Tribeca written as TriBeCa, is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City. Its name is a syllabic abbreviation from "Triangle Below Canal Street"; the "triangle", or more a trapezoid, is bounded by Canal Street, West Street and Chambers Street. More a common marketing tactic has been to extend Tribeca's southern boundary to either Vesey or Murray Streets to increase the appeal of property listings; the neighborhood began as farmland, became residential in the early 19th century transitioned into a mercantile one centered on produce, dry goods, textiles, before being colonized by artists and actors, models and other celebrities. The neighborhood is home to the Tribeca Film Festival, created in response to the September 11 attacks, to reinvigorate the neighborhood and downtown after the destruction caused by the terrorist attacks. Tribeca is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10007 and 10013, it is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Tribeca is one of a number of neighborhoods in New York City whose names are syllabic abbreviations or acronyms, including SoHo, NoHo, Nolita, NoMad, DUMBO, BoCoCa, the last of, a collection of neighborhoods. The name was coined in the early 1970s and applied to the area bounded by Broadway and Canal and Church Streets. Which appears to be a triangle on city planning maps. Residents of this area formed the TriBeCa Artists' Co-op in filing legal documents connected to a 1973 zoning dispute. According to a local historian, the name was misconstrued by a newspaper reporter as applying to a much larger area, how it came to be the name of the current neighborhood; the area now known as Tribeca, or TriBeCa, was farmed by Dutch settlers to New Amsterdam, prominently Roeleff Jansen and his wife Anneke Jans who married Everardus_Bogardus. The land stayed with the family until 1670. In 1674 The Dutch took possession of the area until the English reclaimed the land a year later. In 1674, representing the The Duke of York, Governor Andros took possession of the land.
It was part of the large tract of land given to Trinity Church by Queen Anne in 1705. In 1807, the church built St. John's Chapel on Varick Street and laid out St. John's Park, bounded by Laight Street, Varick Street, Ericsson Place, Hudson Street; the church built Hudson Square, a development of brick houses which surrounded the park, which would become the model for Gramercy Park. The area was among the first residential neighborhoods developed in New York City beyond the city's colonial boundaries, remained residential until the 1840s. Beginning in the 1840s and continuing after the American Civil War, shipping in New York City – which consisted only of Manhattan – shifted in large part from the East River and the area around South Street to the Hudson River, where the longer piers could more handle the larger ships which were coming into use. In addition, the dredging of the sand bars which lay across the entrance to New York Harbor from the Atlantic Ocean made it easier for ship to navigate to the piers on the Hudson, rather than use the "back door" via the East River to the piers there.
The Hudson River piers received freight via railroad cars ferried across the river from New Jersey. The increased shipping encouraged the expansion of the Washington Market – a wholesale produce market which opened in 1813 as "Bear Market" – from the original market buildings to buildings throughout its neighborhood, taking over houses and warehouses to use for the storage of produce, including butter and eggs. In the mid-19th century, the neighborhood was the center of the dry goods and textile industries in the city, St. John's Park was turned into a freight depot; the area featured fireworks outlets, pets stores, radios – which were clustered in a district, displaced by the building of the World Trade Center – sporting goods and church supplies. In the 20th century, after the construction of the Holland Tunnel from 1920 to 1927, the transition of freight shipping from ships and railroads to trucks, the truck traffic generated by the market and other businesses caused considerable congestion in the area, which provoked the building between 1929 and 1951 of the Miller Highway, an elevated roadway which came to be called the West Side Highway, the purpose of, to handle through automobile traffic, which thus did not have to deal with the truck congestion at street level.
