In Norse mythology, Skaði is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing and mountains. Skaði is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources. Skaði is the daughter of the deceased Þjazi, Skaði married the god Njörðr as part of the compensation provided by the gods for killing her father Þjazi. In Heimskringla, Skaði is described as having split up with Njörðr and as having married the god Odin, that the two produced many children together. In both the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Skaði is responsible for placing the serpent that drips venom onto the bound Loki. Skaði Öndurdís; the etymology of the name Skaði is uncertain, but may be connected with the original form of Scandinavia. Some place names in Scandinavia refer to Skaði. Scholars have theorized a potential connection between Skaði and the god Ullr, a particular relationship with the jötunn Loki, that Scandinavia may be related to the name Skaði or the name may be connected to an Old Norse noun meaning'harm'.
Skaði has inspired various works of art. The Old Norse name Skaði, along with Scadinavia and Skáney, may be related to Gothic skadus, Old English sceadu, Old Saxon scado, Old High German scato. Scholar John McKinnell comments that this etymology suggests Skaði may have once been a personification of the geographical region of Scandinavia or associated with the underworld. Georges Dumézil disagrees with the notion of Scadin-avia as etymologically'the island of the goddess Skaði.' Dumézil comments that the first element Scadin must have had—or once had—a connection to "darkness" "or something else we cannot be sure of". Dumézil says that, the name Skaði derives from the name of the geographical region, at the time no longer understood. In connection, Dumézil points to a parallel in Ériu, a goddess personifying Ireland that appears in some Irish texts, whose name he says comes from Ireland rather than the other way around. Alternatively, Skaði may be connected with the Old Norse noun skaði, source of the Icelandic and Faroese skaði and cognate with English scathe.
Skaði is attested in poems found in the Poetic Edda, in two books of the Prose Edda and in one Heimskringla book. In the Poetic Edda poem Grímnismál, the god Odin reveals to the young Agnarr the existence of twelve locations. Odin mentions the location Þrymheimr sixth in a single stanza. In the stanza, Odin details that the jötunn Þjazi once lived there, that now his daughter Skaði does. Odin describes Þrymheimr as consisting of "ancient courts" and refers to Skaði as "the shining bride of the gods". In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, the god Freyr has become heartsick for a fair girl he has spotted in Jötunheimr; the god Njörðr asks Freyr's servant Skírnir to talk to Freyr, in the first stanza of the poem, Skaði tells Skírnir to ask Freyr why he is so upset. Skírnir responds. In the prose introduction to the poem Lokasenna, Skaði is referred to as the wife of Njörðr and is cited as one of the goddesses attending Ægir's feast. After Loki has an exchange with the god Heimdallr, Skaði interjects.
Skaði tells Loki that he is "light-hearted" and that Loki will not be "playing with tail wagging free" for much longer, for soon the gods will bind Loki to a sharp rock with the ice-cold entrails of his son. Loki responds that if this is so, he was "first and foremost" at the killing of Þjazi. Skaði responds that, if this is so, "baneful advice" will always flow from her "sanctuaries and plains". Loki responds that Skaði was more friendly in speech when Skaði was in his bed—an accusation he makes to most of the goddesses in the poem and is not attested elsewhere. Loki's flyting turns to the goddess Sif. In the prose section at the end of Lokasenna, the gods catch Loki and bind him with the innards of his son Nari, while they turn his son Váli into a wolf. Skaði places a venomous snake above Loki's face. Venom drips from the snake and Loki's wife Sigyn sits and holds a basin beneath the serpent, catching the venom; when the basin is full, Sigyn must empty it, during that time the snake venom falls onto Loki's face, causing him to writhe in a tremendous fury, so much so that all earthquakes stem from Loki's writhings.
