Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament
Bersi Skáldtorfuson was an Icelandic skald, active around the year 1000 CE. He was a court poet to Earl Sveinn Hákonarson. During the Battle of Nesjar he was captured by King Óláfr Haraldsson's forces. In captivity he composed three of his four stanzas. One lausavísa is attributed to Bersi in the surviving fragments of Óláfs saga helga by Styrmir Kárason, but the same stanza is attributed to Sigvatr Þórðarson in Heimskringla and to Óttarr svarti in other sagas on St. Óláfr. Styrmir's saga gives some information on Bersi's career in St. Óláfr's service and indicates that he died in 1030. Bersi was at some point at the court of King Canute the Great where Sigvatr Þórðarson addressed him in verse after they had both received gifts from the king. Apart from being mentioned in the kings' sagas Bersi has a minor role in Grettis saga, chapters 15, 23 and 24, where he asks Earl Sveinn to spare Grettir Ásmundarson's life. Bersi's mother, Skáld-Torfa, was also a poet but none of her works have come down to us.
List of Icelandic writers List of skalds Icelandic literature Björnsson, Eysteinn. Lexicon of Kennings: The Domain of Battle. Fox and Hermann Pálsson. Grettir's Saga. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6165-6 Jónsson, Finnur. Lexicon Poeticum. København: S. L. Møllers Bogtrykkeri. Hollander, Lee M.. Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73061-6 Monsen, Erling and A. H. Smith. Heimskringla Or the Lives of the Norse Kings. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-8693-8 Poole, Russell G.. Viking Poems on War and Peace. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6789-1 Bersi Skáldtorfuson Extant poetry
The lyre is a string instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and periods. The lyre is similar in appearance with distinct differences. In organology, lyres are defined as "yoke lutes", being lutes in which the strings are attached to a yoke that lies in the same plane as the sound-table and consists of two arms and a cross-bar. In Ancient Greece, recitations of lyric poetry were accompanied by lyre playing; the earliest picture of a lyre with seven strings appears in the famous sarcophagus of Hagia Triada. The sarcophagus was used during the Mycenaean occupation of Crete; the lyre of classical antiquity was ordinarily played by being strummed with a plectrum, like a guitar or a zither, rather than being plucked with the fingers as with a harp. The fingers of the free hand silenced the unwanted strings in the chord. Instruments called "lyres", were played with a bow in Europe and parts of the Middle East, namely the Byzantine lyra and its descendants; the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists" and written in the Linear B script.
In classical Greek, the word "lyre" could either refer to an amateur instrument, a smaller version of the professional cithara and eastern-Aegean barbiton, or "lyre" can refer to all three instruments as a family. The English word comes via Latin from the Greek; the term is used metaphorically to refer to the work or skill of a poet, as in Shelley's "Make me thy lyre as the forest is" or Byron's "I wish to tune my quivering lyre, / To deeds of fame, notes of fire". A classical lyre has a hollow body or sound-chest, which, in ancient Greek tradition, was made out of turtle shell. Extending from this sound-chest are two raised arms, which are sometimes hollow, are curved both outward and forward, they are connected near the top by a yoke. An additional crossbar, fixed to the sound-chest, makes the bridge, which transmits the vibrations of the strings; the deepest note was that farthest from the player's body. The strings were of gut, they were stretched to a tailpiece below the bridge. There were two ways of tuning: one was to fasten the strings to pegs that might be turned, while the other was to change the placement of the string on the crossbar.
According to ancient Greek mythology, the young god Hermes stole a herd of sacred cows from Apollo. In order not to be followed, he made shoes for the cows. Apollo, following the trails, could not follow. Along the way, Hermes offered all but the entrails to the gods. From the entrails and a tortoise/turtle shell, he created the Lyre. Apollo, figuring out it was Hermes. Apollo was furious. Apollo offered to trade the herd of cattle for the lyre. Hence, the creation of the lyre is attributed to Hermes. Other sources credit it to Apollo himself. Locales in southern Europe, western Asia, or north Africa have been proposed as the historic birthplace of the genus; the instrument is still played in north-eastern parts of Africa. Some of the cultures using and developing the lyre were the Aeolian and Ionian Greek colonies on the coasts of Asia bordering the Lydian empire; some mythic masters like Musaeus, Thamyris were believed to have been born in Thrace, another place of extensive Greek colonization. The name kissar given by the ancient Greeks to Egyptian box instruments reveals the apparent similarities recognized by Greeks themselves.
