John Colin Stillwell is an Australian mathematician on the faculties of the University of San Francisco and Monash University. He was born in Melbourne and lived there until he went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for his doctorate, he received his PhD from MIT in 1970, working under Hartley Rogers, Jr who had himself worked under Alonzo Church From 1970 until 2001 he taught at Monash University back in Australia and in 2002 began teaching in San Francisco. In 2005, Stillwell was the recipient of the Mathematical Association of America's prestigious Chauvenet Prize for his article “The Story of the 120-Cell,” Notices of the AMS, January 2001, pp. 17–24. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. Stillwell is the author of many textbooks and other books on mathematics including: Classical Topology and Combinatorial Group Theory, 1980, ISBN 0-387-97970-0 Mathematics and Its History, 1989, 3rd edition 2010, ISBN 0-387-95336-1 Geometry of Surfaces, 1992, ISBN 0-387-97743-0 Elements of Algebra: Geometry, Equations, 1994, ISBN 0-387-94290-4 Numbers and Geometry, 1998, ISBN 0-387-98289-2 Elements of Number Theory, 2003, ISBN 0-387-95587-9 The Four Pillars of Geometry, 2005, ISBN 0-387-25530-3 Yearning for the Impossible: The Surprising Truths of Mathematics, 2006, ISBN 1-56881-254-X Naive Lie Theory, 2008, ISBN 0-387-98289-2 Roads to Infinity, 2010, ISBN 978-1-56881-466-7 The Real Numbers: An Introduction to Set Theory and Analysis, 2013, ISBN 978-3319015767 Elements of Mathematics: From Euclid to Godel, 2016, ISBN 978-0691171685 Reverse Mathematics: Proofs from the Inside Out, 2018, ISBN 978-0691177175 Stillwell, John.
"The word problem and the isomorphism problem for groups". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.. 6: 33–56. Doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-1982-14963-1. MR 0634433. Stillwell, John. "Efficient computations in groups and simplicial complexes". Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. 276: 715–727. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9947-1983-0688973-8. MR 0688973. Lenard, Andrew. "An algorithmically unsolvable problem in analysis". Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society. 88: 129–130. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-1983-0691292-2. MR 0691292. Stillwell, John. "The occurrence problem for mapping class groups". Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society. 101: 411–416. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-1987-0908639-5. MR 0908639. Stillwell, John. "Poincaré and the early history of 3-manifolds". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society.. 49: 555–576. Doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-2012-01385-x
Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe
The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can be understood as natural resources that groups of people manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values employed for a governance mechanism. Commons can be defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates; the Digital Library of the Commons defines "commons" as "a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest". The term "commons" derives from the traditional English legal term for common land, which are known as "commons", was popularised in the modern sense as a shared resource term by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in an influential 1968 article called The Tragedy of the Commons.
As Frank van Laerhoven and Elinor Ostrom have stated. The precision of this distinction is not always maintained; the use of "commons" for natural resources has its roots in European intellectual history, where it referred to shared agricultural fields, grazing lands and forests that were, over a period of several hundred years, claimed as private property for private use. In European political texts, the common wealth was the totality of the material riches of the world, such as the air, the water, the soil and the seed, all nature's bounty regarded as the inheritance of humanity as a whole, to be shared together. In this context, one may go back further, to the Roman legal category res communis, applied to things common to all to be used and enjoyed by everyone, as opposed to res publica, applied to public property managed by the government; the examples below illustrate types of environmental commons. In medieval England the common was an integral part of the manor, was thus part of the estate in land owned by the lord of the manor, but over which certain classes of manorial tenants and others held certain rights.
By extension, the term "commons" has come to be applied to other resources which a community has rights or access to. The older texts use the word "common" to denote any such right, but more modern usage is to refer to particular rights of common, to reserve the name "common" for the land over which the rights are exercised. A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. In middle Europe, commons were kept, till the present; some studies have compared the German and English dealings with the commons between late medieval times and the agrarian reforms of the 18th and 19th centuries. The UK was quite radical in doing away with and enclosing former commons, while southwestern Germany had the most advanced commons structures, were more inclined to keep them; the Lower Rhine region took an intermediate position. However, the UK and the former dominions have till today a large amount of Crown land, used for community or conservation purposes.
Based on a research project by the Environmental and Cultural Conservation in Inner Asia from 1992 to 1995, satellite images were used to compare the amount of land degradation due to livestock grazing in the regions of Mongolia and China. In Mongolia, where shepherds were permitted to move collectively between seasonal grazing pastures, degradation remained low at 9%. Comparatively and China, which mandated state-owned pastures involving immobile settlements and in some cases privatization by household, had much higher degradation, at around 75% and 33% respectively. A collaborative effort on the part of Mongolians proved much more efficient in preserving grazing land. Widespread success of the Maine lobster industry is attributed to the willingness of Maine's lobstermen to uphold and support lobster conservation rules; these rules include harbor territories not recognized by the state, informal trap limits, laws imposed by the state of Maine. The lobstermen collaborate without much government intervention to sustain their common-pool resource.