In the poem Hyndluljóð, the female jötunn Hyndla tells the goddess Freyja various mythological genealogies. In one stanza, Hyndla notes that Skaði was his daughter. In the Prose Edda, Skaði is attested in two books: Skáldskaparmál. In chapter 23 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High details that Njörðr's wife is Skaði, that she is the daughter of the jötunn Þjazi, recounts a tale involving the two. High recalls. However, Njörðr wanted to live nearer to the sea. Subsequently, the two made an agreement that they would spend nine nights in Þrymheimr and the next three nights in Njörðr's sea-side home Nóatún. However, when Njörðr returned from the mountains to Nóatún, he said: "Hateful for me are the mountains, I was not long there, only nine nights; the howling of the wolves sounded ugly to me after the song of the swans." Skaði responded: "Sleep I could not on the sea
Opus Casino is a cruiseferry built in 1985 in Valencia, Spain for Marítima de Formentera SA, to handle traffic between Ibiza and Formentera. In July 2012, the vessel was donated to The Seasteading Institute, is available for bareboat charter or sale, preferably to businesses that could support experimentation with long-term ocean habitation. A 1986 incident required expensive repairs. In 1993, the vessel was sold to Helton Limited. In 1995, she was sold to Adventure Holdings Corp. and commenced duty as a casino ship near Florida under the name Royal Empress. In 2004, she was sold to Royal Star. In fall 2009, the vessel owner at the time, Las Vegas Casino Lines, LLC, declared bankruptcy and Liquid Vegas was sold at auction on October 29, 2009, by the Canaveral Port Authority; the winning bid was US$2,060,000 by The Mermaid I, LLC. The ship is classified through Registro Italiano Navale. Fact sheet and deck plans - The Seasteading Institute Partial ship history until 2004 - Fakta om fartyg Professional photographs from shipspotting.com "Opus Casino".
Equasis. French Ministry for Transport. Retrieved 27 August 2012
The St Andrews Railway was an independent railway company founded in 1851 to build a railway branch line from the university town of St Andrews, in Fife, Scotland, to the nearby main line railway. It opened in 1852; when the Tay Rail Bridge opened in 1878 residential travel to Dundee was encouraged. The railway was engineered as a low-cost line by Thomas Bouch and the company suffered adversely from that in years, sold their line to the larger North British Railway in 1877; the line was successful until road transport competition began to abstract traffic, when the Tay Road Bridge opened in 1966, 40% of the line's passenger carryings were lost immediately. Decline continued and the line closed in 1969; the town of St Andrews is ancient. The University of St Andrews was founded in 1411, but there was little industry in the town, linen weaving being the chief occupation, and agriculture. The engineer Robert Stevenson was commissioned to survey a railway route crossing Fife in 1819; however this would have been a long distance route and the steam locomotives of the day were not practicable, the scheme was dropped.
In 1835 John Geddes surveyed a line from Burntisland to Ladybank, forking there and running to Perth and the location that became Tayport. This scheme too failed to develop into a proposal, but a revised survey of 1840 gained support as the economic situation improved, as railways elsewhere had demonstrated that longer distances could be handled by railways. In 1840 the Edinburgh and Northern Railway was proposed, following this route, the proposal led to an authorising Act of Parliament on 31 July 1845. There were some late changes to the proposed route, but the Edinburgh and Northern Railway's line opened on 20 September 1847 between Burntisland and Cupar by way of Kirkcaldy and Ladybank; the Company had changed its name on 27 July 1847 to the Edinburgh Perth and Dundee Railway on merging with its partner railway at Granton. It extended to Leuchars, not far from St Andrews on 17 May 1848; the Edinburgh and Northern was an immediate success, although the Forth had to be crossed by ferry from Granton: at this stage there was no question of bridging the Forth or the lower Tay.
