A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest to promote political, social, or economic change. The protestors gather conspicuously in a space or building, refusing to move unless their demands are met; the clearly visible demonstrations are intended to spread awareness among the public, or disrupt the goings-on of the protested organisation. The Fellowship of Reconciliation and the Congress of Racial Equality conducted sit-ins as early as the 1940s. Ernest Calloway refers to Bernice Fisher as "Godmother of the restaurant'sit-in' technique." In August 1939, African-American attorney Samuel Wilbert Tucker organized a sit-in at the then-segregated Alexandria, library. Congress of Industrial Organizations labor delegates had a brief, spontaneous lunch counter sit-in during their 1947 Columbus, Ohio convention. In one of the earliest use of sit-ins against racism, followers of Father Divine and the International Peace Mission Movement joined with the Cafeteria Workers Union, Local 302, in September 1939 to protest racially unfair hiring practices at New York's Shack Sandwich Shops, Inc.
According to the New York Times for September 23, 1939, on Thursday between 75 and 100 followers showed up at the restaurant at Forty-first Street and Lexington Avenue, where most of the strike activity has been concentrated, groups went into the place, purchased five-cent cups of coffee, conducted what might be described as a kind of customers' nickel sit down strike. Other patrons were unable to find seats."In May 1942, James Farmer, Jr. an organizer for the Fellowship of Reconciliation, led a group of 27 people to protest the racially discriminatory no-service policy of the Jack Spratt Diner on 47th Street in Chicago. Each seating area in the diner was taken by groups; the peaceful patrons, several from the campus of the nearby University of Chicago tried to order. The police were called, but when they arrived they told the management that no laws were being broken, so no arrests were made; the diner closed for the night but thereafter, according to periodic checks made by CORE activists, it no longer enforced its discriminatory policy.
With the encouragement of Melvin B. Tolson and Farmer, students from Wiley and Bishop Colleges organized the first sit-in in Texas in the rotunda of the Harrison County Courthouse in Marshall; this sit-in directly challenged the oldest White Citizens Party in Texas and would culminate in the reversal of Jim Crow laws in the state and the desegregation of postgraduate studies in Texas by the Sweatt v. Painter verdict. Sit-ins were an integral part of the nonviolent strategy of civil disobedience and mass protests that led to passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which ended sanctioned racial segregation in the United States and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that struck down many racially motivated barriers used to deny voting rights to non-whites. One of the earliest lunch counter sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement was started by a group of Morgan State College students and the Baltimore chapter of CORE, their goal was to desegregate Read's drug stores. The peaceful impromptu sit-in lasted less than one half an hour and the students were not served.
They left voluntarily and no one was arrested. After losing business from the sit-in and several local protests, two days the Baltimore Afro-American newspaper ran a story featuring Arthur Nattans, Sr. President of Read's, quoted saying, "We will serve all customers throughout our entire stores, including the fountains, this becomes effective immediately"; as a result, 37 Baltimore-area lunch counters became desegregated. At another early sit-in, the "Royal Seven", a group of three women and four men from Durham, North Carolina, sat in at the Royal Ice Cream Parlor on June 23, 1957, to protest practices of segregation; the activists were charged with trespassing. Their efforts are now recognized via historical markers in Durham, they went to court three times. This sit-in for the purpose of integrating segregated establishments began on July 19, 1958, in Wichita, Kansas, at Dockum Drugs, a store in the old Rexall chain. In early August, the drugstore became integrated remainder of Dockum stores in all of Kansas.
A few weeks on August 19, 1958, in Oklahoma City, a nationally recognized sit-in at the Katz Drug Store lunch counter occurred. The Oklahoma City Sit-in Movement was led by NAACP Youth Council leader Clara Luper, a local high school teacher, young local students, including Luper's eight-year-old daughter, who suggested the sit-in be held; the group desegregated the Katz Drug Store lunch counters. It took several more years, but she and the students, using the tactic, integrated all of Oklahoma City's eating establishments. Today, in downtown Wichita, Kansas, a statue depicting a waitress at a counter serving people honors this pioneering sit-in. Following the Oklahoma City sit-ins, the tactic of non-violent student sit-ins spread; the Greensboro sit-ins at a Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, on February 1, 1960, launched a wave of anti-segregation sit-ins across the South and opened a national awareness of the depth of segregation in the nation. Within weeks, sit-in campaigns had begun in nearly a dozen cities targeting Woolworth's and S. H. Kress and other stores of other national chains.