In the late 1980s, Nepal chose to decentralize government control over forests. Community forest programs work by giving local areas a financial stake in nearby woodlands, thereby increasing the incentive to protect them from overuse. Local institutions regulate harvesting and selling of timber and land, must use any profit towards community development and preservation of the forests. In twenty years, locals have noticed a visible increase in the number of trees. Community forestry may contribute to community development in rural areas – for instance school construction and drinking water channel construction, road construction. Community forestry has proven conducive to democratic practices at grass roots level. Acequia is a method of collective responsibility and management for irrigation systems in desert areas. In New Mexico, a community-run organization known as Acequia Associations
Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It has a primary focus on science and technology, but still retains a strong interest in the arts and humanities. In 1958, a trust was established with Sir Winston Churchill as its chairman of trustees, to build and endow a college for 60 fellows and 540 students as a national and Commonwealth memorial to Winston Churchill, it is situated on the outskirts of Cambridge, away from the traditional centre of the city, but close to the University's main new development zone, which some would argue is the new city centre. Its 16 hectares of grounds make it physically the largest of all the colleges. Churchill was the first all-male college to decide to admit women, was among three men's colleges to admit its first women students in 1972. Within 15 years all others had followed suit; the college has a reputation for relative informality compared with other Cambridge colleges, traditionally admits a larger proportion of its undergraduates from state schools.
The college motto is "Forward". It was taken from the final phrase of Winston Churchill's first speech to the House of Commons as Prime Minister – his famous "Blood, Toil and Sweat" speech – in which he said "Come let us go forward together". In 1955, on holiday in Sicily soon after his resignation as prime minister, Winston Churchill discussed with Sir John Colville and Lord Cherwell the possibility of founding a new institution. Churchill had been impressed by MIT and wanted a British version, but the plans evolved into the more modest proposal of creating a science and technology-based college within the University of Cambridge. Churchill wanted a mix of non-scientists to ensure a well-rounded education and environment for scholars and fellows; the college therefore admits students to read all subjects except land economy and theology & religious studies. The first postgraduate students arrived in October 1960, the first undergraduates a year later. Full college status was received in 1966.
All students were male. Women were not accepted as undergraduates until 1972; the bias to science and engineering remains as policy to the current day, with the statutes requiring 70% science and technology students amongst its student intake each year. The college statutes stipulate that one third of the students of the college should be studying for postgraduate qualification. Cambridge University Radio broadcast from Churchill College from 1979 until 2011. In 1958, a 42-acre site was purchased to the west of the city centre, farmland. After a competition, Richard Sheppard was appointed to design the new college. Building was completed by 1968 with nine main residential courts, separate graduate flats and a central building consisting of the dining hall, combination rooms and offices; the dining hall is the largest in Cambridge. It measures 22m square, 9m to the base of the vault beams, 11.6m to the highest point. It can cater for up to 430 guests in a formal dining arrangement; the main college buildings and courtyards are arranged around a large central space, in which the library was placed.
Only a few years being opened in 1974, an extension to the library building was added to house the Churchill Archives Centre. Its original purpose was to provide a home to Sir Winston's papers, however since it has been endowed with papers from other political figures including former Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major, as well as former Leader of the Opposition Neil Kinnock, those of eminent scientists and engineers including Reginald Victor Jones, Rosalind Franklin and Sir Frank Whittle. In 1992, the Møller Centre for Continuing Education was built on the Churchill site, designed by Henning Larsen, it is a dedicated residential executive training and conference centre, aiming to bring together education and commerce. As well as the main College buildings, Sheppard designed a separate group of flats, known as the Sheppard flats, for the use of married graduate students; these are located to one side of a short distance from the main buildings. At the farthest end of the college grounds is the Chapel.
Sheppard's original design placed it within the main building complex near the college main entrance. The idea of having a religious building within a modern, scientifically-oriented academic institution annoyed some of the original fellows, leading to the resignation of Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick in protest. A compromise was found: the chapel was sited just to the west of the Sheppard Flats, funded and managed separately from the rest of the College itself, being tactfully referred to as "the Chapel at Churchill College"; the chimney of the heating system at the front of the college substitutes visually for the missing chapel tower. Crick had agreed to become a fellow on the basis. A donation was made by Lord Beaumont of Whitley to Churchill College for the establishment of one, the majority of fellows voted in favour of it. Sir Winston Churchill wrote to him saying that no-one need enter the chapel unless they wished to do so, therefore it did not need to be a problem. Crick, in short order, replied with a letter dated 12 October 1961 accompanied by a cheque for 10 guineas saying that, if that were the case, the enclosed money should be used for the establishment of a brothel.
