United States Maritime Commission
The United States Maritime Commission was an independent executive agency of the U. S. federal government, created by the Merchant Marine Act of 1936, passed by Congress on June 29, 1936, replaced the United States Shipping Board which had existed since World War I. It was intended to formulate a merchant shipbuilding program to design and build five hundred modern merchant cargo ships to replace the World War I vintage vessels that comprised the bulk of the United States Merchant Marine, to administer a subsidy system authorized by the Act to offset the cost differential between building in the U. S. and operating ships under the American flag. It formed the United States Maritime Service for the training of seagoing ship's officers to man the new fleet; the purpose of the Maritime Commission was multifold as described in the Merchant Marine Act's Declaration of Policy. The first role was to formulate a merchant shipbuilding program to design and have built over a ten-year period 900 modern fast merchant cargo ships which would replace the World War I-vintage vessels which made up the bulk of the U.
S. Merchant Marine prior to the Act; those ships were intended to be chartered to U. S. shipping companies for their use in the foreign seagoing trades for whom they would be able to offer better and more economical freight services to their clients. The ships were intended to serve as a reserve naval auxiliary force in the event of armed conflict, a duty the U. S. merchant fleet had filled throughout the years since the Revolutionary War. The second role given to the Maritime Commission was to administer a subsidy system authorized by the Act which would offset the differential cost between both building in the U. S. and operating ships under the American flag. Another function given to the Commission involved the formation of the U. S. Maritime Service for the training of seagoing ship's officers to man the new fleet; the actual licensing of officers and seamen still resided with the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation. President Roosevelt nominated Joseph P. Kennedy first head of the Commission.
Kennedy held that position until February 1938 when he left to become US Ambassador to Great Britain. After Kennedy's departure, the chairmanship was assumed by Rear Admiral Emory S. Land, USN, the head of U. S. Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair prior to his appointment to the Commission on the behest of the President and where he had been a deputy commissioner since the founding of the body; the other four members of the Commission in the years before the beginning of World War II were a mix of retired naval officers and men from disciplines of law and business. The man most notable in the group Land brought to the Commission was Commander Howard L. Vickery, USN, like Land, was a naval officer involved in the construction of new Navy vessels. Vickery became responsible for overseeing the Commission's shipbuilding functions including the design and construction of the ships, developing shipyards to build them and companies to manufacture the complicated and specialized ship's machinery.
As World War II drew closer, Vickery was much at the forefront of putting into place the Emergency Shipbuilding Program which man like Henry J. Kaiser were so instrumental in developing into an industry which would perform some of the greatest feats of wartime industrial production previously witnessed and never since matched; as a symbol of the rebirth of the U. S. Merchant Marine and Merchant Shipbuilding under the Merchant Marine Act, the first vessel contracted for was SS America, owned by the United States Line and operated in the passenger liner and cruise service during 1940-1. Upon the U. S. entry into World War II, America was requisitioned by the U. S. became USS West Point. In the prewar years, several dozen other merchant ships were built for the Commission under its original 500 ship Long Range Shipbuilding Program but it wasn't until the late fall of 1940 the critical importance of the Commission to the defense of the lifeline to Great Britain and to the national mobilization for war became apparent when the beginnings of the Emergency Shipbuilding program were laid.
Together, all the Maritime Commission's shipbuilding program became known as Ships for Victory and great pride was taken in it by the many thousands of ordinary citizens went to work in the shipyards and joined the ranks of the shipbuilding workforce. From 1939 through the end of World War II, the Maritime Commission funded and administered the largest and most successful merchant shipbuilding effort in world history, producing thousands of ships, including Liberty ships, Victory ships, others, notably Type C1, Type C2, Type C3, Type C4 freighters and T2 tankers. Most of the C2s and C3s were converted to Navy auxiliaries, notably attack cargo ships, attack transports, escort aircraft carriers and many of the tankers became fleet replenishment oilers; the Commission was tasked with the construction of many hundred "military type" vessels such as Landing Ship, Tank s and Tacoma-class frigates and large troop transports. By the end of the war, U. S. shipyards working under Maritime Commission contracts had built a total of 5,777 oceangoing merchant and naval ships.
