The Central Artery/Tunnel Project, known unofficially as the Big Dig, was a megaproject in Boston that rerouted the Central Artery of Interstate 93, the chief highway through the heart of the city, into the 1.5-mile Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel; the project included the construction of the Ted Williams Tunnel, the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge over the Charles River, the Rose Kennedy Greenway in the space vacated by the previous I-93 elevated roadway; the plan was to include a rail connection between Boston's two major train terminals. Planning began in 1982; the Big Dig was the most expensive highway project in the US, was plagued by cost overruns, leaks, design flaws, charges of poor execution and use of substandard materials, criminal arrests, one death. The project was scheduled to be completed in 1998 at an estimated cost of $2.8 billion. However, the project was completed in December 2007 at a cost of over $14.6 billion as of 2006. The Boston Globe estimated that the project will cost $22 billion, including interest, that it would not be paid off until 2038.
As a result of a death and other design flaws and Parsons Brinckerhoff—the consortium that oversaw the project—agreed to pay $407 million in restitution and several smaller companies agreed to pay a combined sum of $51 million. The Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway is a 1.5-mile-long series of parks and public spaces, which were the final part of the Big Dig after Interstate 93 was put underground. The Greenway was named in honor of Kennedy family matriarch Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy, was dedicated on July 26, 2004; this project was developed in response to traffic congestion on Boston's tangled streets which were laid out long before the advent of the automobile. As early as 1930 the city's Planning Board recommended a raised express highway running north-south through the downtown district in order to draw traffic off the city streets. Commissioner of Public Works William Callahan promoted plans for an elevated expressway, constructed between the downtown area and the waterfront. Governor John Volpe interceded in the 1950s to change the design of the last section of the Central Artery putting it underground through the Dewey Square Tunnel.
While traffic moved somewhat better, the other problems remained. There was chronic congestion on the Central Artery, an elevated six-lane highway through the center of downtown Boston, which was, in the words of Pete Sigmund, "like a funnel full of slowly-moving, or stopped, cars." In 1959, the 1.5-mile-long road section carried 75,000 vehicles a day, but by the 1990s, this had grown to 190,000 vehicles a day. Traffic jams of 16 hours were predicted for 2010; the expressway had tight turns, an excessive number of entrances and exits, entrance ramps without merge lanes, as the decades passed, had continually escalating vehicular traffic, well beyond its design capacity. Local businesses again wanted relief, city leaders sought a reuniting of the waterfront with the city, nearby residents desired removal of the matte green-painted elevated road which mayor Thomas Menino called Boston's "other Green Monster". MIT engineers Bill Reynolds and Frederick P. Salvucci envisioned moving the whole expressway underground.
Another important motivation for the final form of the Big Dig was the abandonment of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works' intended expressway system through and around Boston. The Central Artery, as part of Mass. DPW's Master Plan of 1948, was planned to be the downtown Boston stretch of Interstate 95, was signed as such; the Inner Belt District was to pass to the west of the downtown core, through the neighborhood of Roxbury and the cities of Brookline and Somerville. Earlier controversies over impact of the Boston extension of the Massachusetts Turnpike on the populated neighborhood of Brighton, the additional large amount of housing that would have had to be destroyed led to massive community opposition to both the Inner Belt and the Boston section of I-95. Building demolition and land clearances for I-95 through the neighborhoods of Roxbury, Jamaica Plain, Roslindale led to secession threats by Hyde Park, Boston's youngest and southernmost neighborhood. By 1972, with only a minimum of work done on the I-95 right of way and none on the massively disruptive Inner Belt, Governor Francis Sargent put a moratorium on highway construction within the MA-128 corridor, except for the final short stretch of Interstate 93.
In 1974, the remainder of the Master Plan was canceled, leaving Boston with a overstressed expressway system for the existing traffic. With ever-increasing traffic volumes funneled onto I-93 alone, the Central Artery became chronically gridlocked; the Sargent moratorium led to the rerouting of I-95 away from Boston around the MA-128 beltway and the conversion of the cleared land in the southern part of the city into the Southwest Corridor linear park, as well as a new right-of-way for the Orange Line subway and Amtrak. Parts of the planned I-695 r
Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, in nearly 11,100 households. Settled in 1641, it is celebrated as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775, it is the sixth wealthiest small city in the United States. Lexington was first settled circa 1642 as part of Massachusetts. What is now Lexington was incorporated as a parish, called Cambridge Farms, in 1691; this allowed them to have a separate church and minister, but were still under jurisdiction of the Town of Cambridge. Lexington was incorporated as a separate town in 1713, it was that it got the name Lexington. How it received its name is the subject of some controversy; some people believe that it was named in honor of an English peer. Some, on the other hand, believe that it was named after Lexington in England. In the early colonial days, Vine Brook, which runs through Lexington and Bedford, empties into the Shawsheen River, was a focal point of the farming and industry of the town.
