Freddy Krueger is a character from the A Nightmare on Elm Street film series. He first appeared in Wes Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street as a burnt serial killer who uses a gloved hand with razors to kill his victims in their dreams, causing their deaths in the real world as well. In the dream world, he is a powerful force and completely invulnerable. However, whenever Freddy is pulled into the real world, he has normal human vulnerabilities; the character was created by Wes Craven and was portrayed by Robert Englund in the original film series as well as in the television spin-off. In the 2010 franchise reboot, Freddy Krueger was portrayed by Jackie Earle Haley. In 2011, Freddy appeared as a playable character in the video game Mortal Kombat. Over the course of the series, Freddy has battled numerous survivors including Nancy Thompson. In the film Freddy vs. Jason and the Nightmares on Elm Street comics, an alias is used, namely "the Springwood Slasher". Freddy attacks his victims from within their dreams.
He is identified by his burned, disfigured face, red-and-green striped sweater, brown fedora, trademark metal-clawed brown leather glove only on his right hand. This glove was the product of Krueger's own imagination. Robert Englund has said many times that he feels the character represents neglect that suffered by children; the character more broadly represents subconscious fears. Wizard magazine rated Freddy the 14th greatest villain, the British television channel Sky2 listed him 8th, the American Film Institute ranked him 40th on its "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains" list. In 2010, Freddy won an award for Best Villain at the Scream Awards. Freddy is introduced in A Nightmare on Elm Street as a child killer from a fictitious Ohio town, who kills his victims with a bladed leather glove he crafted, he is captured, but is let off due to a technicality. He is hunted down by a mob of angry parents who lived on his street and cornered in a boiler room where he used to take his victims; the mob sets it on fire, burning Krueger alive.
While his body dies, his spirit lives on in the dreams of a group of teenagers and preadolescents living on Elm Street, whom he preys on by entering their dreams and killing them, is fueled by the town's residents' memories and fear of him. He is destroyed at the end of the film by protagonist Nancy Thompson, but the last scene reveals that he has survived, he goes on to antagonize the teenage protagonists of the next five films in the series. In A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, more of Freddy's backstory is revealed by the mysterious nun who appears to Dr. Gordon. Freddy's mother, Amanda Krueger, was a nurse at the asylum featured in the film. At the time she worked there, a abandoned, run-down wing of the asylum was used to lock up entire hordes of the most insane criminals all at once; when Amanda was young, she was accidentally locked into the room with the criminals over a holiday weekend. They managed raping her repeatedly; when she was discovered, she was alive and was pregnant with the future Freddy Krueger, with the result that Krueger was regarded as'the son of a hundred homicidal maniacs' due to it being impossible to determine which of the rapists was his individual father.
However, in A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child, it is implied that Freddy had discovered that which one of them was his biological father, hates his mother for rejecting him. In Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare, it is revealed that the children Freddy killed when still alive were the children of people who had wronged him since childhood owing to his twisted reputation. Krueger has a daughter, who seeks to end her father's horrific legacy once and for all. After a hiatus following the release of The Final Nightmare, Krueger was brought back in Wes Craven's New Nightmare by Wes Craven, who had not worked on the film series since the third film, Dream Warriors. Robert Englund, who portrayed Krueger throughout the film series and its television spin-off took the role as a fictional version of himself in New Nightmare. Having been in various manifestations throughout the ages due to the entity can be captured through storytelling, it is hinted that it was once in the form of the old witch from Brothers Grimm's fairy tale Hansel and Gretel when it was held prisoner in this allegory.
