Skara Brae

Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland. Consisting of eight clustered houses, it was occupied from 3180 BC to about 2500 BC and is Europe's most complete Neolithic village. Skara Brae gained UNESCO World Heritage Site status as one of four sites making up "The Heart of Neolithic Orkney".a Older than Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids, it has been called the "Scottish Pompeii" because of its excellent preservation. In the winter of 1850 a severe storm hit Scotland causing over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll known as "Skerrabra"; when the storm cleared local villagers found the outline of a village consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the local laird, began an amateur excavation of the site but after four houses were uncovered the work was abandoned in 1868; the site remained undisturbed until 1913 when during a single weekend the site was plundered by a party with shovels who took away an unknown quantity of artefacts.

In 1924 another storm swept away part of one of the houses and it was determined the site should be secured and properly investigated. The job was given to the University of Edinburgh’s Professor V. Gordon Childe, who travelled to Skara Brae for the first time in mid-1927; the inhabitants of Skara Brae were makers and users of grooved ware, a distinctive style of pottery that had appeared in northern Scotland. The houses used earth sheltering, they were sunk into mounds of pre-existing prehistoric domestic waste known as middens. This provided the houses with a stability and acted as insulation against Orkney's harsh winter climate. On average, each house measures 40 square metres with a large square room containing a stone hearth used for heating and cooking. Given the number of homes, it seems that no more than fifty people lived in Skara Brae at any given time, it is not clear. Childe was sure that the fuel was peat, but a detailed analysis of vegetation patterns and trends suggests that climatic conditions conducive to the development of thick beds of peat did not develop in this part of Orkney until after Skara Brae was abandoned.

Other possible fuels include animal dung. There is evidence. At some sites in Orkney, investigators have found a glassy, slag-like material called "kelp" or "cramp" that may be residual burnt seaweed; the dwellings contain a number of stone-built pieces of furniture, including cupboards, dressers and storage boxes. Each dwelling was entered through a low doorway that had a stone slab door that could be closed "by a bar that slid in bar-holes cut in the stone door jambs". Seven of the houses have similar furniture, with the beds and dresser in the same places in each house; the dresser stands against the wall opposite the door, was the first thing seen by anyone entering the dwelling. Each of these houses had the larger bed on the right side of the doorway and the smaller on the left. Lloyd Laing noted that this pattern accorded with Hebridean custom up to the early 20th century suggesting that the husband's bed was the larger and the wife's was the smaller; the discovery of beads and paint-pots in some of the smaller beds may support this interpretation.

Additional support may come from the recognition that stone boxes lie to the left of most doorways, forcing the person entering the house to turn to the right-hand, "male", side of the dwelling. At the front of each bed lie the stumps of stone pillars that may have supported a canopy of fur. House 8 has no storage boxes or dresser and has been divided into something resembling small cubicles. Fragments of stone and antler were excavated suggesting the house may have been used to make tools such as bone needles or flint axes; the presence of heat-damaged volcanic rocks and what appears to be a flue, support this interpretation. House 8 is distinctive in other ways as well: it is a stand-alone structure not surrounded by midden, instead it is above ground with walls over 2 metres thick and has a "porch" protecting the entrance; the site provided the earliest known record of the human flea in Europe. The Grooved Ware People who built Skara Brae were pastoralists who raised cattle and sheep. Childe believed that the inhabitants did not practice agriculture, but excavations in 1972 unearthed seed grains from a midden suggesting that barley was cultivated.

Fish bones and shells are common in the middens indicating. Limpet shells are common and may have been fish-bait, kept in stone boxes in the homes; the boxes were formed from thin slabs with joints sealed with clay to render them waterproof. This pastoral lifestyle is in sharp contrast to some of the more exotic interpretations of the culture of the Skara Brae people. Euan MacKie suggested that Skara Brae might be the home of a privileged theocratic class of wise men who engaged in astronomical and magical ceremonies at nearby Ring of Brodgar and the Standing Stones of Stenness. Graham and Anna Ritchie cast doubt on this interpretation noting that there is no archaeological evidence for this claim, although a Neolithic "low road" that goes from Skara Brae passes near both these sites and ends at the chambered tomb of Maeshowe. Low roads connect Neolithic ceremonial sites throughout Britain. Childe believed that the settlement dated from around 500 BC; this interpretation was coming under increasing challenge by the time new excavations in 1972–73 settled th

Jackie Christiansen

Jackie Christiansen is a Paralympic athlete from Denmark. When he was 17, he broke his leg during a football game; because of a medical error, he developed gangrene, his left leg was amputated below the knee. He competes in throwing events in the F44 classification. Christiansen has competed in four Paralympics starting in 2000 in Sydney, Australia where he finished sixth in the shot putt for F44 athletes, he improved on this, winning gold in 2004 in the F44/46 class and in 2008 in the F44 class. He won two silver medals in the discus, in the F44/46 class in 2004 and the F44 class in 2008, he won. Jackie Christiansen holds the world shot put record in the F44 class with 18.38 set 21 August 2011 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. Jackie Christiansen was trained by E.g. Gregersen and from 2011 by Simon Stewart. Jackie Christiansen is a graduate orthopedist. In February 2016, Christiansen announced the end of his active sports career as his shot put disability class wasn't on the programme for the Paralympic Games in Rio 2016.

Results for Jackie Christiansen from the International Paralympic Committee Jackie, Tony Christiansen - Team Ossur - Profile Jackie Christiansen Keep Living Award 2006 - Pressalit Group A / S Talent for the shot of Dorothy Christiansen - Disability Sport Knowledge Jackie Tony Christiansen - Danish Disabled Sports Federation Paralympics Denmark: Jackie Tony Christiansen


Darmont was a French automobile manufacturer, based at Courbevoie in the Paris conurbation, active between 1919 and 1939. During the First World War Robert Darmont started his business as an importer of Morgan three-wheelers from England; when peace broke out he set up an auto-making business in partnership with his brother André, operating from a workshop at Courbevoie in the western part of Paris. In 1921 the brothers obtained a licence to build Morgan three-wheelers in France, a faithful replica, the Darmont-Morgan, was the result; the manufacturer remained faithful to their three-wheeler formula until 1935 when they launched the V-Junior. With the outbreak of the Second World War Darmont was obliged to declare itself bankrupt; the Darmont-Morgan is indistinguishable from the Morgan three-wheeler on which it was based. At the front was an air-cooled V-2 cylinder 4-stroke motor tilted forward and with a capacity of 1084 cc, enough to power the vehicle to a top speed of about 125 km/h. By the time of the October 1928 Paris Motor Show the manufacturer was displaying a range of Morgan-based three wheelers, with a range of performance, but most of them still with the 1084 cc engine of which both air-cooled and water-cooled variants were offered.

The little cars had a successful career in street races and mountain races such as the Mont Ventoux Rally. In 1921 Darmonts took the first three places in a road race from Paris to Nice; the Darmont Spécial was produced from 1926, fitted with a water-cooled version of the V-2 cylinder engine and a claimed top speed of 150 km/h. During the 1930s various more luxuriously fitted out variants of the Spécial appeared; the Darmont Étoile de France produced from 1932 resembled the Darmont Spécial. The Darmont V Junior appeared in Autumn 1935, it was the first Darmont to come with four wheels. Reassuringly, the V-2 cylinder engine of 1100 cc will have been familiar to those who knew the manufacturer's three-wheelers, it remained faithful to some antiquated characteristics such as a hand-operated throttle mounted on the steering wheel, which connected the car to the by unpopular cyclecars. GTÜ Gesellschaft für Technische Überwachung mbH