It provided for many types of mills, in the 20th Century, for farm irrigation. For decades, Lexington grew modestly while remaining a farming community, providing Boston with much of its produce, it always had a bustling downtown area. Lexington began to prosper, helped by its proximity to Boston, having a rail line service its citizens and businesses, beginning in 1846. For many years, East Lexington was considered a separate village from the rest of the town, though it still had the same officers and Town Hall. Most of the farms of Lexington became housing developments by the end of the 1960s. Lexington, as well as many of the towns along the Route 128 corridor, experienced a jump in population in the 1960s and 70s, due to the high-tech boom. Property values in the town soared, the school system became nationally recognized for its excellence; the town participates in the METCO program, which buses minority students from Boston to suburban towns to receive better educational opportunities than those available to them in the Boston Public Schools.
On April 19, 1775, what many regard as the first battle of the American Revolutionary War was a battle at Lexington. After the rout, the British march on toward Concord where the militia had been allowed time to organize at the Old North Bridge and turn back the British and prevent them from capturing and destroying the militia's arms stores. Lexington was the Cold War location of the USAF "Experimental SAGE Subsector" for testing a prototype IBM computer that arrived in July 1955 for development of a computerized "national air defense network". Lexington is located at 42°26′39″N 71°13′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.5 square miles, of which 16.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.85%, is water. Lexington borders the following towns: Burlington, Winchester, Belmont, Waltham and Bedford, it has more area than all other municipalities. By the 2010 census, the population had reached 31,394; as of the census of 2010, there had been 31,394 people, 11,530 households, 8,807 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,851.0 people per square mile. There were 12,019 housing units at an average density of 691.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 68.6% White, 25.4% Asian, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population. There were 11,530 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.1% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. In 2013, the mean home price for detached houses was $852,953, the median price of a house or condo was $718,300. According to a 2012 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $191,350, the median income for a family was $218,890. Males had a median income of $101,334 versus $77,923 for females; the per capita income for the town was $70,132. About 1.8% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. By race, the median household income was highest for mixed race households, at $263,321. Hispanic households had a median income of $233,875. Asian households had a median income of $178,988. White households had a median income of $154,533. Black households had a median income of $139,398. American Indian or Alaskan Native households had a median income of $125,139. In 2010, 20% of the residents of Lexington were born outside of the United States.
Lexington's public education system
Konrad Emil Bloch
Konrad Emil Bloch, ForMemRS was a German American biochemist. Bloch received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1964 for discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Bloch was born in the German Empire's Prussian Province of Silesia, he was the second child of Frederich D. "Fritz" Bloch. From 1930 to 1934, he studied chemistry at the Technical University of Munich. In 1934, due to the Nazi persecutions of Jews, he fled to the Schweizerische Forschungsinstitut in Davos, before moving to the United States in 1936, he was appointed to the department of biological chemistry at Yale Medical School. In the United States, Bloch enrolled at Columbia University, received a Ph. D in biochemistry in 1938, he taught at Columbia from 1939 to 1946. From there he went to the University of Chicago and to Harvard University as Higgins Professor of Biochemistry in 1954, a post he held until 1982. After retirement at Harvard, he served as the Mack and Effie Campbell Tyner Eminent Scholar Chair in the College of Human Sciences at Florida State University.
Bloch shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1964 with Feodor Lynen, for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Their work showed that the body first makes squalene from acetate over many steps and converts the squalene to cholesterol, he traced all the carbon atoms in cholesterol back to acetate. Some of his research was conducted using radioactive acetate in bread mold: this was possible because fungi produce squalene, he confirmed his results using rats. He was one of several researchers. Both Bloch and Lynen showed that mevalonic acid is converted into chemically active isoprene, the precursor to squalene. Bloch discovered that bile and a female sex hormone were made from cholesterol, which led to the discovery that all steroids were made from cholesterol, his Nobel Lecture was "The Biological Synthesis of Cholesterol."In 1985, Bloch became a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1988, he was awarded the National Medal of Science.