Englund describes to his former co-star and friend Heather Langenkamp that this embodiment of Freddy is darker and more evil than as portrayed by him in the films. Krueger aims to stop another film of the franchise from being made, eliminating the films' crew members including Langenkamp's husband Chase Porter after stealing a prototype bladed glove from him, causes nightmares and makes threatening phone calls to producer Robert Shaye; the entity haunts Wes Craven's dreams, to the point that he sees future events related to Krueger's actions and writes them down as a movie script. Krueger sees Langenkamp as his primary foe, because her character Nancy Thompson was the first to defeat him. Krueger's attempts to cross over to reality cause a series of earthquakes throughout Los Angeles County, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Langenkamp
Frontier City is a western-themed amusement park in Oklahoma City. It is operated by Six Flags Entertainment Corporation; the park opened in 1958. Frontier City is one of three Six Flags parks that are not branded as a Six Flags park, with Great Escape in Queensberry, New York and LaRonde in Montreal, Canada being the other two. In 1958, the park opened along Route 66, now Interstate 35, it featured a haunted farm, mine train and jails. Guests entered for free but paid a quarter to watch the gunfight shows, it started out as Boomtown, a replica of an Oklahoma pioneer town, built for the state's semi centennial celebration in 1957 at the Oklahoma State Fair grounds. Jimmy Burge, leader of the committee that built it, decided to open an amusement park with the same theme. Rather than a traditional ribbon cutting, it was scheduled to have an old fashioned six shooter aimed at a piece of rope stretched across the stockade entrance; that is the same manner used today for its opening. It added spinning rides, roller coasters, a log flume ride starting in the 1960s and 1970s.
The park was owned and operated by Oklahoma City businessmen James Burge and Jack Williams. He had been a publicist in Hollywood for twenty years for the likes of Joan Crawford and Robert Taylor, he visited Disneyland when it opened in 1955 and was impressed with the theme park business. Being from Oklahoma City, he knew his hometown would be a natural location for a western-themed amusement park. Back in there, he was commissioned as the leader of the 1957 Oklahoma Semi-Centennial Celebration. After the 1957 event was over, he negotiated with the fair board to purchase many of the buildings and props at the "Boom Town" exhibit, he partnered with Jack Williams and together they developed the park as a recreation of an 1880s Western town. The four square blocks of streets contained a Marshall's office, bank, post office, fire department and numerous storefronts. Attractions at the park included a train ride built by Arrow Dynamics, an authentic stagecoach ride, a donkey ride, an indoor dark ride designed by Russell Pearson, a former Disney designer who went on to Silver Dollar City in Branson and Ghost Town In The Sky in Maggie Valley, North Carolina.
The park flourished and prospered during its first six seasons, reporting attendance of over one million people each year. Although attendance was rumored to be recorded by Burge riding around on the train and counting all the heads every hour, which led to counting the same people multiple times each day, it was famous for its gunfights, Indian dancing, saloon shows, train robberies and other similar types of Western experiences. In the fall of 1981, a local real estate company bought the park with plans to dismantle it and develop the land. However, the oil crunch slowed down the local real estate boom and the startled company found itself with a sagging amusement park to operate; the president of the company at that time realized Oklahoma City needed a local amusement park, but knew that throwing a few million dollars at the park was not going to be enough to solve its problems. In 1983, the owners hired a management company to operate it. In 1987, the contract with the management company was not renewed, but the management staff went to work directly for the park owners, Frontier City Properties, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Tierco Group, Inc.
In 1995, The Tierco Group, Inc. changed its name to Premier Parks. On February 9, 1998 it was announced that they would purchase the Six Flags chain from Time Warner for $1.9 billion and changed its name to Six Flags, Inc. The world headquarters for Six Flags Inc. was located at the southeast corner of the park's property until 2006 when the company's offices were moved to New York City and Grand Prairie, Texas. On January 27, 2006, Six Flags put Frontier City and White Water Bay, Six Flags Magic Mountain, Elitch Gardens, Darien Lake, a couple of water parks, Wild Waves/Enchanted Village for sale. At the same time, they announced their plan to close its corporate offices in Oklahoma City and move to New York City and Grand Prairie, Texas. Mark Shapiro, Six Flags CEO at that time, said he expected the parks to continue operation after the sale, but rumors surfaced. The announcement created a lot of confusion in the Oklahoma City market. Many people misunderstood the announcement, instead thinking that Frontier City was shutting down and relocating to New York.