Because of a policy of "deferred maintenance", the elevated structure began to fall apart in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the highway was shut down in 1973. The roadway project planned to replace it, called Westway, was fought by neighborhood activists, was killed by environmental concerns. Instead, West Street was rebuilt to handle through traffic; the produce market moved to Hunts Point in the Bronx in the 1960s, the city put an urban renewal plan into effect which involved the demolition of many old buildings, with the intent of building high-rise residential towers, office buildings and schools. Some of these were constructed, including Independence Plaza in 1975 on Washington Street, the Borough of Manhattan Community College in 1980, Washington Market Park in 1981; some warehouse buildings were converted to residential use, lofts
Ladies' Mile Historic District
The Ladies' Mile Historic District was a prime shopping district in Manhattan, New York City at the end of the 19th century, serving the well-to-do "carriage trade" of the city. It was designated in May 1989, by the New York City Landmark Preservation Commission to preserve an irregular district of 440 buildings on 28 blocks and parts of blocks, from 15th Street to 24th Street and from Park Avenue South to west of the Avenue of the Americas. Community groups such as the Drive to Protect the Ladies' Mile District and the Historic Districts Council campaigned for the status; the Ladies' Mile Historic District contains multi-story store and loft buildings. These buildings became common after 1899 when laws prohibited combined home and production areas without a permit, causing people who had worked at home to seek commercial spaces; the area first came to prominence in 1860, when the Prince of Wales stayed at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, located on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street, signalling to New York's high society that the neighborhood was acceptable to royalty.
Between the Civil War and World War I, the district was the location of some of New York's most famous department stores and upscale retailers, including B. Altman, Best & Co. Arnold Constable, Bergdorf Goodman, Gorham Silver, W. & J. Sloane, Lord & Taylor, Tiffany & Co.. The Ladies' Mile boasted upscale restaurants and publishers, offices and showrooms for piano manufacturers, such as in the Sohmer Piano Building. Performance venues in the district included the Academy of Steinway Hall. All of these attractions brought the rich and celebrities to the area since the safety of the district allowed women to shop without male companions to accompany them. Ethel Barrymore, Isabella Stewart Gardner, Lilly Langtry and Lillian Russell were among those who might be found in the opulent shopping district at its zenith. Residents of the area included Horace Greeley, Washington Irving, Samuel F. B. Morse, Emily Post, Edith Wharton and various members of the Roosevelt family; when the district became more commercialized and less elite, many of the well-known residents moved uptown, the upscale department stores and shops followed them.
By the end of World War I, most of the buildings had been converted into warehouses, lofts for manufacturers, as well as some residences. The majority of the buildings were not torn down, by the 1980s they had started to be renovated and re-converted into large retail stores at street level, sometimes above, so that the old shopping district is now one once again, albeit one which appeals to a different clientele. Stores in the district include Bed, Bath & Beyond, Burlington Coat Factory, The Container Store, Old Navy, Sports Authority and Trader Joe's. A major anchor of the district is Daniel H. Burnham's Flatiron Building, at Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street. Church of the Holy Communion, 49 West 20th Street, 1846 Arnold Constable Building, 881-887 Broadway, 1868-77 B. Altman Dry Goods Store, 621 6th Avenue, c.1877 Siegel-Cooper Dry Goods Store, 616-632 6th Avenue, 1896 Flatiron Building and Fifth Avenue at East 23rd Street, 1902–03 Spero Building, 19-27 West 21st Street, 1907–08 Masonic Hall, 71 W 23rd Street, c 1910 Notes Media related to Ladies' Mile Historic District at Wikimedia Commons The Ladies' Mile Historic District Papers at the New York Historical Society
IRT Sixth Avenue Line
The IRT Sixth Avenue Line called the Sixth Avenue Elevated or Sixth Avenue El, was the second elevated railway in Manhattan in New York City, following the Ninth Avenue Elevated. The line ran south of Central Park along Sixth Avenue. Beyond the park, trains continued north on the Ninth Avenue Line; the elevated line was constructed during the 1870s by the Gilbert Elevated Railway, subsequently reorganized as the Metropolitan Elevated Railway. By June 1878, its route ran north from the corner of Rector Street and Trinity Place up Trinity Place / Church Street west for a block at Murray Street north again on West Broadway, west again across West 3rd Street to the foot of Sixth Avenue, north to 59th Street; the following year, ownership passed to the Manhattan Railway Company, which controlled the other elevated railways in Manhattan. In 1881, the line was connected to the rebuilt Ninth Avenue Elevated. Due to its central location in Manhattan and the inversion of the usual relationship between street noise and height, the Sixth Avenue El attracted artists.