The cultural peak of ancient Egypt, thus the possible age of the earliest instruments of this type, predates the 5th century classic Greece. This indicates the possibility that the lyre might have existed in one of Greece's neighboring countries, either Thrace, Lydia, or Egypt, was introduced into Greece at pre-classic times; the number of strings on the classical lyre varied at different epochs and in different localities—four and ten having been favorite numbers. They were used without a fingerboard, no Greek description or representation having been met with that can be construed as referring to one. Nor was a bow possible, the flat sound-board being an insuperable impediment; the pick, or plectrum, was in constant use. It was held in the right hand to set the upper strings in vibration; the fingers of the left hand touched the lower strings. There is no evidence as to the stringing of the Greek lyre in the heroic age. Plutarch says that Terpander used but three strings to accompany their recitation.
As the four strings led to seven and eight by doubling the tetrachord, or series of four tones filling in the interval of a perfect fourth, so the trichord is connected with the hexachord or six-stringed lyre depicted on many archaic Greek vases. The accuracy of this representation cannot be insisted upon, the vase painters being little mindful of the complete expression of details, it was their constant practice to represent the strings as being damped by the fingers of the left hand of the player, after having been struck by the
The Prose Edda known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda or simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland in the early 13th century. The work is assumed to have been written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar and historian Snorri Sturluson around the year 1220, it begins with a euhemerized Prologue, a section on the Norse cosmogony and myths. This is followed by three distinct books: Skáldskaparmál and Háttatal. Seven manuscripts, dating from around 1300 to around 1600, have independent textual value. Sturluson planned the collection as a textbook, it was to enable Icelandic poets and readers to understand the subtleties of alliterative verse, to grasp the meaning behind the many kenningar that were used in skaldic poetry. The Prose Edda was referred to as Edda, but was titled the Prose Edda in modern collections to distinguish it from the collections titled Poetic Edda that are based on Codex Regius, a collection of poetry composed after Edda in 13th century Iceland.
At that time, versions of the Edda were well known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was an Elder Edda which contained the poems which Snorri quotes in his Edda. The etymology of "Edda" remains uncertain; some argue that the word derives from the name of Oddi, a town in the south of Iceland where Snorri was raised. Edda could therefore mean "book of Oddi." However, this assumption is rejected. Faulkes in his English translation of the Prose Edda commented that this is "unlikely, both in terms of linguistics and history" since Snorri was no longer living at Oddi when he composed his work. Another connection was made with the word "óðr", which means "inspiration" in Old Norse. According to Faulkes, though such a connection is plausible semantically, it is unlikely that "Edda" could have been coined in the 13th century on the basis of "óðr", because such a development "would have had to have taken place gradually", "Edda" in the sense of "poetics" is not to have existed in the preliterary period.
Edda means "great-grandparent", a word used by Snorri himself in the Skáldskaparmál. That is, with the same meaning, the name of a character in the Rigsthula and other medieval texts; this hypothesis has attracted François-Xavier Dillmann, author of a French translation of the Edda, who said "it seems that this person's name was chosen as the title of the work due to the fact that it was a collection of ancient knowledge" or, in the words of Régis Boyer, the "grandparent of all sacred knowledge". A final hypothesis is derived from the Latin "edo", meaning "I write", it relies on the fact that the word "kredda" is certified and comes from the Latin "credo", "I believe." It seems Snorri would have been able to invent the word. Edda in this case could be translated as "Poetic Art"; this is the meaning that the word was given in the Middle Ages. The name Sæmundar Edda was given by the Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson to the collection of poems contained in the Codex Regius, many of which are quoted by Snorri.
Brynjólfur, along with many others of his time incorrectly believed that they were collected by Sæmundr fróði, so the Poetic Edda is known as the Elder Edda. Seven manuscripts of the Edda have survived: six compositions of the Middle Ages and another dating to the 1600s. No one manuscript is complete, each has variations. In addition to three fragments, the four main manuscripts are Codex Regius, Codex Wormianus, Codex Trajectinus and the Codex Upsaliensis. Codex Upsaliensis was composed in the first quarter of the fourteenth century and is the oldest manuscript preserved of the Edda of Snorri, it has the advantage of providing some variants that are not found in any of the three other major manuscripts. It is preserved in the library of the University of Uppsala; the Codex Regius was written in the first half of the fourteenth century. It is the most comprehensive of the four manuscripts, seems closer to the original; this is why it is the basis for translations of the Edda. Its name is derived from its conservation in the Royal Library of Denmark for several centuries.