On January 11, 2007, Six Flags opted to keep Magic Mountain, but announced that it would sell Frontier City and White Water Bay, along with Elitch Gardens, Darien Lake and Wild Waves/Enchanted Village to PARC 7F-Operations. As a part of the deal, the Six Flags prefix was removed from Darien Lake. Frontier City and White Water Bay were never branded as Six Flags parks. PARC sold them to CNL Income Properties, Inc. and the two companies set up a long-term agreement in which CNL would lease the parks to PARC, which would operate them. In 2008 a new suspended roller coaster, Steel Lasso, was added to celebrate the park's 50th anniversary On November 24, 2010, CNL Lifestyle Properties, Inc. announced that it had reached an agreement to terminate PARC's lease of the park and up to 17 other locations due to PARC defaulting on its contractual lease and loan obligations. The move came after, according to their 2010 SEC filings, PARC defaulted on their lease obligations on the properties. Five of the original six parks purchased from Six Flags are involved in the lease termination.
In 2011, it was announced that, as the result of an agreement with owner CNL Lifestyle Properties, former Six Flags executives Kieran Burk
Halloween or Hallowe'en known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in several countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day. It begins the three-day observance of Allhallowtide, the time in the liturgical year dedicated to remembering the dead, including saints and all the faithful departed, it is believed that many Halloween traditions originated from ancient Celtic harvest festivals the Gaelic festival Samhain. Some believe, that Halloween began as a Christian holiday, separate from ancient festivals like Samhain. Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, attending Halloween costume parties, carving pumpkins into jack-o'-lanterns, lighting bonfires, apple bobbing, divination games, playing pranks, visiting haunted attractions, telling scary stories, as well as watching horror films. In many parts of the world, the Christian religious observances of All Hallows' Eve, including attending church services and lighting candles on the graves of the dead, remain popular, although elsewhere it is a more commercial and secular celebration.
Some Christians abstained from meat on All Hallows' Eve, a tradition reflected in the eating of certain vegetarian foods on this vigil day, including apples, potato pancakes, soul cakes. The word is of Christian origin; the word "Hallowe'en" means "Saints' evening". It comes from a Scottish term for All Hallows' Eve. In Scots, the word "eve" is and this is contracted to e'en or een. Over time, Hallow Een evolved into Hallowe'en. Although the phrase "All Hallows'" is found in Old English "All Hallows' Eve" is itself not seen until 1556. Today's Halloween customs are thought to have been influenced by folk customs and beliefs from the Celtic-speaking countries, some of which are believed to have pagan roots. Jack Santino, a folklorist, writes that "there was throughout Ireland an uneasy truce existing between customs and beliefs associated with Christianity and those associated with religions that were Irish before Christianity arrived". Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain, which comes from the Old Irish for'summer's end'."Samhain was the first and most important of the four quarter days in the medieval Gaelic calendar and was celebrated on 31 October – 1 November in Ireland and the Isle of Man.
A kindred festival was held at the same time of year by the Brittonic Celts, called Calan Gaeaf in Wales, Kalan Gwav in Cornwall and Kalan Goañv in Brittany. For the Celts, the day began at sunset. Samhain and Calan Gaeaf are mentioned in some of Welsh literature; the names have been used by historians to refer to Celtic Halloween customs up until the 19th century, are still the Gaelic and Welsh names for Halloween. Samhain/Calan Gaeaf marked the end of the harvest season and beginning of winter or the'darker half' of the year. Like Beltane/Calan Mai, it was seen as a liminal time, when the boundary between this world and the Otherworld thinned; this meant the Aos Sí, the'spirits' or'fairies', could more come into this world and were active. Most scholars see the Aos Sí as "degraded versions of ancient gods whose power remained active in the people's minds after they had been replaced by religious beliefs"; the Aos Sí were both respected and feared, with individuals invoking the protection of God when approaching their dwellings.
