The grey seal is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a large seal of the family Phocidae which are referred to as "true seals" or "earless seals", it is the only species classified in the genus Halichoerus. Its name is spelled gray seal in the US. There are two recognized subspecies of this seal: Halichoerus grypus grypus, earlier known as H. g. macrorhynchus and H. g. balticus Halichoerus grypus atlantica The type specimen of H. g. grypus was rediscovered in 2016, a DNA test showed it belonged to a Baltic Sea specimen rather than from Greenland, as had been assumed. The name H. g. grypus was therefore transferred to the Baltic subspecies, the name H. g. atlantica resurrected for the Atlantic subspecies. Molecular studies have indicated that the eastern and western Atlantic populations have been genetically distinct for at least one million years, could be considered as separate subspecies, it is a large seal, with bulls in the eastern Atlantic populations reaching 2.5–3.3 m long and weighing 170–310 kg.
Individuals from the western Atlantic are much larger, with males reaching 400 kg and females weighing up to 250 kg. It is distinguished from the harbor seal by its straight head profile, nostrils set well apart, fewer spots on its body. Grey seals lack external ear characteristically have large snouts. Bull Greys have a less curved profile than common seal bulls. Males are darker than females, with lighter patches and scarring around the neck. Females are silver grey to brown with dark patches. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the grey seal breeds in several colonies on and around the coasts. Notably large colonies are at Blakeney Point in Norfolk, Donna Nook in Lincolnshire, the Farne Islands off the Northumberland Coast and North Rona. off the north coast of Scotland, Lambay Island off the coast of Dublin and Ramsey Island off the coast of Pembrokeshire. In the German Bight, colonies exist on Heligoland. In the Western North Atlantic, the grey seal is found in large numbers in the coastal waters of Canada and south to Nantucket in the United States.
In Canada, it is seen in areas such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Maritimes, Quebec; the largest colony in the world is at Sable Island, NS. In the United States it is found year-round off the coast of New England, in particular Maine and Massachusetts. Archaeological evidence confirms grey seals in southern New England with remains found on Block Island, Martha's Vineyard and near the mouth of the Quinnipiac River in New Haven, Connecticut, its natural range now extends much further south than recognized with confirmed sightings in North Carolina. There is a report by Farley Mowat of historic breeding colonies as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. An isolated population exists in the Baltic Sea. Besides these large colonies, many much smaller ones exist, some of which are well known as tourist attractions despite their small size; such colonies include one on the Carrack rocks in Cornwall. During the winter months grey seals can be seen hauled out on rocks and shoals not far from shore coming ashore to rest.
In the spring weaned pups and yearlings strand on beaches after becoming separated from their group. The grey seal feeds on a wide variety of fish benthic or demersal species, taken at depths down to 70 m or more. Sand eels are important in its diet in many localities. Cod and other gadids, herring and skates are important locally. However, it is clear that the grey seal will eat whatever is available, including octopus and lobsters; the average daily food requirement is estimated to be 5 kg, though the seal does not feed every day and it fasts during the breeding season. Recent observations and studies from Scotland, The Netherlands and Germany show that grey seals will prey and feed on large animals like harbour seals and harbour porpoises. In 2014, a male grey seal in the North Sea was documented and filmed killing and cannibalizing 11 pups of its own species over the course of a week. Similar wounds on the carcasses of pups found elsewhere in the region suggest that cannibalism and infanticide may not be uncommon in grey seals.