As of 1934, the following services were being operated: 6th Avenue Local - South Ferry to 155th Street all hours, extended to Burnside Avenue via Jerome Avenue Line weekday and Saturday evenings. 6th Avenue Express - Rector Street to Burnside Avenue via Jerome Avenue Line - weekday and Saturday peak hours. Trains ran express on Ninth Avenue southbound in the morning and northbound in the evening, made all stops in the reverse direction; as with many elevated railways in the city, the Sixth Avenue El made life difficult for those nearby. It was noisy, it made buildings shake, in the line's early years, it dropped ash and cinders on pedestrians below. A coalition of commercial establishments and building owners along Sixth Avenue campaigned to have the El removed, on the grounds that it was depressing business and property values. In 1936, work started on the underground Sixth Avenue Line, operated by the city as part of the Independent Subway System; as part of the plan, three of New York City's private subway companies would be combined into one system, the IRT Sixth Avenue elevated would be demolished.
The city of New York acquired the line from the bondholders of the Manhattan Railway Company for $12,500,000, of which the city recovered $9,010,656 in back taxes and interest, in 1938. Subsequently, the El was closed on December 4, 1938, it was razed during 1939 to make way for the IND line. The section of the IND line, located under Sixth Avenue opened in December 1940; the footings for the elevated were rediscovered in the early 1990s during a Sixth Avenue renovation project. When the elevated was taken down, members of the public expressed concerns that scrap metal from the demolition would reach the Japanese, it was believed during World War II that some of this metal was being used in armaments against Americans. That notion became the ironic suggestion within the lines of E. E. Cummings's 1944 poem "plato told."Twenty thousand tons of scrap metal from the El was sold to a dealer on the west coast, in the export business. The New York Times pointed out in December 1938 that if the scrap did not go directly to Japan, for possible use against China, such a large amount of scrap metal arriving on the market would free up metal to be sent to Japan.
At a meeting of the New York City Board of Estimate in 1942, Stanley M. Isaacs, the Manhattan Borough President, denied that steel from the El was sold to Japan. Isaacs said that when the demolition contract was drafted in 1938, "at my insistence the contract provided that not one ounce of that steel could be exported to Japan or to any one else." Isaacs said that the contractor was prohibited from exporting the steel from the El, carried out his obligation to the letter. Reports of the supposed sale of the scrap to Japan persisted. In 1961, an attorney for the Harris Structural Steel Company, involved in the demolition, told syndicated columnist George Sokolsky that continued reports of the sale of steel from the El to Japan were not accurate; the attorney said that none of the steel from the El reached Japan indirectly. Jackson, Kenneth T; the Encyclopedia of New York City, "Elevated Railways", Yale University Press, 1995. ISBN 978-0-300-05536-8. Nycsubway.org - The 6th Avenue El 1920 track map
Lenox Avenue – named Malcolm X Boulevard. This two-way street runs from Farmers' Gate at Central Park North to 147th Street, its traffic is figuratively described as "Harlem's heartbeat" by Langston Hughes in his poem Juke Box Love Song. The IRT Lenox Avenue Line runs under the entire length of the street, serving the New York City Subway's 2 and 3 trains. From 119th Street to 123rd Street, Lenox Avenue is part of the Mount Morris Park Historic District, designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1971. A part of Sixth Avenue, it was renamed in late 1887 for philanthropist James Lenox. In 1987, it was co-named Malcolm X Boulevard, in honor of the slain civil rights leader; the avenue was the heart of Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance in the 1930s. The street brought together African Americans, British West Indians, Spaniards who developed relationships over common interests such as jazz and food. In 1932, Harlem was so established as the world capital of jazz and African-American culture in general that "black cinema" films like Harlem Is Heaven were playing on the nation's big screens.
Jazz grew like it could have in no other time and place. "You might have had 15 great clubs on one block, all going at once," said the trombonist and bandleader Wycliffe Gordon. "Imagine going into a joint to check out Willie'The Lion' Smith, sitting next to you are Duke Ellington and James P. Johnson." Lenox Avenue is thought by some to be one of the most important streets in the world for African American culture. The Savoy Ballroom was located between 141st Streets on Lenox Avenue. Other historical venues of Lenox Avenue are Sylvia's Restaurant, located between 127th; the corner of Lenox Avenue and 125th Street is mentioned in the song "When the Revolution Comes" by The Last Poets on their self-titled album. Small Talk at 125th and Lenox is an album by Gil Scott-Heron. Lenox Avenue Breakdown is an album by jazz alto saxophonist Arthur Blythe. Columbia Records released the album in 1979. In The Fire Next Time, James Baldwin refers to Lenox Avenue as "The Avenue"; the main characters of the 1992 novel Jazz by Toni Morrison live at Lenox Avenue.