From 1973 to 1997, hundreds of ancient Icelandic manuscripts were returned from Denmark to Iceland, including, in 1985, the Codex Regius, now preserved by the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík. Codex Wormianus was written in the mid-fourteenth century, it is still part of the Arnamagnæan Manuscript Collection created by Árni Magnússon, in Copenhagen. Codex Trajectinus was written around 1600, it is a copy of a manuscript, made in the second half of the thirteenth century. It is preserved in the library of the University of Utrecht. Although some scholars have doubted whether a sound stemma of the manuscripts can be created, due to the possibility of scribes drawing on multiple exemplars or from memory, recent work has found that the main sources of each manuscript can be readily ascertained; the assumption that Snorri Sturluson is responsible for writing the Edda is based on the following paragraph from a portion of Codex Upsaliensis, an early 14th-century manuscript containing the Edda: This book is called Edda.
Snorri Sturluson compiled it in the way. First it tells about the Æsir and Ymir comes the poetic diction section with the poetic n
The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard. Harps have been known since antiquity in Asia and Europe, dating back at least as early as 3500 BC; the instrument had great popularity in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, where it evolved into a wide range of variants with new technologies, was disseminated to Europe's colonies, finding particular popularity in Latin America. Although some ancient members of the harp family died out in the Near East and South Asia, descendants of early harps are still played in Myanmar and parts of Africa, other defunct variants in Europe and Asia have been utilized by musicians in the modern era. Harps vary globally in many ways. In terms of size, many smaller harps can be played on the lap, whereas larger harps are quite heavy and rest on the floor. Different harps may use strings of catgut, metal, or some combination. While all harps have a neck and strings, frame harps have a pillar at their long end to support the strings, while open harps, such as arch harps and bow harps, do not.
Modern harps vary in techniques used to extend the range and chromaticism of the strings, such as adjusting a string's note mid-performance with levers or pedals which modify the pitch. The pedal harp is a standard instrument in the orchestra of the Romantic music era and the contemporary music era; the earliest harps and lyres were found in Sumer, 3500 BC, several harps were found in burial pits and royal tombs in Ur. The oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar can be seen adjacent to the Near East, in the wall paintings of ancient Egyptian tombs in the Nile Valley, which date from as early as 3000 BC; these murals show an instrument that resembles the hunter's bow, without the pillar that we find in modern harps. The chang flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 4000 BC, until the 17th century. Around 1900 BC arched harps in the Iraq–Iran region were replaced by angular harps with vertical or horizontal sound boxes. By the start of the Common Era, "robust, angular harps", which had become predominant in the Hellenistic world, were cherished in the Sasanian court.
In the last century of the Sasanian period, angular harps were redesigned to make them as light as possible. At the height of the Persian tradition of illustrated book production, such light harps were still depicted, although their use as musical instruments was reaching its end; the works of the Tamil Sangam literature describe the harp and its variants, as early as 200 BC. Variants were described ranging from 14 to 17 strings, the instrument used by wandering minstrels for accompaniment. Iconographic evidence in of the yaal appears in temple statues dated as early as 500 BC One of the Sangam works, the Kallaadam recounts how the first yaaḻ harp was inspired by an archer's bow, when he heard the musical sound of its twang. Another early South Asian harp was the ancient veena; some Samudragupta gold coins show of the mid-4th century AD show the king Samudragupta himself playing the instrument. The ancient veena survives today in the form of the saung harp still played there; the harp was popular in ancient China and neighboring regions, though harps are extinct in East Asia in the modern day.
The Chinese konghou harp is documented as early as the Spring and Autumn period, became extinct during the Ming Dynasty. A similar harp, the gonghu was played in ancient Korea, documented as early as the Goguryeo period. Harps are triangular and made of wood. Strings are made of gut or wire replaced in the modern day by nylon, or metal; the top end of each string is secured on the crossbar or neck, where each will have a tuning peg or similar device to adjust the pitch. From the crossbar, the string runs down to the sounding board on the resonating body, where it is secured with a knot, it is the distance between the tuning peg and the soundboard, as well as tension and weight of the string, which decide the pitch of the string. The body is hollow, when a taut string is plucked, the body resonates, projecting sound; the longest side of the harp is called the column or pillar, though some earlier harps, such as a "bow harp", lack a pillar. On most harps the sole purpose of the pillar is to hold up the neck against the great strain of the strings.