The original prospectus for the Edinburgh and Northern had included a branch line to St Andrews, but this was not included in the Parliamentary Bill. At this stage, before the first train had run on the main line, the Edinburgh and Northern, soon to be the EP&DR, was concentrating its resources on construction of its extensive original routes. People in St Andrews, seeing the reality of the Edinburgh and Northern position, decided that independent action was called for, on 19 December 1850 a meeting agreed to promote a local scheme, they moved and obtained the authorisation for their railway by the St Andrews Railway Act of 3 July 1851, with capital of £21,000. It was emphasised that the subscribers to the line were local, avoiding getting involved in the contrary strategies of remote shareholders, the directors of the new company had no previous railway experience, they engaged as their engineer Thomas Bouch, the contractor was Kenneth Matthieson. This was Bouch's first commission in private practice, he determined to make a name for himself by designing cheap local railways.
Once again the Company moved for the contract for construction was signed with Matthieson on 11 August 1851. The new line was to make a physical junction with the Edinburgh and Northern line about a mile south of Leuchars station. There was to be one intermediate station at Guardbridge west of the River Eden crossing. St Andrews was a considerable community at the time, the station there was some distance short of the centre, at the "sheep park", just beyond the seventeenth hole of the Old Course; the Royal and Ancient Golf Club had vigorously opposed a closer approach. Construction proceeded well and opening was anticipated for the end of June 1852; the line travelled over flat land, cheaply acquired. An arrangement with the Edinburgh and Northern Railway whereby they would work the trains was concluded, to run for 25 years from 1 July 1852, with the E&NR paying 4.5% on St Andrews Railway shares. Captain Laffan of the Board of Trade approved it for opening. There was an official opening ceremony on 29 June 1852 and a full public opening on 1 July 1852.
The line had cost £21,565 to construct. The train services consisted of four trains each way daily except Sundays. Passenger traffic developed well, there was a considerable volume of excursion traffic in to St Andrews. Coach services were run from some of the nearby towns, including Crail and Anstruther, to St Andrews, enabling onward travel by train; the journey on the branch took twenty minutes. July saw a "monster" excursion to Glasgow. Goods traffic was less significant. Although some improvements had been made to the Leuchars station (which had been built as a
Ralph Morris Buchsbaum was an American zoologist, invertebrate biologist, ecologist. His book Animals Without Backbones, first published in 1938, was the first textbook in biology to be reviewed by Time and featured in Life, it has gone through several revisions and is still in print, has been used as a textbook. It was still being used as of 2013. Due to his 1938 book, Buchsbaum became known as a popularizer of science. In 1952 he founded the Boxwood Press, which published others' science books, he made a series of 29 educational films on biology for the Encyclopædia Britannica, visited Thailand, Ecuador and India, where he helped develop educational curricula in biology. Buchsbaum was born in Chickasha, Indian Territory, now part of Oklahoma, he earned his Ph. D. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1932 and continued there as a faculty member until 1950, when he moved to the University of Pittsburgh. Buchsbaum married Mildred Shaffer, she was a research assistant. The Buchsbaums had a daughter Vicki and a son Monte.
John Pearse was their son-in-law. In 1952, he founded the Boxwood Press to publish his laboratory guide and expanded into publishing other books about science. Mildred Shaffer Buchsbaum was an editor for the company, she died January 16, 1996. Although he is remembered for his books, his research was in tissue culture. Ralph and Mildred Buchsbaum were the first to create chimeras between the green alga Chlorella and chick fibroblast cells, he worked with Harold Urey to find a way to use the ratio of oxygen isotopes to determine temperatures in previous eras. He continued to write and run the Boxwood Press, he died February 2002 in Pacific Grove, California, of heart failure. His son, Monte Buchsbaum, will run the Boxwood Press. Ralph Buchsbaum co-wrote at least fourteen books. Including these: Animals Without Backbones: An Introduction to the Invertebrates with Mildred Buchsbaum Ralph Buchsbaum took many of the photographs and photomicrographs; the first two revisions were published in Pelican editions of two volumes and had illustrations by Elizabeth Buchsbaum Newhall, whose drawings of planaria inspired M.