Male grey seals may engage in such behavior as a way of increasing reproductive success through access to easy prey without leaving prime territory. Grey seals are capital breeders, they give birth to a single pup every year, with females' reproductive years beginning as early as 4 years old and extending up to 30 years of age. All parental care is provided by the female. During breeding, males don't provide parental care but they defend females against other males for mating; the pups are born at around the mass of 14 kg. They are born in autumn in the eastern Atlantic and in winter in the west, with a dense, soft silky white fur; the milk can consist of up to 60% fat. Grey seal pups are precocial, with mothers returning to sea to forage once pu
The Skansens Bergbana is a funicular railway in the Skansen open-air museum and zoo, located on the island of Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden. The Bergbana was built on the northwest side of the Skansen hill for the Stockholm Exhibition of 1897, by Von Roll; the railway was single-track with a passing siding and had a rise of 30 meters over a total length of 107 meters, giving a grade varying from 25% to 34%. Service was provided by small 16 seat cars; the funicular was in daily operation until the 1940s, in summer only operation until it closed in 1959. During the 1970s the railway was restored and extended, reopening in 1973. Von Roll again supplied the equipment, including larger cars; the funicular has the following technical parameters: Length: 196.4 meters Height: 34.67 meters Maximum steepness: 24.7 % Capacity: 45 people per car Trip time: 90 seconds Maximum speed: 2.5 meters per second Configuration: single track with passing loop Track gauge: 1,000 mm Traction: Electricity List of funicular railways The Skansen Funicular Railway
Fairplay is the statutory town, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Park County, United States. Fairplay is located in South Park at an elevation of 9,953 feet; the town is the fifth-highest incorporated place in the State of Colorado. The population was 679 at the U. S. Census 2010. A historic gold mining settlement, the town was founded in 1859 during the early days of the Pike's Peak Gold Rush; the town was named by settlers who were upset by the generous mining claims given to the earliest prospectors and promised a more equitable system for its residents. The town of Fairplay was incorporated in 1872, it is the largest community in the grassland basin of Colorado known as South Park, sitting on the west edge of the basin at the junction of U. S. Highway 285 and State Highway 9, it is on a hillside just east of the Middle Fork South Platte River, near where Highway 9 ascends the river valley northward to Alma and Hoosier Pass. It is a quiet town, the roads surrounding it have a low volume of traffic.
Although it was founded during the initial placer mining boom, the mines in the area continued to produce gold and silver ore for many decades up through the middle of the 20th century. The town consists of modern retail businesses along the highway, as well as a historic town on the bluff above the river along Front Street; the northern extension of Front Street along the river has been preserved and has become the site of relocated historic structures as an open-air museum called South Park City, intended to recreate the early days of the Colorado Gold Rush. Most of the residences in town are located on the hillside west of US Highway 285 and east of State Highway 9, in the vicinity of the schools and Park County Courthouse; the majority of the streets in town were paved in 2005. The Town of Fairplay is the visual basis for the Town of South Park in the television series South Park; the people in the show are influenced by Boulder, where creators Matt Stone and Trey Parker attended college at the University of Colorado.
From 1966 to 1984, the asbestos-ridden McNamara Building in Fairplay, now demolished, had been the community hospital. It was named for Dr. Edward Bradley McNamara, a former U. S. Army doctor in World War II, he died working in the emergency room of his namesake hospital in August 1973. The hospital, built with Hill-Burton Act funds, had financial woes from the start. Before it was condemned and vacated in 2009, it had been used by several successive clinics and by Park County for office space. A previous eight-bed Park County Hospital had operated in Fairplay as early as 1892 and preceded the McNamara Hospital. Both facilities had been for emergencies and minor surgery, for nursing home care. In 1874, the Presbyterian missionary Sheldon Jackson built in Fairplay the still-standing Sheldon Jackson Memorial Chapel, since renamed the South Park Community Church, a one-room Victorian Gothic Revival structure, listed in 1977 on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all of it land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 610 people, 259 households, 169 families residing in the town. The population density was 576.3 people per square mile. There were 337 housing units at an average density of 318.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.1% White, 1.3% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.8% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population. There were 259 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.79. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 37.5% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 5.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,385, the median income for a family was $51,979. Males had a median income of $34,286 versus $26,429 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,742. About 6.6% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. The Burro Days festival is held on the last weekend of July; the event celebrates the town's mining heritage. The main feature of the festival is a 29-mile burro race over rough terrain and 3,000-ft elevation gain from downtown Fairplay to the 13,000-ft summit of Mosquito Pass. Teams consist of one burro; the race takes about five hours to complete. The first prize included an ounce of gold. There are several other burro races in Colorado, the most notable takes place in Leadville; the Fairplay event is the World Championship of Burro Racing, an ultra-marathon and the longest burro race in the state.