The largest and best-organized of these campaigns were the Nashville sit-ins, whose groundwork was underway. They involved hundreds of participants, led to the successful desegregation of Nashville lunch counters. Most of the participants in the Nashville sit-in
Moodlakatte Institute of Technology, Kundapura is a higher education institute located in Kundapur, India. It was founded by I. M. Jayarama Shetty in the year 2004, it is affiliated to Visveswaraiah Technological University and approved by All India Council for Technical Education. It is situated in about 200 meters from Kundapura railway station. Moodlakatte Institute of Technology is the product of the charitable trust Moodlakatte Nagarathna Bhujanga Shetty Trust, situated in a beautiful natural environment of coastal karnataka, in front of Kundapura Railway Station in a small village called Moodlakatte, it was established in the year 2004. The Institute offers 2 year master's degree programmes. B. E. Degree courses: Computer Science & Engineering Electronics & Communications Engineering Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Electrical & Electronics EngineeringPostgraduate level: MBA - Master of Business Administration MEF - Mechanical Engineers Forum SEA - Sparkling Electrical Association TRICS - Tribunes of Computer Savviers EMINENCE - E & C Association FORCE - Civil Engineering Association Has elegantly built separate secured hostels for both boys and girls in the campus Anjuman Institute of Technology and Management Official website
Richard Lindon was an English leatherworker, instrumental in the development of the modern-day rugby ball by advancing the craft for ball, rubber bladder, air pump. Lindon was born at Clifton-upon-Dunsmore just outside Rugby, England, he set up home and shop at 6/6a Lawrence Sheriff Street, Rugby opposite the front doors of the Quadrangle of the Rugby School; as a boot and shoemaker, Lindon supplied footwear to the townsfolk of Rugby including the teachers and pupils of the school. Balls in those days were more plum-shaped; this was because a pig's bladder was inflated by mouth through the snapped stem of a clay pipe encased in panels of stitched leather. As such, the individual bladder dictated the shape of each ball. By 1849, now aged 33, who had regular supplies of boot leather delivered, found himself bombarded by the boys of Rugby School to manufacture footballs for them. Lindon and his wife worked flat-out producing more balls than shoes. Mrs Rebecca Lindon, besides being the owner of her own employment agency for servants as well as the mother to 17 children, was the official "green" pig's bladder inflator.
Blowing pig's bladders was not without its hazards. If the pig was diseased, it was going into Mrs Lindon's lungs. Mrs Lindon blew on enough infected pig's bladders to fall ill and die. Around 1862 Lindon sought a safer substitute to the pig's bladder and came up with the India rubber bladder as an alternative. India rubber was too tough to inflate by mouth and after seeing an ordinary medical Ear Syringe he produced a larger brass version to blow up his footballs, which he demonstrated, won medals for, at an exhibition in London; this allowed the production of the first round ball, though it still had a button at each end of the ball to hold the stitching together, at the point where the leather panels met. "Buttonless balls" became a prime selling point for manufacturers by the 1880s. The Rugby School boys still wanted an oval ball produced to distinguish their hand and foot game from association football, so Lindon created a bladder design which allowed a more egg-shaped buttonless ball to be manufactured.
This was the first designed four-panel rugby ball and the start of size standardisation. By 1861 Richard Lindon was recognised as the principal Foot-Ball Maker to Rugby School, Oxford and Dublin Universities. Lindon's "Big-Side Match Ball" was recognised as the true rugby ball and was manufactured by both Richard Lindon and subsequently, his son, Hughes John Lindon for 50 years. Lindon did not patent his bladder or his pump. On 10 June 1887, he died in his own home. Richard Lindon & Co. hold the Registered Design for the Original Punt-about ButtonBall. A rugby ball hand stitched to the same standards and texture as the 1850s original is displayed in the museum at Rugby School. Around 1854 at Rugby School, the ball was kicked high in the air, dropped down a disused chimney and was lost behind wooden panels for over a century and a half. A hybrid 7-panel ButtonBall, made before the split between the Rugby Football Union and Football Association, it is the world's oldest known "template" ball, inflated with an India-rubber bladder which revolutionised ball manufacture and allowed the spread of the game throughout the world.
It is the only original known to survive. This Punt-about ButtonBall holds the remains of one of Richard Lindon's India Rubber inflatable bladders and resembles the shape of the earliest plum rugby ball; the "panel and button" design led to the creation the first soccer balls