C. Escher; the third edition combined the two volumes. Vicki Pearse & John Pearse were added as co-authors along with Mildred Buchsbaum; some illustrations were modified by Mildred Waldtrip. The text was extensively revised to reflect recent research and the bibliography was updated. Living Invertebrates with Vicki Pearse, John Pearse, & Mildred Buchsbaum was an expanded version of Animals without Backbones; the 1987 edition has ISBN 0-86542-312-1. Balance in Nature with Bertha Parker, Peterson and Co. Basic Ecology with Mildred Buchsbaum, Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA The life in the sea, Oregon State System of Higher Education The Lower Animals with Mildred Buchsbaum & Lorus Milne & Margery Milne Thermal Stress on Cellular Structure and Function Laboratory Notes by Ralph BuchsbaumEdited: A Book That Shook the World. Titles include these: The Sea Gene Action The Chick Embryo from Primitive Streak to Hatching Collaboration with Harold Urey: Epstein, S.. A.. C. Carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale.
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. April 1951, v. 62, no. 4, 417–426. Epstein, S.. A.. C. Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 1953, 64, 1315–1325. Boxwood published many titles in biology and natural history, as well as in history and other subject areas, they include these: Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Spionidae, Abalone: Gross and Fine Structure Hydra and the Birth of Experimental Biology Bird Year Elephant Seals Woody Plants in Winter Tom Beveridge's Ozarks by Thomas L. Beveridge Monterey Bay Area: Natural History and Cultural Imprints Año Nuevo, A Panama Forest and Shore
The Port of Omaha is a port of entry in the United States with facilities on the west side of the Missouri River in Omaha, Nebraska. The official address is located at 5229 Boeing Court in East Omaha; the Port was formally sanctioned by the U. S. Congress in 1888. Founded on the settlement of Omaha in 1856, the Port of Omaha was surveyed by Benjamin H. Barrows. Located at the foot of Davenport Street in Downtown Omaha, in recent years that site has been redeveloped as a boat launch and docking location called Miller's Landing. In addition to handling outbound barge shipments of grain and passenger boats, the Port handled inbound shipments of steel and asphalt. Starting in the 1930s the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers planned to channelize the Missouri River, business leaders in Omaha began clamoring for increased barge traffic to the city. In 1937 the Omaha Chamber of Commerce began lobbying the Nebraska State Legislature to create a dock authority that could take funds from the Public Works Administration to support the development of the Port property.
The Union Pacific Railroad, based in Omaha, supported the move believing it would generate more business for its tracks. In 1938 John Latenser, Sr. drew up plans, which were subsequently submitted and denied by the PWA. Subsequent bids to the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Works Progress Administration failed as well, leaving the city without adequate docking facilities when barge traffic opened in 1940. There was once a spur railroad line to the location, in the 1950s there were plans to develop the site with modern storage buildings and a crane for unloading; as part of its Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository plan, the U. S. Department of Energy proposes using the Port to receive up to 125 barge shipments carrying giant high-level radioactive waste containers up the Missouri River from the Cooper Nuclear Station, located at Brownville, Nebraska. A new, 11 mile segment of trail scheduled for the Omaha riverfront will provide the opportunity for recreation within sight of the Missouri River.
The trail will stretch from the Port of Omaha to N. P. Dodge Park; the Missouri River Pedestrian Bridge will cross the Missouri next to the Port across to Playland Park in Council Bluffs. History of Omaha Transportation in Omaha
Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis is a construction and management simulation video game based on the Jurassic Park series developed by Blue Tongue Entertainment and co-published by Vivendi Universal Games under their Universal Interactive subsidiary and Konami. It was released for Windows and PlayStation 2; the game's primary goal is to construct a five-star rated dinosaur theme park named Jurassic Park on custom-generated islands by hatching dinosaurs, building attractions, keeping visitors entertained, ensuring the park's safety. Development began in 2001, lasted 22 months; the game was announced in February 2002, with its release scheduled for late 2002. The game was released in North America and the PAL region in March 2003, followed by a Japanese release that year. According to Metacritic, the Windows and Xbox versions received "Mixed or average" reviews, while the PlayStation 2 version received "Generally favorable" reviews; the player's main objective is to create a theme park/zoo featuring dinosaurs, make it popular, make it safe with a 5-star rating.