For many years the Burro race took place from Leadville to Fairplay, or vice versa, crossing over Mosquito Pass. This followed the route that Father John Lewis Dyer of the Methodist Episcopal Church used for circuit riding and for carrying mail. With time, the rivalry between the two cities ended this cooperative endeavor; the 64th burro race, held in Fairpla
The red fox is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia. It is listed as least concern by the IUCN, its range has increased alongside human expansion, having been introduced to Australia, where it is considered harmful to native mammals and bird populations. Due to its presence in Australia, it is included on the list of the "world's 100 worst invasive species"; the red fox originated from smaller-sized ancestors from Eurasia during the Middle Villafranchian period, colonised North America shortly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Among the true foxes, the red fox represents a more progressive form in the direction of carnivory. Apart from its large size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt to new environments. Despite its name, the species produces individuals with other colourings, including leucistic and melanistic individuals.
Forty-five subspecies are recognised, which are divided into two categories: the large northern foxes, the small, basal southern foxes of Asia and North Africa. Red foxes are together in pairs or small groups consisting of families, such as a mated pair and their young, or a male with several females having kinship ties; the young of the mated pair remain with their parents to assist in caring for new kits. The species feeds on small rodents, though it may target rabbits, game birds, reptiles and young ungulates. Fruit and vegetable matter is eaten sometimes. Although the red fox tends to kill smaller predators, including other fox species, it is vulnerable to attack from larger predators, such as wolves, golden jackals and medium- and large-sized felines; the species has a long history of association with humans, having been extensively hunted as a pest and furbearer for many centuries, as well as being represented in human folklore and mythology. Because of its widespread distribution and large population, the red fox is one of the most important furbearing animals harvested for the fur trade.
Too small to pose a threat to humans, it has extensively benefited from the presence of human habitation, has colonised many suburban and urban areas. Domestication of the red fox is underway in Russia, has resulted in the domesticated red fox. Females are called vixens, young cubs are known as kits. Although the Arctic fox has a small native population in northern Scandinavia, while the corsac fox's range extends into European Russia, the red fox is the only fox native to Western Europe, so is called "the fox" in colloquial British English; the word "fox" comes from Old English. Compare with West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, German Fuchs. This, in turn, derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-'thick-haired. Compare to the Hindi pū̃ch'tail', Tocharian B päkā'tail; the bushy tail forms the basis for the fox's Welsh name, literally'bushy', from llwyn'bush'. Portuguese: raposa from rabo'tail', Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà'tail', Ojibwa waagosh from waa, which refers to the up and down "bounce" or flickering of an animal or its tail.
The scientific term vulpes derives from the Latin word for fox, gives the adjectives vulpine and vulpecular. The red fox is considered a more specialised form of Vulpes than the Afghan and Bengal foxes in the direction of size and adaptation to carnivory, it is, not as adapted for a purely carnivorous diet as the Tibetan fox. The species is Eurasian in origin, may have evolved from either Vulpes alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensis, both of which lived during the Middle Villafranchian. The earliest fossil specimens of V. vulpes were uncovered in Baranya, Hungary dating from 3.4-1.8 million years ago. The ancestral species was smaller than the current one, as the earliest red fox fossils are smaller than modern populations; the earliest fossil remains of the modern species date back to the mid-Pleistocene in association with the refuse of early human settlements. This has led to the theory that the red fox was hunted by primitive humans as both a source of food and pelts. Red foxes colonised the North American continent in two waves: during or before the Illinoian glaciation, during the Wisconsinan glaciation.
Gene mapping demonstrates that red foxes in North America have been isolated from their Old World counterparts for over 400,000 years, thus raising the possibility that speciation has occurred, that the previous binomial name of Vulpes fulva may be valid. In the far north, red fox fossils have been found in Sangamonian deposits in the Fairbanks District and Medicine Hat. Fossils dating from the Wisconsian are present in 25 sites in Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Texas and Wyoming. Although they ranged far south during the Wisconsinan, the onset of warm conditions shrank their range toward the north, have only reclaimed their former American ranges because of human-induced environmental changes. Genetic testing indicates two distinct red fox refugia exist in North America, which have been separated since the Wisconsinan; the northern refugium occurs in Alaska and western Canada, consists of the large subspecies V. v. alascensis, V. v. abietorum, V. v. regalis, V. v. rubricosa. The southern refugium occurs in the subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of the Rocky Mountains, the Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
A folk dance is developed by people that reflect the life of the people of a certain country or region. Not all ethnic dances are folk dances. For example, ritual dances or dances of ritual origin are not considered to be folk dances. Ritual dances are called "Religious dances" because of their purpose; the terms "ethnic" and "traditional" are used when it is required to emphasize the cultural roots of the dance. In this sense, nearly all folk dances are ethnic ones. If some dances, such as polka, cross ethnic boundaries and cross the boundary between "folk" and "ballroom dance", ethnic differences are considerable enough to mention, they share some or all of the following attributes: Dances are held at folk dance gatherings or social functions by people with little or no professional training to traditional music. Dances not designed for public performance or the stage, though they may be arranged and set for stage performances. Execution dominated by an inherited tradition from various international cultures rather than innovation.