Bloch and his wife Lore Teutsch first met in Munich. They married in the U. S. in 1941. They had two children, Peter Conrad Bloch and Susan Elizabeth Bloch, two grandchildren, Benjamin Nieman Bloch and Emilie Bloch Sondel, he was fond of skiing and music. Konrad died in Lexington, Massachusetts of congestive heart failure in 2000, aged 88. Lore Bloch died in 2010 aged 98. List of Jewish Nobel laureates Nobel Prize Biography Konrad Bloch, Nobel Lecture, The biological synthesis of cholesterol, 11 December 1964 Eugene P. Kennedy, «Konrad Bloch», Biographical Memoirs – Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Center for Oral History. "Konrad E. Bloch". Science History Institute. Bohning, James H.. Konrad E. Bloch, Transcript of an Interview Conducted by James H. Bohning at Harvard University on 22 March 1993. Philadelphia, PA: Chemical Heritage Foundation
National Register of Historic Places listings in Lexington, Massachusetts
This is a listing of places in Lexington, Middlesex County, in the U. S. state of Massachusetts, that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Sir Simon Michael Schama is an English historian specialising in art history, Dutch history, Jewish history and French history. He is a University Professor of Art History at Columbia University, New York, he first came to public attention with his history of the French Revolution titled Citizens, published in 1989. In the United Kingdom, he is best known for writing and hosting the 15-part BBC television documentary series A History of Britain broadcast between 2000 and 2002. Schama was knighted in the 2018 Queen's Birthday Honours List. Schama was born in London, his mother, was from an Ashkenazi Jewish family, his father, Arthur Schama, was of Sephardi Jewish background moving through Moldova and Romania. In the mid-1940s, the family moved to Southend-on-Sea in Essex before moving back to London. Schama writes of this period in the introduction to his 1996 book Landscape & Memory:I had no hill, but I did have the Thames, it was not the upstream river. It was the low, gull-swept estuary, the marriage bed of salt and fresh water, stretching as far as I could see from my northern Essex bank, toward a thin black horizon on the other side.
That would be Kent, the sinister enemy who always seemed to beat us in the County Cricket Championship. In 1956, Schama won a scholarship to the private Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School in Cricklewood, he studied history at Christ's College, where he was taught by John H. Plumb, he graduated from the University of Cambridge with a Starred First in 1966. Schama worked for short periods as a lecturer in history at Cambridge, where he was a Fellow and Director of Studies in History at Christ's College, he taught for some time at Oxford, where he was made a Fellow of Brasenose College in 1976, specialising in the French Revolution. At this time, Schama wrote his first book and Liberators, which won the Wolfson History Prize; the book was intended as a study of the French Revolution, but as published in 1977, it focused on the effect of the Patriottentijd revolution of the 1780s in the Netherlands, its aftermath. His second book, Two Rothschilds and the Land of Israel, is a study of the Zionist aims of Edmond and James Rothschild.
In 1980, Schama took up a chair at Harvard University. His next book, The Embarrassment of Riches, again focused on Dutch history. Schama interpreted the ambivalences that informed the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century, held in balance between the conflicting imperatives, to live richly and with power, or to live a godly life; the iconographic evidence that Schama draws upon, in 317 illustrations, of emblems and propaganda that defined Dutch character, prefigured his expansion in the 1990s as a commentator on art and visual culture. Citizens, written at speed to a publisher's commission saw the publication of his long-awaited study of the French Revolution, won the 1990 NCR Book Award, its view that the violence of the Terror was inherent from the start of the Revolution, has received serious negative criticism. He appeared as an on-screen expert in Michael Wood's 1989 PBS series, "Art of the Western World" as a presenting art historian, commenting on paintings by Diego Velázquez and Johannes Vermeer.
In 1991, he published Dead Certainties, a slender work of unusual structure and point-of-view in that it looked at two reported deaths a hundred years apart, that of British Army General James Wolfe in 1759 – and the famous 1770 painting depicting the event by Benjamin West – and that of George Parkman, murdered uncle of the better known 19th-century American historian Francis Parkman. Schama mooted some possible connections between the two cases, exploring the historian's inability "ever to reconstruct a dead world in its completeness however thorough or revealing the documentation", speculatively bridging "the teasing gap separating a lived event and its subsequent narration." Not all readers absorbed the nuance of the title: it received a mixed critical and academic reception. Traditional historians in particular denounced Schama's integration of fact and conjecture to produce a seamless narrative, but assessments took a more relaxed view of the experiment, it was an approach soon taken up by such historical writers as Peter Ackroyd, David Taylor, Richard Holmes.
Sales in hardback exceeded those of Schama's earlier works, as shown by relative rankings by amazon.com. Schama's next book and Memory, focused on the relationship between physical environment and folk memory, separating the components of landscape as wood and rock, enmeshed in the cultural consciousness of collective "memory" embodied in myths, which Schama finds to be expressed outwardly in ceremony and text. More personal and idiosyncratic than Dead Certainties, this book was more traditionally structured and better-defined in its approach. Despite mixed reviews, the book was won numerous prizes. Plaudits came from the art world rather than from traditional academia. Schama became art critic for The New Yorker in 1995, he held the position for three years, dovetailing his regular column with professorial duties at Columbia University. During this time, Schama produced a lavishly illustrated Rembrandt's Eyes, another critical and commercial success. Despite the book's title, it contrast