In early 1942 both the training and licensing was transferred to the U. S. Coast Guard for administration, but late in the fall of 1942, the Maritime Service was transferred to the newly created War Shipping Administration which itself was created for the purpose of overseeing the operation of the fleet of merchant ships being built by the Emergency Program for the needs of the U. S. Armed Services; the WSA was added to the list of wartime agencies created within the Roosevelt Administration and was intended to relieve t
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans and goods from one location to another. In other words the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A to the Point B. Modes of transport include air, water, cable and space; the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, essential for the development of civilizations. Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations, including roads, airways, waterways and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, trucking terminals, refueling depots and seaports. Terminals may be used both for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, watercraft and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, the procedures set for this purpose, including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Passenger transport may be public. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl. Humans' first means of transport involved walking and swimming; the domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.
The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses, oxen or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry; the medieval Caliphate built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two; the importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible; the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport.
With telegraphy, communication became independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources; the 19th century saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport. With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, mechanical private transport originated; the first "modern" highways were constructed during the 19th century with macadam. Tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, after World War I aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances. After World War II the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.
Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization. International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from the airlines. Early in U. S. history, private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, canals, railroads and tunnels. Most such transport infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. However, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some ground and adherents.
A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a particular type of vehicle and operation. The transport of a person or of cargo may invol
Silversea Cruises is a owned mid-market cruise line with its headquarters in Monaco. Founded in 1994, it pioneered all-inclusive cruising with Silver Cloud. In June 2018, it was announced that Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd, the parent company of Royal Caribbean International, had acquired a 67% controlling stake in the cruise line. Executive control will remain in Monaco. Silversea's co-founders and operators are the Lefebvre family of Rome, Italy, they will remain on the executive board of the cruise line under Royal Caribbean ownership. As of early 2014, the company had eight boutique cruise ships, each of which carries only 100 to 540 passengers. In 2017, Silversea added the larger Silver Muse, for a total of nine all-suite ships. Silversea was founded in 1994 by a joint venture made up of V-Ships of Monaco and the Lefebvre family of Rome; the joint owners had been the co-owners of Sitmar Cruises. Silversea's business model was to operate ships in the small, all-suite, ultra-luxury category....we have a different ship design.
It's larger seaworthy and comfortable for ocean crossings--but small enough to do the things you want a small luxury vessel to do, to get into small islands where big ships can't go, to travel up rivers like the Thames. The new line's all inclusive fares included such features as gratuities, port charges, travel insurance, one or more complimentary shore events in every itinerary; as about 80 percent of Silversea's customers were expected to come from North America, the line established its 170+ employee office in Miami, Florida. Silversea's first ship, Silver Cloud, which entered service in April 1994, was followed in January 1995 by a sister ship, the Silver Wind. In September 2000, the line launched Silver Shadow and Silver Whisper in January 2001. Both of these ships were enlarged versions of the original two ships, but carrying about 100 more passengers. In December 2009, Silversea launched the Silver Spirit. Prince Albert II has since been renamed Silver Explorer to align the names under the Silver theme.
It was announced on 18 June 2012, that Silversea acquired Canodros S. A. the premier Ecuadorian tourism company that operates in the Galapagos Islands. The purchase of the line included the former Renaissance ship Galapagos Explorer II; the vessel will continue on her planned schedule of cruises and will continue to be operated by Canodros, based in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Canodros will continue handling reservations for Galapagos Explorer II, as well as sales and marketing through its established network of travel companies and tour operators, she will be moved into the Silversea Expeditions brand along with Silver Explorer. The Silver Galapagos entered service in September 2013. On 24 July 2013, CNN aired a report of a Silversea cruiseship, Silver Shadow failing a CDC inspection by hiding trolleys of food in crew cabins. On 10 September 2013, Silversea Cruises confirmed that it would be adding a third vessel to the Silversea Expeditions brand, Silver Discoverer sailing as Clipper Odyssey for Zegrahm Expeditions.
Silver Discoverer was christened in Singapore in March 2014 and set sail on her inaugural voyage along Australia's Kimberley Coast on 2 April 2014. Fincantieri delivered the fleet's ninth ship, Silver Muse to Silversea Cruises on 2 April 2017, at its Sestri Ponente shipyard. Silver Muse's debut cruise set sail on 10 April 2017, in the Mediterranean; that same year, Silversea announced an order for Silver Moon, a sister ship to Silver Muse, to be built by Fincantieri and delivered in 2020. The company's representative, Silver Whisper, is scheduled to take a 140-day world cruise in 2020; the ship will depart from Fort Lauderdale, Florida on 6 January 2020. After visiting 62 ports in 32 countries, Silver Whisper will come to Amsterdam on 25 May. In May 2018, Silversea announced an order for Silver Dawn, another sister ship of Silver Muse, to be delivered by Fincantieri in 2021. On 14 June 2018, it was announced that Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. had purchased a majority stake in Silversea for $1 billion.
Following the announcement, Silversea ordered three new ships: two "Evolution Class" vessels to be built by Meyer Werft to be delivered beginning 2022 and one expedition vessel from Shipyard De Hoop to be delivered in March 2020. The company have won a number of awards including being deemed one of "The 120 Most Trusted Brands" 2014 by Entrepreneur Magazine Media related to Silversea Cruises at Wikimedia Commons Silversea Cruises – official site
TSS Fairstar was a popular Australian based cruise ship operating out of Sydney for 22 years. Completed in 1957 as the British troopship Oxfordshire, was converted to become the Fairstar in 1964 for immigrant voyages and from December 1974 was permanently engaged in cruising. In the early 1950s, the British War Office still required the transportation of troops to and from garrisons in many parts of the Empire; the Ministry of Transport had contracts with several shipping lines to transport the officers and their families. One particular shipping company, The Bibby Line, had a long history of transporting troops. In 1953, Bibby Line was made an attractive offer by the British Government to build a new vessel for troop transport. A simultaneous arrangement was made with the British-India Steam Navigation Company for an identical vessel, which would become Nevasa; these new ships would become the largest and last British vessels built for trooping. It was intended that the pair would take up twenty-year charters from the British Government, to secure their employment.
Bibby Line sold the original 1912 Oxfordshire and plans for the new ship proceeded with the ship to be built at the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Glasgow. The keel of the new vessel was laid down with 8,396 tons of steel assigned for the construction. On 15 December 1955 the Oxfordshire was launched by Lady Dorothea Head, wife of the Minister for War, Lord Head. Fitting out of the ship took over a year, with her sea trials commencing on 29 January 1957; the Oxfordshire was handed over to the Bibby Line on 14 February 1957 when she steamed towards Liverpool to commence her trooping role. On 28 February 1957 Oxfordshire left Liverpool on her maiden voyage under the command of Captain Norman Fitch, bound for Hong Kong via Cape Town; the vessel had the capacity to carry 500 passengers and 409 crew members. Oxfordshire made an average of four trips per year between Britain and the Far East, calling en route at Ceylon, Port Said and Suez in Egypt. However, by the early 1960s the use of aircraft to fulfil transport requirements and the declining number of overseas British garrisons meant that trooping by sea was soon to be redundant.
In 1962 the British Government decided to rely on air trooping, so the long-term charters of Oxfordshire and near sister-ship Nevasa were terminated and the vessels withdrawn from service. The last active troopship Oxfordshire followed Nevasa, to lay-up in the safe haven of Cornwall's River Fal in December of that year, it was at this time. British and European migrants were given assisted passage to Australia - only having to pay ten pounds, with the balance paid by the Federal Government; the Vlasov Group passenger division, SITMAR Line, was well established as a migrant carrier to Australia and they showed an interest in the idle Oxfordshire. A six-year charter agreement with an option to purchase the ship was signed in February 1963 between the Bibby Line and Fairstar Shipping Corporation; the complex plan to convert the Oxfordshire into a ship, suitable for both liner voyages and cruises was one of the most ambitious projects to be overseen by the Vlasov engineers. On 19 May 1963 the Oxfordshire entered the Wilton-Fijenoord shipyard at Schiedam to commence the transformation.
The project was known as the "Conox Project". The project took longer than expected and cost more than anticipated. In May 1964 it was decided to buy the ship outright and move her to Southampton to complete the fitting out; the handsome, new-look ship was quite changed from her former image: the superstructure was lengthened both fore and aft, three pairs of cargo booms were replaced by cranes the signal mast and funnel housing were redesigned. Internally, the vessel was transformed, with contemporary'One Class Tourist' accommodation for a maximum of 1,868 passengers in 488 cabins, all but 68 of which were equipped with private shower and toilet facilities. On 19 May 1964 the Fairstar left Southampton with a full complement of passengers migrants, on her maiden voyage to Sydney, joining older company vessels Fairsky and Castel Felice operating in the same role. During the low season of the migrant run, SITMAR used the ships for cruises out of Sydney to the South Pacific. Fairstar's first such cruise departed on 6 January 1965 under charter to Massey-Ferguson for their annual convention.
After another full year of liner voyages from the UK to Australia, Fairstar sailed on another cruise from Sydney, departing on 22 December 1965 and visiting Nouméa and Suva. SITMAR lost its migrant carrying contract to Chandris Lines in 1970, Fairsea having been withdrawn in 1969 following a disabling engine-room fire mid-Pacific. Castel Felice went to the breakers in October 1970, after a career of 40 years. Fairsky was laid up in Southampton in February 1972, not returning to the Australian service until November 1973. Fairstar was used more and more for cruising over the following years and in November 1974, the vessel departed Southampton for her last liner voyage. Fairstar began cruising as a permanent cruise ship from Australia in December 1974. Most of the cruises were to the South Pacific, however she made annual trips to Asia where the vessel would be dry-docked in Singapore for routine maintenance and upgrades in between cruises. Fairstar thus joined Fa
Castelbianco is a comune in the Province of Savona in the Italian region Liguria, located about 80 kilometres southwest of Genoa and about 40 kilometres southwest of Savona. Castelbianco borders the following municipalities: Arnasco, Nasino, Onzo and Zuccarello
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
A cruise ship is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, sometimes the different destinations along the way, form part of the passengers' experience. Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising on cruises that return passengers to their originating port. On "cruises to nowhere" or "nowhere voyages", cruise ships make 2-to-3 night round trips without any ports of call. In contrast, dedicated transport-oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Traditionally, shipping lines build liners for the transoceanic trade to a higher standard than that of a typical cruise ship, including higher freeboard and stronger plating to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean, such as the North Atlantic. Ocean liners usually have larger capacities for fuel and other stores for consumption on long voyages, compared to dedicated cruise-ships, but few ocean liners remain in existence—note the preserved liners and Queen Mary 2, which make scheduled North Atlantic voyages.
Although luxurious, ocean liners had characteristics that made them unsuitable for cruising, such as high fuel-consumption, deep draughts that prevented their entering shallow ports, enclosed weatherproof decks inappropriate for tropical weather, cabins designed to maximize passenger numbers rather than comfort. The gradual evolution of passenger-ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure and provided with private verandas. Modern cruise ships, while sacrificing some qualities of seaworthiness, have added amenities to cater to water tourists, recent vessels have been described as "balcony-laden floating condominiums"; the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred with respect to deployment, although differences in construction remain. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips, such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the same port for months; some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, although this number is diminishing.
The only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner as of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard Line. She has the amenities of contemporary cruise ships and sees significant service on cruisesCruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, accounting for U. S.$29.4 billion, with over 19 million passengers carried worldwide as of 2011.. The industry's rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, as well as others servicing European clientele. Smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are serviced by older ships; these are displaced by new ships in the high-growth areas. As of 2019 the world's largest cruise-ship was Royal Caribbean International's Symphony of the Seas along with its three sister ships Harmony of the Seas, Allure of the Seas, Oasis of the Seas which round out the top 4 largest cruise liners in the world; the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822.
The company started out as a shipping line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837. In 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta; the company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton; the forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, P&O Cruises has been recognised as the world's oldest cruise line. The company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople, it underwent a period of rapid expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger and more luxurious ships to serve the expanding market. Notable ships of the era include the SS Ravenna built in 1880, which became the first ship to be built with a total steel superstructure, the SS Valetta built in 1889, the first ship to use electric lights.
Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as the first cruise ship. She was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign; the cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe. In just over three months, the ship sailed to Taormina, Syracuse, Corfu, Delphi, Athens, Constantinople, delighting passengers with excursions and guided tours, card tables on the deck and parties on board. However, it was not a commercial endeavour; the cruise of the German ship Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March 1891, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, popularized the cruise to a wider market. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as Backschisch; the first vessel built for luxury cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin, general manager of Hamburg-America Line. The ship was completed in 1900.
The practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings. In the competition fo