This story was repeated by Crick in an interview with Matt Ridley, quotes from which are reported in the Daily Telegraph. The
St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort. In constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511; the aims of the college, as specified by its statutes, are the promotion of education, religion and research. The college's alumni include the winners of ten Nobel Prizes, seven prime ministers and twelve archbishops of various countries, at least two princes and three Saints; the Romantic poet William Wordsworth studied at the college, as did William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, the two abolitionists who led the movement that brought slavery to an end in the British Empire. Prince William was affiliated with St John's while undertaking a university-run course in estate management in 2014. St John's College is well known for its choir, its members' success in a wide variety of inter-collegiate sporting competitions and its annual May Ball. In 2011, the college celebrated its quincentenary, an event marked by a visit of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.
The site was occupied by the Hospital of St John the Evangelist founded around 1200. By 1470 Thomas Rotherham Chancellor of the university, extended to it the privileges of membership of the university; this led to St. John's House, as it was known, being conferred the status of a college. By the early 16th century the hospital was suffering from a lack of funds. Lady Margaret Beaufort, having endowed Christ's College sought to found a new college, chose the hospital site at the suggestion of John Fisher, her chaplain and Bishop of Rochester. However, Lady Margaret died without having mentioned the foundation of St John's in her will, it was the work of Fisher that ensured that the college was founded, he had to obtain the approval of King Henry VIII of England, the Pope through the intermediary Polydore Vergil, the Bishop of Ely to suppress the religious hospital, by which time held only a Master and three Augustinian brethren, convert it to a college. The college received its charter on 9 April 1511.
Further complications arose in obtaining money from the estate of Lady Margaret to pay for the foundation and it was not until 22 October 1512 that a codicil was obtained in the court of the Archbishop of Canterbury. In November 1512 the Court of Chancery allowed Lady Margaret's executors to pay for the foundation of the college from her estates; when Lady Margaret's executors took over they found most of the old Hospital buildings beyond repair, but repaired and incorporated the Chapel into the new college. A kitchen and hall were added, an imposing gate tower was constructed for the College Treasury; the doors were to be closed each day at dusk. Over the course of the following five hundred years, the college expanded westwards towards the River Cam, now has twelve courts, the most of any Oxford or Cambridge College; the first three courts are arranged in enfilade. The college has retained its relationship with Shrewsbury School since 1578, when the headmaster Thomas Ashton assisted in drawing up ordinances to govern the school.
Under these rulings, the borough bailiffs had power to appoint masters, along with Ashton's old college, St John's, having an academic veto. Since the appointment of Johnian academics to the Governing Body, the historic awarding of'closed' Shrewsbury Exhibitions, has continued; the current Master of St. John’s, Chris Dobson, has remained an ex officio Governor of Shrewsbury since 2007. St John's College first admitted women in October 1981, when K. M. Wheeler was admitted to the fellowship, along with nine female graduate students; the first women undergraduates arrived a year later. St John's distinctive Great Gate follows the standard contemporary pattern employed at Christ's College and Queens' College; the gatehouse is adorned with the arms of the foundress Lady Margaret Beaufort. Above these are displayed her ensigns, the Red Rose of Lancaster and Portcullis; the college arms are flanked by curious creatures known as yales, mythical beasts with elephants' tails, antelopes' bodies, goats' heads, swivelling horns.
Above them is a tabernacle containing a socle figure of St John the Evangelist, an Eagle at his feet and symbolic, poisoned chalice in his hands. The fan vaulting above is contemporary with tower, may have been designed by William Swayne, a master mason of King's College Chapel. First Court is entered via the Great Gate, is architecturally varied. First Court was converted from the hospital on the foundation of the college, constructed between 1511 and 1520. Though it has since been changed, the front range is still much as it appeared when first erected in the 16th century; the south range was refaced between 1772–6 in the Georgian style by the local architect, James Essex, as part of an abortive attempt to modernise the entire court in the same fashion. The most dramatic alteration to the original, Tudor court, remains the Victorian amendment of the north range, which involved the demolition of the original mediaeval chapel and the construction of a new, far larger set of buildings in the 1860s.
These included the Chapel, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, which includes in its interior some pieces saved from the original chapel. It is the tallest building in Cambridge; the alteration of the north range necessitated the restructuring of the connective sections of First Court.