Gameplay functions are similar to the SimCity and Tycoon game models. It is necessary to build feeding stations where herbivores can get bales of plant feed, while carnivores are fed live cows or goats. However, herbivores become unhappy if they don't have enough trees around them or enough nearby dinosaurs to socialize with. Carnivores have an innate desire to hunt other dinosaurs, so a constant stream of livestock will not keep them happy. To create a dinosaur, fifty percent of the particular dinosaur's DNA is needed; the higher the percentage of DNA, the longer that dinosaur will live, unless it dies by means other than natural causes, such as malnutrition or being attacked by another dinosaur. To obtain a dinosaur's DNA, the player must extract it through fossils or amber. Higher quality specimens will yield more DNA. To obtain fossils and amber, the player must send a fossil-hunting team to dig in one of nine dig sites around the world. Additional dig teams can be purchased in the game; each dig site contains fossils from three particular dinosaurs.
Fossils of some dinosaurs, such as Brachiosaurus, can be found in more than one dig site. The chance of finding fossils depends on the quality of the site. There are 6 classifications on the quality of a dig site, ranging from "excellent" to "exhausted." It is still possible to find fossils and amber at sites that have been exhausted, although they are of low quality with little DNA to provide. Valuable items such as silver, gold, or opal are discovered infrequently by the dig team, can be sold for profit. Attractions help make the park popular, increase its rating power and income when configured. Attractions must be researched before they can be constructed, include the Balloon Tour, Safari Adventure and Viewing Dome. Viewing Vents and Viewing Platforms do not need to be researched; the Safari Tour and Balloon Tour attractions allow for the player to "take over" the ride for the purpose of park exploration and photography, but only when a visitor in the game is using it. The player may observe the dinosaurs from the Viewing Dome, Viewing Vent, Viewing Platform by selecting the "View" option after clicking on the building.
Amenities such as restrooms and restaurants are needed for visitors. Additional buildings such as a gift shop and a resting area must be researched before the player can add them into the park. Vaccines for diseases–such as tick infestation, gastric poisoning and the fictional Dino Flu –must be researched before a sick dinosaur can be treated for a particular illness. There are a total of 25 dinosaurs featured in the game; the dinosaurs are divided into four main sub-groups. Small Herbivores such as Gallimimus and Pachycephalosaurus are easy to care for and do not take up much space, but are not as popular with guests. Large Herbivores such as Brachiosaurus and Triceratops are popular with visitors and do not require expensive fences, but need large spacious exhibits. Small Carnivores such as Dilophosaurus and Velociraptor do not need tight security like their larger counterparts, but can still harm guests if they escape. Large Carnivores such as Tyrannosaurus and Spinosaurus are the most popular dinosaurs in the game, but require large exhibits with high security fences and are prone to rampaging when stressed.
The game has 10 missions. In some websites like IGN and GameSpot, early previews indicated that there were to be 12 missions. There are about three or four general types of missions, including taking photographs of dinosaurs to try to rack up a certain number of points from the photos in a safari mission and dinosaur control missions where the player has to retire the carnivores to protect the herbivores. After all the missions are completed, the "Site B" mode is unlocked, which allows the player to create an island without any fences or buildings for people. Visitors are not allowed on the island; the player can place up to eight hatcheries and create up to sixty dinosaurs, which live on the island without diseases or the possibility of becoming stressed. As long as they have food and living space, the player can watch the dinosaurs interact and live out their lives. Development of the game began in 2001, lasted 22 months. Early in development, a total of 40 dinosaurs were planned for inclusion in the game.
This number was reduced to 25 due to scheduling issues, as well as the developers choosing to focus more on fewer dinosaurs that were well known from the Jurassic Park films. Marine rept