The video for Madonna's 1994 single "Secret" was shot on Lenox Avenue. "Lenox Avenue: Midnight", a well-known poem by Langston Hughes, is set on Lenox Avenue, as is his "The Weary Blues". The avenue is mentioned in his "Juke Box Love Song" and "Consider Me"; the avenue is featured in the first verse of the original Irving Berlin lyrics of "Puttin' On the Ritz". The song refers to the then-popular fad of poor but flashily dressed black Harlemites parading up and down Lenox Avenue, "Spending ev'ry dime / For a wonderful time". In the title track of his debut record Lifestylez ov da Poor & Dangerous, Big L raps about 139th Street and Lenox Avenue. There is a web series on YouTube called Lenox Avenue starring Al Thompson, who created and produced the series; the street signs are featured in the opening titles of the 2016 Netflix series Luke Cage, which takes place and was filmed in Harlem
The Holland Tunnel is a vehicular tunnel under the Hudson River. It connects Manhattan in New York City, New York, to the east, Jersey City, New Jersey, to the west. An integral conduit within the New York metropolitan area, the Holland Tunnel is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; the tunnel carries Interstate 78. Plans for a fixed vehicular crossing over the Hudson River were first devised in 1906. However, disagreements prolonged the planning process until 1919, when it was decided to build a tunnel under the river. Construction of the Holland Tunnel started in 1920, it opened in 1927. At the time of its opening, the Holland Tunnel was the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnel in the world; the Holland Tunnel is one of three vehicular crossings between Manhattan and New Jersey, the others being the Lincoln Tunnel and the George Washington Bridge. The Holland Tunnel was known as the Hudson River Vehicular Tunnel or the Canal Street Tunnel, it was renamed the Holland Tunnel in memory of Clifford Milburn Holland, the chief engineer, following his sudden death in 1924, but before the tunnel was opened.
The Holland Tunnel was the world's first mechanically ventilated tunnel. The Holland Tunnel is operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, it consists of a pair of tubes with 29.5-foot diameters, running parallel to each other and 15 feet apart underneath the Hudson River. The exteriors of each tube are composed of a series of cast iron rings, which themselves comprise 14 curved steel pieces, each of, 6 feet long; the steel rings, in turn, are covered by a 19-inch-thick layer of concrete. Each tube provides a 20-foot roadway with two lanes and 12 feet 6 inches of vertical clearance; the north tube is 8,558 feet between portals, while the south tube is shorter, at 8,371 feet. If each tube's immediate approach roads are included, the north tube is 9,210 feet long and the south tube 9,275 feet long. Most vehicles carrying hazmats, trucks with more than three axles, vehicles carrying trailers cannot use the tunnel. There is a width limit of 8 feet for vehicles entering the tunnel. Both tubes' underwater sections are 5,410 feet long and are situated in the silt beneath the river.
The lowest point of the roadways is about 93 feet below mean high water, the lowest point of the tunnel ceiling is about 72 feet below mean high water. The tubes descend at a maximum grade of 4.06% and ascend at a grade of up to 3.8%. The tubes stretch an additional 1,000 feet from the eastern shoreline to the New York portals, 500 feet from the western shoreline to the New Jersey portals; these sections of the tunnel are more rectangular in shape, since they were built as open cuts that were covered over. The walls and ceiling are furnished with glazed ceramic tiles, which were engineered to minimize staining; the majority of the tiles are white, but there is a two-tile-high band of yellow-orange tiles at the bottom of each tube's walls, as well as two-tile-high band of blue tiles on the top. The northern tube, which carries westbound traffic, originates at Broome Street in Manhattan between Varick and Hudson Streets; the southern tube, for eastbound traffic, originates at 12th Street east of Marin Boulevard, surfaces at the Holland Tunnel Rotary in Manhattan.