On harps which have pedals, the pillar is a hollow column and encloses the rods which adjust the pitches, which are levered by pressing pedals at the base of the instrument. On harps of earlier design, a given string can play only a single note without retuning. In many cases this means such a harp can only play in one key at a time and must be manually retuned to play in another key. Various remedies to this limitation evolved: the addition of extra strings to cover chromatic notes, addition of small levers on the crossbar which when actuated raise the pitch of a string by a set interval, or use of pedals at the base of the instrument which change the pitch of a string when pressed with the foot; these solutions increase the versatility of a harp at the cost of adding complexity and expense. While the angle and bow harps held popularity
Egill Skallagrímsson was a Viking-Age poet and farmer. He is known as the protagonist of Egil's Saga. Egil's Saga narrates a period from 850 to 1000 CE and is believed to have been written between 1220 and 1240 CE. Egill was born in Iceland, was the son of Skalla-Grímr Kveldúlfsson and Bera Yngvarsdóttir, the grandson of Kveld-Úlfr, his ancestor, was Norwegian-Sami. When Grímr arrived in Iceland, he settled at the place where his father's coffin landed. Grímr was a respected mortal enemy of King Harald Fairhair of Norway. Egill composed his first poem at the age of three years, he exhibited berserk behaviour, this, together with the description of his large and unattractive head, has led to the theory that he might have suffered from Paget's disease, which causes a thickening of the bones and may lead to blindness. At the age of seven, Egill was cheated in a game with local boys. Enraged, he went home and procured an axe, returning to the boys, split the skull to the teeth of the boy who cheated him.
After Berg-Önundr refused to allow Egill to claim his wife Ásgerðr's share of her father's inheritance, he challenged Önundr to a man-to-man fight on an island or holmgang. After being grievously insulted, Egill killed Bárðr of Atley, a retainer of King Eirik Bloodaxe and kinsman of Queen Gunnhildr, both of whom spent the remainder of their lives trying to take vengeance. Seething with hatred, Gunnhildr ordered her two brothers to assassinate Egill and his brother Þórólfr, on good terms with her previously. However, Egill slew the Queen's brothers. Gunnbildr's brother's names were Alf Aksmann. In spring Þórólfr and Egill got ready a large warship and went the Eastern route, where they won much wealth and had many battles. In Courland they made a peace for half a month and traded with the men of the land.. That same summer, Harald Fairhair died. In order to secure his place as sole King of Norway, Eirik Bloodaxe murdered his two brothers, he declared Egill an outlaw in Norway. Berg-Önundr was killed in his attempt to do so.
Before escaping from Norway, Egill slew Rögnvaldr, the son of King Eirik and Queen Gunnhildr. He cursed the King and Queen, setting a horse's head on a Nithing pole and saying, "Here I set up a níð-pole, declare this níð against King Eiríkr and Queen Gunnhildr,"—he turned the horse-head to face the mainland—"I declare this níð at the land-spirits there, the land itself, so that all will fare astray, not to hold nor find their places, not until they wreak King Eiríkr and Gunnhildr from the land." He left it standing. Gunnhildr put a spell on Egill, which made him feel restless and depressed until they met again. Soon afterwards, Eiríkr and Gunnhildr were forced to flee to the Kingdom of Northumbria by Prince Hákon. In Saxon England, they were set up as King and Queen of Northumbria in rivalry with King Athelstan of England. Egill was shipwrecked in Northumbria and came to know who ruled the land. Egill sought out the house of his good friend Arinbjorn where they armed themselves and marched to Eiríkr's court.
Arinbjorn told Egill "now you must offer the king your head and embrace his foot. I will present your case to him.” Arinbjorn presented Egill’s case and Egill composed a short drápa, reciting it with Eirikr’s foot in his hand, but Eirikr was not impressed. He explained. Gunnhild called for the immediate execution of Egill, but Arinbjorn convinced the king not to kill him until the morning; the Vikings deemed it illegal to kill a man during the night time. Arinbjorn told Egill that he should stay up all night and compose a mighty head-ransom poem or drápa fit for such a king, a poem in praise of his enemy. In the morning Egill recited the great drápa; this twenty-stanza long head-ransom poem appears in Chapter 63 of "Egil's saga". Eirik was so surprised by the quality of the poem that he generously decided to give Egill his life though he had killed his own son; the complex nature of these poems with unique word order determined by sophisticated word choice and metaphor or kenning, as explained in the Poetic Edda, as well as the fact that they were about Kings and recited first in their royal presence ensures that seeds of history abide in them, the fact that professor Byock could diagnose Paget's disease from such poetry adds credence to the truthfulness of their content.
Such complex poems were remembered as a whole cloth, or not at all. "Egil's saga" and other Icelandic sagas appear to hang on a skeletal framework of such complex poetry, a spine of historical truth. Egill fought at the Battle of Brunanburh in the service of King Athelstan, for which he received payment in silver. Egill returned to his family farm in Iceland, where he remained a power to be reckoned with in local politics, he died shortly before the Christianisation of Iceland. Before Egill died he buried his silver treasure near Mosfellsbær. In his last act of violence he murdered the servant; when a Christian chapel was constructed at the family homestead, Egill's body was re-exumed by his son and re-buried near the altar. According to the saga, the exhumed skull bone was hit with an axe, it only turned white, showing the strength of the w
For the politician of the same name, see Christian Krohg. Christian Krohg was a Norwegian naturalist painter, illustrator and journalist. Krohg was inspired by the realism art movement and chose motives from everyday life, he was the director and served as the first professor at the Norwegian Academy of Arts from 1909 to 1925. Christian Krohg was born at Norway, he was one of five children born to Sophie Amalia Holst. He was a grandson of Christian Krohg, his father was a civil servant and author. His mother died when he was only 8 years old, his father's sister took over responsibility for the household and the upbringing of the children. From 1861, he attended Hartvig Nissen School, his father had asked him to pursue a legal career. Krohg studied law at the University of Oslo graduating cand.jur. in 1873, the same year in which his father died. During 1869–70, he had studied at the art school of Johan Fredrik Eckersberg at Lille Grensen in Christiania, he was additionally educated in Germany, first at the Baden School of Art in Karlsruhe under Hans Gude in 1874.
He trained under Karl Gussow from 1875. He followed with study at the Königliche Akademie in Berlin from 1875 to 1878, he was awarded the Schäffer's legacy and received a government travel allowance during 1877–78 and in 1881. In 1879, on the encouragement of artist Frits Thaulow, he visited the Skagen artists colony, he returned to Skagen in 1882–84 and 1888. Through his periodic future residence at Skagen, he would influence other artists including Anna and Michael Ancher and provided early support to Edvard Munch. Krohg worked in Paris from 1881 to 1882. Inspired by the ideas of the realists he chose motives from everyday life – its darker or inferior sides. Well known are his pictures of prostitutes. Prostitution is the subject of his novel Albertine, which caused a scandal when first published, was confiscated by the police. Krohg’s style made him a leading figure in the transition from romanticism to naturalism. Krohg was the founding and editor-in-chief of the Kristiania Bohemian journal, Impressionisten from 1886 until 1890.
He became a journalist for the Oslo newspaper Verdens Gang from 1890 to 1910. Christian Krohg was associated with Politiken 1893-1894, he taught at Académie Colarossi in Paris from 1902 until 1909. He became a professor-director at the Norwegian Academy of Arts from 1909 until 1925. There are notable collections of art by Christian Krohg in the National Museum of Art and Design in Oslo and at Skagens Museum in Denmark. Christian Krohg received numerous international awards during his career. In 1889, he was made a Knight in the French Legion of Honour and entered in the Belgian Order of Leopold in 1894, he served as Norwegian Commissioner at the Exposition Internationale d'Anvers at Antwerp in 1894 and held membership in the Societe Nouvelle de Peintres et de Sculpteurs from 1900. Krohg was made a Knight 1st Class in the Order of St. Olav in 1900 and received the Command Cross in 1910, he was married to artist Oda Krohg. In 1885, their daughter Nana was born and in 1889 their son muralist Per Lasson Krohg.
In 1897, his wife moved to Paris with dramatist Gunnar Heiberg. They were reconciled. In 1914, Christian Krohg established residence near Frogner Park where he died in 1925. Oda Krohg died in 1935. Both were buried at Vår Frelsers gravlund in Oslo. A bronze statue of Krohg by sculptors Per Hurum and Asbjørg Borgfelt was erected at the crossing of Lille Grensen-Karl Johans gate in Oslo in 1960. Thue, Oscar Christian Krohg ISBN 978-8203221033 Thue, Oscar Christian Krohgs portretter ISBN 978-8205002401 Bryne, Arvid Christian Krohg. Journalisten ISBN 978-8274774452 Christian Krohg at the National Museum Christian Krohg at Skagens Museum Digitized books by Christian Krohg at National Library of Norway Works by Christian Krogh at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Christian Krohg at Internet Archive MyNDIR Illustrations created by Christian Krohg for the 1899 and 1900 editions of the Norwegian editions of Heimskringla. Clicking on the thumbnail will give you the full image and information concerning it