At Samhain, it was believed that the Aos Sí needed to be propitiated to ensure that the people and their livestock survived the winter. Offerings of food and drink, or portions of the crops, were left outside for the Aos Sí; the souls of the dead were said to revisit their homes seeking hospitality. Places were set by the fire to welcome them; the belief that the souls of the dead return home on one night of the year and must be appeased seems to have ancient origins and is found in many cultures throughout the world. In 19th century Ireland, "candles would be lit and prayers formally offered for the souls of the dead. After this the eating and games would begin". Throughout Ireland and Britain, the household festivities included rituals and games intended to foretell one's future regarding death and marriage. Apples and nuts were used in these divination rituals, they included apple bobbing, nut roasting, scrying or mirror-gazing, pouring molten lead or egg whites into water, dream interpretation, others.
Special bonfires were lit and there were rituals involving them. Their flames and ashes were deemed to have protective and cleansing powers, were used for divination. In some places, torches lit from the bonfire were carried sunwise around homes and fields to protect them, it is suggested that the fires were a kind of imitative or sympathetic magic – they mimicked the Sun, helping the "powers of growth" and holding back the decay and darkness of winter. In Scotland, these bonfires and divination games were banned by
Haunted attraction (simulated)
A haunted attraction is a form of live entertainment that simulates the experience of covering haunted locations or envisioning horror fiction. They feature fearsome sets and characters ghosts, demons, serial killers, and/or psychopaths. Humourous characters may be included. Haunted attractions may be set up at many kinds of locations. Built attractions include temporarily constructed simulations of haunted houses, actual abandoned or dilapidated houses, abandoned asylums, defunct prisons, defunct or active amusement parks, defunct or active ships, defunct factories, defunct or active barns, setup parts of shopping malls. Outdoor places hosting such attractions include corn mazes or cornfields, hedge mazes, wooded areas or forests, parks. Haunted attractions use many effects, such as intense lighting, animatronics, CGI, scent dispensers, fog machines, spinning tunnels, air blasters, old antiques, gory images, intense scenes of horror, torment, mischief, or comedy. Visitors encounter various actors dressed up in elaborate and scary costumes and prosthetics.
These actors may perform skits or lurk and come out unexpectedly to frighten, disturb, or amuse the customer. The typical haunted attraction starts operating during the week of late September or early October to the last week in October or first week of November. In particular, they are active during the triduum of Allhallowtide. Additionally, there is a subculture of permanent haunted attractions that are open year-round and of a few that are open during special occasions, such as haunt conventions or Spring Break; some attractions are run by charities as fundraisers. "... People have entertained themselves with spooky stories for centuries", it is not hard to imagine cavemen sitting around a fire telling stories of demons, spirits and their deities. The tradition of this type of storytelling can be traced back to the ancient Greeks and beyond. However, the creation of an actual haunted attraction is a recent phenomenon. According to one source, the first recorded purpose-built haunted attraction was the Orton and Spooner Ghost House, which opened in 1915 in Liphook, England.
This attraction most resembles a carnival fun house, powered by steam. The House still exists, in the Hollycombe Steam Collection; the background for the creation of the Orton and Spooner Ghost House might be seen in 18th- and 19th-century London and Paris, when literature, performances by magicians and psychics, as well as theatrical shows and attractions introduced the public to gruesome entertainment. In 1802, Marie Tussaud scandalized British audiences with an exhibition of wax sculptures of decapitated victims of the French Revolution, including King Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette and Jean-Paul Marat, her exhibits exist today as the Chamber of Horrors in Madam Tussauds in London. In France, from 1897, the Grand Guignol theatre was scaring audiences with graphically staged horror entertainment; the Phantasmagoria show existed earlier, but a well-known version in 1797 Paris was the Fantasmagorie, which made use of magic lantern projections and crude special effects. Halloween-themed haunted houses in America seemed to begin emerging during the Great Depression, about the same time as trick-or-treat.