New dancers learn informally by observing others or receiving help from others. More controversially, some people define folk dancing as dancing for which there is no governing body or dancing for which there are no competitive or professional institutions; the term "folk dance" is sometimes applied to dances of historical importance in European culture and history. For other cultures the terms "ethnic dance" or "traditional dance" are sometimes used, although the latter terms may encompass ceremonial dances. There are a number of modern dances, such as hip hop dance, that evolve spontaneously, but the term "folk dance" is not applied to them, the terms "street dance" or "vernacular dance" are used instead; the term "folk dance" is reserved for dances which are to a significant degree bound by tradition and originated in the times when the distinction existed between the dances of "common folk" and the dances of the modern ballroom dances originated from folk ones. Varieties of European folk dances include: Sword dances include long sword dances and rapper dancing.
Some choreographed dances such as contra dance, Scottish country dance, modern Western square dance, are called folk dances, though this is not true in the strictest sense. Country dance overlaps with contemporary folk ballroom dance. Most country dances and ballroom dances originated from folk dances, with gradual refinement over the years. People familiar with folk dancing can determine what country a dance is from if they have not seen that particular dance before; some countries' dances have features that are unique to that country, although neighboring countries sometimes have similar features. For example, the German and Austrian schuhplattling dance consists of slapping the body and shoes in a fixed pattern, a feature that few other countries' dances have. Folk dances sometimes evolved long before current political boundaries, so that certain dances are shared by several countries. For example, some Serbian and Croatian dances share the same or similar dances, sometimes use the same name and music for those dances.
International folk dance groups exist in cities and college campuses in many countries, in which dancers learn folk dances from many cultures for recreation. Balfolk events are social dance events with live music in Western and Central Europe, originating in the folk revival of the 1970s and becoming more popular since about 2000, where popular European partner dances from the end of the 19th century such as the schottische, polka and waltz are danced, with additionally other European folk dances from France, but from Sweden and other countries. Attan - The national dance of Pakistan. Folk dance of Pashtuns tribes of Pakistan including the unique styles of Quetta and Waziristan in Pakistan. Lewa - Baluch folk dance in Pakistan. Khattak Dance - Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Chitrali Dance - Chitral, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Azerbaijani dances Kurdish dance Dabke, a folk dance of the Levant Thabal chongba Assyrian folk dance Armenian dance Bhangra, a Punjabi harvest dance in Pakistan and music style that has become popular worldwide.
Bihu, an Assamese dance celebrating the arrival of spring, traditionally the beginning of the Assamese New Year Garba Circular Devotional dance from Gujarat danced the world over Kalbelia is one of the most sensuous dance forms of Rajasthan, performed by the kalbelia tribe Khigga, a common folk dance among Assyrian people Israeli folk dance Odori, Japanese traditional dance danced in long parades in the streets where anyone can join in Buyō, typical dance of the Japanese geishas or dance artists Kyushtdepdi - The national dance of Turkmenistan Yangge Romvong Bon dance Rimse Kachāshī Nongak Cariñosa Tinikling Singkil Maglalatik Binasuan Pandanggo Pista Kuratsa Magkasuyo Sayaw sa Bangko Itik-itik kuratsa La Jota Moncadena Balse Marikina Paraguanen Kuntao Silat Amil Bangsa Benjan Lerion Kalesa Zapin Bamboo dance Baile Folklorico Hula Haka List of ethnic and folk dances sorted by origin Dance basic topics, a list of general dance topics Balfolk, contemporary folk dance practised across Europe Elizabeth Burchinal, authority on American folk dance Folk Dance Hawaii Folk dancing at Curlie Dancilla Folklore People Community Folk Dance Folklore Festivals Folklore Festivals Society for International Folk Dancing
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
The wolverine, Gulo gulo referred to as the glutton, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae. It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more resembling a small bear than other mustelids. A solitary animal, it has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size, with the documented ability to kill prey many times larger than itself; the wolverine is found in remote reaches of the Northern boreal forests and subarctic and alpine tundra of the Northern Hemisphere, with the greatest numbers in Northern Canada, the American state of Alaska, the mainland Nordic countries of Europe, throughout western Russia and Siberia. Its population has declined since the 19th century owing to trapping, range reduction and habitat fragmentation; the wolverine is now absent from the southern end of its European range. Genetic evidence suggests that the wolverine is most related to the tayra and martens, all of which shared a Eurasian ancestor. Within the Gulo gulo species, a clear separation occurs between two subspecies: the Old World form Gulo gulo gulo and the New World form G. g. luscus.
