the result in the Eurovision final was not good and for 2006, the selection was made internally for the first time since 1999, with a similar result. In 2007, Spain's entry was decided through the Misión Eurovisión 2007 show, with a disappointing result once again. From 2008 to 2010, the Internet was the key element of the competitions used by TVE to select the Spanish entry. In 2008, the social networking website MySpace was involved in the national final Salvemos Eurovisión. A website was created to make it possible for anyone to upload a song and proceed to a televised final if chosen by online voters or an expert jury.
The result not much. For 2009, MySpace was still involved in the selection process Eurovisión 2009: El retorno, although some changes were introduced in the format; the result was the worst in the 2000s: 24th place. In 2010, a similar format, Eurovisión: Destino Oslo, selected the Spanish entry, with the best result since 2004. In 2011, Internet voting was scrapped from the new selection method Destino Eurovisión. After a further disappointing result, for 2012, TVE decided to approach an established act, Pastora Soler, organise a national final to select her song. A top ten result was achieved for the first time since 2004; the same procedure was repeated in 2013, with El Sueño de Morfeo as the established act, which turned out one of the most disappointing results in the country's Eurovision history. In 2014, TVE decided to return to a multi-artist national final procedure, called Mira quién va a Eurovisión. A top ten result was achieved for the second time in three years. In 2015, for the first time since 2006, both the artist and the song were selected internally by TVE.
On 18 December 2015, TVE announced that it would organise a national final in order to select the Spanish entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2016. Six acts competed in the national final named Objetivo Eurovisión, Barei won the selection process; the same format was used in 2017, Manel Navarro won the selection process. In 2017, TVE commissioned a new season of Operación Triunfo, which returned to TVE after 13 years, the series served for the fourth time as the platform to select the Spanish entry for the 2018 contest; the result was disappointing, but the 2018 Eurovision final was the most-watched in Spain since 2008. A further season of the talent show chose the Spanish entry for the 2019 contest with another disappointing result. For the 2020 contest, TVE will select the Spanish entry internally. Since 1999, four particular countries have automatically qual