But the haunted house as an American cultural icon can be traced to a single event. The Haunted Mansion opened in Disneyland August 12, 1969; the attraction became a near-instant success. A single-day record of more than 82,000 guests was established soon. In 1973, Knott's Berry Farm began hosting its own Halloween night attraction, Knott's Scary Farm, which soon became the gold standard of Halloween events. Evangelical Christians became early adopters of alternative Halloween attractions. Jerry Falwell and Liberty University introduced one of the first "hell houses" in 1972. During the late 1950s, California was a focus for Halloween haunts. In 1957, the San Mateo Haunted House opened, sponsored by the Children’s Health Home Junior Auxiliary; the San Bernardino Assistance League Haunted House opened in 1958. In 1962 and 1963 home haunts began appearing across the country, including Oregon, Connecticut and several other states. On October 17, 1964, the San Manteo Haunted House opened as a walk-through haunted house.
The Children’s Museum Haunted House in Indianapolis, open every year since 1964, was Indiana’s first haunted house and is the longest running in the nation. Haunted houses spread across the country via charity fundraisers conducted by The United States Junior Chamber and others; the Jaycees encouraged its membership to construct haunted houses in abandoned buildings or fields as charity fundraising events, the organization became known for these houses throughout America. In the late 1960s to early 1970s, haunted attractions were developed in larger American cities like Louisville and Cincinnati, Ohio with the creation of Jaycees haunted houses; these haunted houses are run by local chapters of the Jaycees. There are still many local chapter Jaycees haunted houses in towns such as Illinois; the former Huntington Jaycees Haunted House, now known as the Haunted Hotel-13th Floor, was operated by volunteers in October 1963. The first verifiable Jaycees haunted attraction as recognized by the Jaycees national office was The WSAI Haunted House in Cincinnati, Ohio operated by the Sycamore-Deer Park Jaycees in 1970.
In 1974, The Haunted Schoolhouse, located i
La Ronde (amusement park)
La Ronde is an amusement park in Montreal, Canada, built as the entertainment complex for Expo 67, the 1967 world fair. Today, it is operated by Six Flags; the park is under an emphyteutic lease with the City of Montreal, which expires in 2065. It is second largest in Canada, it is on 146 acres located on the Northern tip of Saint Helen's Island. This is a man-made extension to the island in the space; the park hosts L'International des Feux Loto-Québec, a regarded international fireworks competition. La Ronde is one of three Six Flags parks not to be branded as a Six Flags park Great Escape in Queensbury, New York and Frontier City in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma being the other two The park opens from mid-May to late October, with peak admissions in July. Toddlers aged 2 and under receive free admission. Family rides require a height of 36 in, while most intermediate rides require 44 in and high-thrill rides require 52 or 54 inches. La Ronde closes its season in the last weekend of October. To celebrate Halloween, in the month of October, the park hosts its annual La Ronde's Fright Fest.
The festival has four haunted houses, many costumed performers who roam the park. The park has 40 rides, including ten roller coasters. La Ronde was the entertainment complex built for Expo 67, the world fair held in Montreal from April 27 to October 29, 1967; the exposition was located on 400 hectares of man-made islands in the St Lawrence River adjacent to Montréal, comprised six "theme" pavilions, 48 national pavilions, four provincial pavilions, 27 private-industry and institutional pavilions, La Ronde – a 54-ha entertainment complex with theatres, midway attractions and dining. Visitors could experience the rides and beer halls of La Ronde until 2:30 a.m. nightly. The rest of the Expo site closed down at 10:30 p.m. After Expo 67 World's Fair, the City of Montreal continued to run the amusement park for the next 34 years; the City of Montreal sold La Ronde to Six Flags, an American theme park chain, in a deal completed on May 4, 2001. It acquired all of the assets of the park for $20 million USD and has a long-term contract to lease the land from the city.