The entrance and exit ramps to and from each portal are lined with granite and are 30 feet wide. Although the two tubes' underwater sections are parallel and adjacent to each other, the tubes' portals on either side are located two blocks apart in order to reduce congestion on each side; the Holland Tunnel's tubes contained a road surface made of Belgian blocks and concrete, but this was replaced with asphalt in 1955. Each tube contains a catwalk on its left side, raised 4 feet above the roadway. Five emergency-exit cross-passages connect the two tubes' inner catwalks; when the Holland Tunnel opened, the catwalk was equipped with police booths and a telephone system, stationed at intervals of 250 feet. The amount of traffic going through the Holland Tunnel has remained steady despite tight restrictions on eastbound traffic in response to the September 11, 2001, including a ban on commercial traffic entering New York City put in place after an August 2004 threat. Aside from a sharp decline following the September 11 attacks, the number of vehicles using the Holland Tunnel in either direction daily has declined from a peak of 103,020 daily vehicles in 1999 to 89,792 vehicles in 2016.
As of 2017, the eastbound direction of the Holland Tunnel was used by 14,871,543 vehicles annually. The Holland Tunnel was designed by Clifford Milburn Holland, chief engineer on the project, who died in October 1924, before it was completed, he was succeeded by Milton Harvey Freeman, who died less than a year after Holland did. Afterward, Ole Singstad oversaw the completion of the tunnel; the tunnel was designated a National Historic Civil and Mechanical Engineering Landmark in 1982 and a National Historic Landmark in 1993. Emergency services at the Holland Tunnel are provided by the Port Authority's Tunnel and Bridge Agents, who are stationed at the Port Authority's crossings; the Holland Tunnel was the first mechanically ventilated underwater vehicular tunnel in the world. It contains a system of vents that run transverse, or perpendicular, to the tubes; each side of the Hudson River has two ventilation shaf
New York City Department of Transportation
The New York City Department of Transportation is the agency of the government of New York City responsible for the management of much of New York City's transportation infrastructure. Polly Trottenberg is the current Commissioner of the Department of Transportation, was appointed by Mayor Bill de Blasio on January 1, 2014; the Department of Transportation's responsibilities include day-to-day maintenance of the city's streets, highways and sidewalks. The Department of Transportation is responsible for installing and maintaining the city's street signs, traffic signals and street lights. DOT supervises street resurfacing, pothole repair, parking meter installation and maintenance, the management of a municipal parking facilities. DOT operates the Staten Island Ferry. DOT is the exclusive provider of day-to-day operations and maintenance on New York State-maintained roads and highways in city limits, while major repairs and capital improvements on state-owned roads are performed by the State DOT.
Both DOT and NYSDOT reserve the right to install signage and other roadway features on state highways, which become maintained on a daily basis by DOT. DOT sets the speed limit on all roads and highways in the city, including those owned by NYSDOT. DOT is responsible for oversight of transportation-related issues, such as authorizing jitney van services and permits for street construction. DOT advocates for transportation safety issues, including promotion of pedestrian and bicycle safety, its regulations are compiled in title 34 of the New York City Rules. Commissioner of Transportation First Deputy Commissioner Sidewalk Inspection and Management Staten Island Ferry Service Bridges Transportation Planning & Management Roadway Repair and Maintenance Information Technology and Telecommunications Borough Commissioners Brooklyn Borough Commissioner Manhattan Borough Commissioner Bronx Borough Commissioner Queens Borough Commissioner Staten Island Borough Commissioner Policy External Affairs Finance and Program Management Human Resources and Facilities Management Legal As of 2017, DOT had the budget and staff as follows: The DOT operates 794 roadway and pedestrian bridges throughout New York City, including 25 movable bridges.
The agency's portfolio includes most of the East River and Harlem River bridges, as well as smaller bridges throughout the city. DOT operates two retractable bridges. Other agencies that operate road bridges in New York include the MTA, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the New York State DOT. At 1:30 a.m. on May 24 2012 DOT employee Harry Robinson ran over and killed Roxana Buta while operating a DOT truck. New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings, for hearings conducted on summonses for quality of life violations issued by the Department New York State Department of Transportation Official website Department of Transportation in the Rules of the City of New York NYC DOT Real Time Traffic Information
IND Eighth Avenue Line
The IND Eighth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line in New York City, United States, is part of the B Division of the New York City Subway. Opened in 1932, it was the first line of the Independent Subway System, the Eighth Avenue Subway name was applied by New Yorkers to the entire IND system; the line runs from 207th Street in Inwood south to an interlocking south of High Street in Brooklyn Heights, including large sections under St. Nicholas Avenue, Central Park West, Eighth Avenue; the entire length is underground, though the 207th Street Yard, which branches off near the north end, is on the surface. Flying junctions are provided with the IND Concourse Line, IND Sixth Avenue Line, IND Queens Boulevard Line. Most of the line has four tracks, with one local and one express track in each direction, except for the extreme north and south ends, where only the two express tracks continue. Internally, the line is chained as Line "A", with tracks A1, A3, A4, A2 from west to east, running from 800 at the south end to 1540 at the north end.
The whole line is served at all times by the A train. The C provides local service south of 168th Street. In addition, the B provides weekday local service and the D full-time express service between the Concourse Line and Sixth Avenue Line junctions, the E runs local from the Queens Boulevard Line junction at 50th Street south to World Trade Center; the A, C, E are colored blue on signs because they run via Eighth Avenue through Midtown Manhattan, while the B and D are orange since they use the Sixth Avenue Line through Midtown Manhattan. The following services use all of the Eighth Avenue Line; the trunk line's bullets are colored blue: The Eighth Avenue Line begins as a two-track subway under Broadway at 207th Street in Inwood. A flying junction just to the south brings two tracks from the 207th Street Yard between the main tracks, merging after Dyckman Street; the subway leaves Broadway to pass under Fort Tryon Park to the north end of Fort Washington Avenue, which it follows to 175th Street before turning southeast under private property.
The small 174th Street Yard lies under Broadway, with two tracks exiting to the south under that roadway. When the George Washington Bridge was designed in the 1920s, provisions were made for a lower deck that would carry these two tracks north from the yard and across the bridge, as well as two commuter rail tracks. However, when the lower level was added in 1962, it instead carried a roadway; the two main tracks from Fort Washington Avenue enter Broadway near 172nd Street and running underneath a public school at 174th Street, other private property, the yard tracks in a double-decker tunnel. A few blocks the lower tracks separate to straddle the yard tracks at 168th Street; the local/express split begins here, with the local tracks coming from the yard and the express tracks coming from Inwood. Contrary to standard practice, the two local tracks are in the center and the two express tracks are on the outside. Except during late nights, the local service ends at 168th Street, reversing direction on the yard tracks.
South of 168th Street, the express tracks lower below the local tracks, forming another double-decker tunnel, this time under St. Nicholas Avenue. North of 145th Street, the lower tracks rise into the center, the three-track IND Concourse Line enters St. Nicholas Avenue below the four-track Eighth Avenue Line. 145th Street is a two-level transfer station, with two island platforms on each level. To the south, the Concourse Line tracks rise and merge with the Eighth Avenue Line, carrying the B onto the local tracks and the D onto the express tracks; the resulting four-track line continues south under St. Nicholas Avenue and Eighth Avenue, which becomes Central Park West at 110th Street. Most of the line under Central Park West is built on two levels with both local tracks to the west and only local stations; the two northbound tracks are above the two southbound tracks. Approaching 59th Street–Columbus Circle, where Central Park West becomes Eighth Avenue, the subway again spreads out into a single four-track level.
A flying junction south of 59th Street takes B and D trains east under 53rd Street, merging with two tracks from 57th Street to become the four-track IND Sixth Avenue Line. The two-track IND Queens Boulevard Line in 53rd Street, curves south into a lower level of the 50th Street station, merges to the south, taking E trains onto the local tracks. An unused southbound-only lower level at 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal was accessed only from the southbound track from the Queens Boulevard Line. Plans for the 7 Subway Extension required demolishing the lower level to make room for the new IRT Flushing Line tracks; the four-track line continues south under Eighth Avenue to 14th Street, where it turns southeast under Greenwich Avenue and south under Sixth Avenue, above the four-track IND Sixth Avenue Line. The two-level West Fourth Street–Washington Square station allows easy transfers between the two lines. Just to the south are track connections between the local tracks of each line, not used by current normal service patterns.
The Sixth Avenue Line turns east into Houston Street after passing the connections. Canal Street, under Sixth Avenue, is the last normal four-track station on the line. Crossovers in each direction, beyond the station, take C and late night A trains between the local tracks to the north and the express tracks to the south; as the subway turns from Sixth Avenue into Church Street, th