Some authors had described as many as four additional North American subspecies, including ones limited to Vancouver Island and the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. However, the most accepted taxonomy recognizes either the two continental subspecies or G. gulo as a single Holarctic taxon. Compiled genetic evidence suggests most of North America's wolverines are descended from a single source originating from Beringia during the last glaciation and expanding thereafter, though considerable uncertainty to this conclusion is due to the difficulty of collecting samples in the depleted southern extent of the range. Anatomically, the wolverine is muscular animal. With short legs and rounded head, small eyes and short rounded ears, it more resembles a bear than it does other mustelids. Though its legs are short, its large, five-toed paws with crampon-like claws and plantigrade posture enable them to climb up and over steep cliffs and snow-covered peaks with relative ease; the adult wolverine is about the size of a medium dog, with a length ranging from 65–107 cm, a tail of 17–26 cm, a weight of 5.5–25 kg, though exceptionally large males can weigh up to 32 kg.
Another outsized specimen was reported to scale 35 kg. The males can be twice the females' weight. According to some sources, Eurasian wolverines are claimed to be larger and heavier than North American with average weights in excess of 20 kg but this may refer more to areas such as Siberia, as data from European wolverines shows they are around the same size as their American counterparts; the average weight of female wolverines from a study in the Northwest territories of Canada was 10.1 kg and that of males 15.3 kg. In a study from Alaska, the median weight of ten males was 16.7 kg while the average of two females was 9.6 kg. In Ontario, the mean weight of males and females was 9.9 kg. The average weights of wolverines were notably lower in a study from the Yukon, averaging 7.3 kg in females and 11.3 kg in males because these animals from a "harvest population" had low fat deposits. In Finland, the average weight was claimed as 11 to 12.6 kg. The average weight of male and female wolverines from Norway was listed as 10 kg.
Shoulder height is reported from 30 to 45 cm. It is the largest of terrestrial mustelids. Wolverines have thick, oily fur, hydrophobic, making it resistant to frost; this has led to its traditional popularity among hunters and trappers as a lining in jackets and parkas in Arctic conditions. A light-silvery facial mask is distinct in some individuals, a pale buff stripe runs laterally from the shoulders along the side and crossing the rump just above a 25–35 cm bushy tail; some individuals display prominent white hair patches on their chests. Like many other mustelids, it has potent anal scent glands used for marking territory and sexual signaling; the pungent odor has given rise to the nicknames "skunk bear" and "nasty cat." Wolverines, like other mustelids, possess a special upper molar in the back of the mouth, rotated 90 degrees, towards the inside of the mouth. This special characteristic allows wolverines to tear off meat from prey or carrion, frozen solid. Wolverines are considered to be scavengers.
A majority of the wolverine's sustenance is derived from carrion, on which it depends exclusively in winter and early spring. Wolverines may find carrion themselves, feed on it after the predator has finished, or take it from another predator. Wolverines are known to follow wolf and lynx trails, purportedly with the intent of scavenging the remains of their kills. Whether eating live prey or carrion, the wolverine's feeding style appears voracious, leading to the nickname of "glutton". However, this feeding style is believed to be an adaptation to food scarcity in winter; the wolverine is a powerful and versatile predator. Prey consists of small to medium-sized mammal