Before the announcement of the Six Flags purchase, the city had considered offers from other bidders including Paramount Parks, Cedar Fair, Parc Astérix. Since Six Flags has invested around $90 million in new rides and improvements, such as Le Vampire, Splash, Le Goliath and Ednör - L'Attaque as well as a new main entrance; the amusement park was used as a backdrop in the Are You Afraid of the Dark? Episode "Laughing in the Dark" and was given the fictional name "Playland"; the episode featured the park's iconic giant roller coaster, haunted house with a dragon on the front and its old-fashioned carousel. La Ronde had a Nintendo-sponsored video game centre with the latest Nintendo video games and attractions. Since 2009, the former 3D theatre has housed Nintendo DS and Wii consoles, advertisements and a Nintendo Store. In May 2002, La Ronde announced the installation of a Bolliger & Mabillard inverted roller coaster called Le Vampire, the first major investment by Six Flags, it is a mirror image of the "Batman – The Ride" roller coasters found at many other Six Flags parks.
In May 2006, La Ronde opened its ninth roller coaster, Goliath, a 53-metre high Bolliger & Mabillard mega coaster. It reaches speeds of 110 km/h, making it the third tallest and the third fastest roller coaster in Canada. For the 2007 season, La Ronde painted its iconic observation tower bright orange to advertise Pizza Pizza, an Ontario pizza chain that, at the time, was just emerging into the Quebec market. All of the pizza stands inside the park were renamed from Pizza Ronde to Pizza Pizza. 2007 was La Ronde's 40th anniversary. The park celebrated with Expo 67 themed events commemorating the world fair. In January 2009, La Ronde announced its intention to become a Six Flags branded park, using the rights to Warner Bros. and DC Comics trademarks under the licensing agreement with Six Flags. Le Vampire, a mirror image of Batman: The Ride constructed in 2002, carries no association to the Batman media franchise because the licence with Warner Bros. and DC Comics is not valid in unbranded Six Flags parks.
It is yet unknown if Le Vampire will be re-branded to Batman: The Ride once the branding of the park commences. The Serial Thriller, a Vekoma Suspended Looping Coaster that used to be located at the now defunct Six Flags AstroWorld, was shipped to La Ronde from the Great Escape, another Six Flags property where it lay in storage since 2005; the roller coaster, which opened in 1999 at Six Flags AstroWorld, has been installed over the Lac des Dauphins at the park for the 2010 season and is named Ednör - L'Attaque. It features special effects and theming from an alleged sea monster, reported to have appeared in the Lac des Dauphins. On March 9, 2010, La Ronde announced that Terminator X: A Laser Battle for Salvation, an interactive laser-tag attraction themed around the Terminator series, will be featured in the park for the 2010 season. On January 19, 2012, Six Flags announced Vol Ultime at La Ronde. In 2013, the park opened Aqua Twist. On August 29, 2013, Six Flags announced the addition of a top spin ride, for the 2014 season.
As a world premiere, Goliath was the first roller coaster equipped and exploited with virtual reality headset. On August
Kentucky Kingdom is an amusement park in Louisville, Kentucky. The 63-acre park includes a water park named Hurricane Bay; the park reopened to the public on May 24, 2014. Kentucky Kingdom opened on May 23, 1987, leasing 10 acres at the Kentucky Exposition Center property; the park was started by out-of-state Texas investors as an extension of the Kentucky State Fair. One of the original rides was a roller coaster named Starchaser; the park had other rides such as bumper cars and a log flume. However, the 10 acre park filed for bankruptcy after only one season. Most of the contractors and vendors were unpaid and most of the rides were auctioned off to other parks. Only a few rides stayed at the park; the park had four themed areas called "Carousel Plaza," "Old Louisville," "Kentucky Frontier," and "The Enchanted Forest." The latter was a kiddie area which would become "King Louie's Playground" and "Looney Tunes Movie Town." The park remained closed through 1989 after the rights to operate it were purchased by Ed Hart and a group of investors.
Hart's first step was paying the 227 contractors that were unpaid before. Kentucky Kingdom reopened for the 1990 season with the new operators and management team. Despite the Starchaser being sold it had remained on-site at the amusement park allowing Hart to purchase it back. Additionally, new rides were added including Bluebeard's Bounty, The Enterprise, Whirling Dervish, The Vampire roller coaster; the Tin Lizzies antique car ride reused the same track as the former car ride, Pontiac's Tin Lizzy Junction, while new antique cars were added in 1995 which were used at Opryland USA in Tennessee. In 1992, the Kentucky Kingdom made a large expansion and opened the Hurricane Bay water park along with the 150-foot-tall Giant Wheel; the following year a new slide complex opened in Hurricane Bay featuring four different slides. In 1994, the park opened Mile High Falls, the world's tallest shoot-the-chute water ride; the children's roller coaster Roller Skater was added that year. In 1995, T3 was added.
The ride was the first of its kind on the continent and the second only in the world, with the other being Condor at Walibi Holland in the Netherlands. In 1995, Hellevator, a 177-foot-tall Intamin drop tower was added just in time for the park's annual Halloween event. In 1996, the upcharge attraction, Top Eliminator Dragsters opened. In 1997, the park made its biggest investment yet with the addition of Chang, a stand up Bolliger & Mabillard coaster that set the world records for stand up coasters in height, length and number of inversions. Thrill Karts were added this year, but were an upcharge attraction. In late 1997, Ed Hart sold the rights to operate the park to Premier Parks, which would merge and become Six Flags just months later. Ed Hart and Themeparks, LLC, had begun on planning a $5 million dueling wooden roller coaster to be named Double Trouble prior to the sell to Premier Parks. Once Premier took over operations, the decision was made to change the name of the new coaster from Double Trouble to "Twisted Sisters".
Twisted Sisters opened to the public on June 21, 1998. Through the 1990–1998 seasons the park was said to be one of the fastest growing amusement parks in the United States. Rides added to the park during the Ed Hart years include Thunder Run, The Quake, T2, Twisted Twins, Mile High Falls, Top Eliminator Dragsters, Hellevator, Roller Skater Kids coaster and Kingdom Go Carts. At the end of 1997, the rights to operate Kentucky Kingdom were sold to Premier Parks for $64 million. At the time, Kentucky Kingdom was one of the main tourism attractions for Louisville, receiving more visitors than Churchill Downs. On April 1, 1998, Premier Parks purchased Six Flags from Time Warner, as such, on June 21, 1998, Kentucky Kingdom became known as Six Flags Kentucky Kingdom. On June 21, 1998, Twisted Twins a wooden dueling roller coaster opened to the public. Six Flags transformed King Louie's Playground into Looney Tunes Movie Town and added the Batman Stunt Show Spectacular in 1999, it became the ninth amusement park to use the Six Flags name.
In 1999, Six Flags planned to re-theme one side of the park as Gotham City by renaming and repainting several rides. Chang was to have been rethemed and renamed to Riddler's Revenge, the same name as the stand up coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain, T2 was to have been rethemed and renamed to Batman: The Ride, to be more relatable to other Six Flags parks. T2's gift shop began selling Batman: The Ride merchandise and the ride was referred to as such in the 1999 Park Guide; that year, the idea was shelved and the rides retained their original names despite many of them having a different coat of paint. The Penguin's Blizzard River was the only part of the plan. Six Flags had received many pumps and mechanisms for a rapids ride from Premier Parks, which had bought the parts from Opryland USA; the parts were from Grizzly River Rampage, a rapids ride, that closed along with Opryland in 1997. In 1999, the Vampire roller coaster was removed due to several malfunctions that had occurred earlier in the season.
The ride would reopen as Flashback at Six Flags New England in 2000. Six Flags planned for an extensive expansion to the park so it could compete with other rival parks in the area, notably Kings Island in
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti