A skateboard is a type of sports equipment used for the sport of skateboarding. It consists of a specially designed maplewood board combined with a polyurethane coating used for making smoother slides and stronger durability. Most skateboards are made with 7 plies of this wood. A skateboard is moved by pushing with one foot while the other remains on the board, or by pumping one's legs in structures such as a bowl or half pipe. A skateboard can be used by standing on the deck while on a downward slope and allowing gravity to propel the board and rider. If the rider's leading foot is their right foot, they are said to ride "goofy. If the rider is regular but chooses to ride goofy, they are said to be riding in "switch," and vice versa. A skater is more comfortable pushing with their back foot. Electric skateboards have appeared; these no longer require the propelling of the skateboard by means of the feet. There is no governing body that declares any regulations on what constitutes a skateboard or the parts from which it is assembled.
The skateboard has conformed both to contemporary trends and to the ever-evolving array of stunts performed by riders/users, who require a certain functionality from the board. The board shape depends upon its desired function. Longboards are a type of skateboard with larger, softer wheels; the two main types of skateboards are the shortboard. The shape of the board is important: the skateboard must be concaved to perform tricks. Longboards are faster and are used for cruising and racing, while shortboards are used for doing tricks and riding in skateparks. Main: SkateboardingSkateboarding started in California in the 1950s; the first skateboards were made from roller skates. Skateboarding gained in popularity because of surfing. Skateboards were handmade from wooden boxes and planks by individuals. Companies started manufacturing skateboards in 1959. During this time, postwar America, was carefree with children playing in the streets. Boards are continuing to evolve as companies try to make them lighter and stronger or improve their performance.
Skateboarding is a individual activity. There is no wrong way to skate. Skateboarding still hasn't stopped evolving, skaters are coming up with new tricks all the time. Skateboarding has gone through its downs over the years. However, since 2000, due to attention in the media and products like skateboarding video games, children's skateboards and commercialization, skateboarding has been pulled into the mainstream; as more interest and money has been invested into skateboarding, more skate parks, better skateboards have become available. In addition, the continuing interest has motivated skateboarding companies have to keep innovating and inventing new things. In 2020 Skateboarding will appear for the first-time in the Olympics in Japan; the following descriptions cover skateboard parts that are most prevalent in popular and modern forms of skateboarding. Many parts exist with alternative constructions. A traditional complete skateboard consists of the deck, wheels, bushings and bolts to fasten the truck and wheel assembly to the bottom of the deck.
Older decks included plastic parts such as side and nose guards. Modern decks vary in size. Wider decks can be used for greater stability. Standard skateboard decks are between 28 and 33 inches long; the underside of the deck can be printed with a design by the manufacturer, blank, or decorated by any other means. "Long" boards are over 36 inches long. Plastic "penny" boards are about 22 inches long; some larger penny boards over 27 inches long are called "nickel" boards. The longboard, a common variant of the skateboard, is used for higher speed and rough surface boarding, they are much more expensive. "Old school" boards are wider and have only one kicktail. Variants of the 1970s have little or no concavity, whereas 1980s models have deeper concavities and steeper kicktails. Grip tape is a sheet of paper or fabric with adhesive on one side and a surface similar to fine sandpaper on the other. Grip tape is applied to the top surface of a board to allow the rider's feet to grip the surface and help the skater stay on the board while doing tricks.
Grip tape is black, but is available in many different colors such as pink, yellow, checkered and clear. They have designs die-cut to show the color of the board, or to display the board's company logo. Grip tape accumulates dirt and other substances that will inhibit grip, so use of a grip eraser or rubber eraser is necessary after riding through mud or with dirty shoes. Attached to the deck are two metal trucks, which connect the wheels and bearings to the deck; the trucks are further composed of two parts. The top part of the truck is screwed to the deck and is called the baseplate, beneath it is the hanger; the axle runs through the hange
A skateboard style refers to the way a skateboarder prefers to ride a skateboard. Skateboard styles can be broadly divided into two different categories: skateboarding to perform tricks and skateboarding as a means of transportation. Styles of skateboarding have evolved over time and are influenced by a number of factors including sociocultural evolution, mass media, technology, corporate influence and individual skill level; the styles used by different skateboarders when riding skateboards should not be confused with skater style, the manner in which skateboarders dress or act in relation to skateboarding culture. The oldest style of skateboarding, freestyle skateboarding developed from the use of skateboards as a mode of transport in the 1960s. Professional freestyle competitions involved music and choreography and focused on fluidity and technical skill; the style changed with the introduction of ollies and other tricks in the 1980s and the introduction of various obstacle elements. Vert skateboarding has its genesis in "pool riding" - the riding of skateboards in emptied backyard swimming pools - during the 1970s.
It involves skateboard riders moving from the horizontal to the vertical to perform tricks - thus "vert". It is referred to as "transition skateboarding" or "tranny skating". Skateboarders set-up their boards with 55mm wheels and wider decks for more stability. Street skateboarding involves the use of urban obstacles like stairs and their handrails, planter boxes, drainage ditches, park benches and other street furniture. Skaters perform tricks on, onto or over these obstacles. Skateboarders set-up their boards with 55mm wheels and narrower decks to make the board flip and spin faster and to make performing tricks easier. Park skateboarding encompasses a variety of sub-styles adopted by those who ride skateboards in purpose-built skate parks. Most skate parks combine halfpipes and quarterpipes with various other "vert" skateboarding features as well as "street" obstacles such as stairs and rails; the integration of these elements produces a different skating experience. Skateboarding done with any type of skateboard where riders travel as fast as possible on ramps and through skate parks or through general urban areas without tricks for as long as possible without stopping or touching surfaces.
Skateboarders in this category use "cruisers" which are wider and have rubbery wheels. Cruising to Downhill Skateboarding, is used for transportation; this style is a choice for skaters who want skateboarding. Non-competition downhill skateboarding is one of the oldest styles of skateboarding and was popular in the early 1970s. Original longboards were described as being like snow skis. Modern riders use longboards for races, but some use regular skateboards for non-competition downhill skateboarding. Big Air Skateboarding was invented when Danny Way and DC Shoes created the "Mega Ramp", with a giant "roll in" for speed followed by a large launch ramp, a 50 foot gap and a 25 foot quarterpipe, it has become popular enough to be an event in the X-games, they are now adding other obstacles such as rails in the gap. Technical flatground skateboarding - referred to as Tech Skateboarding and Flatlanding; those who skateboard in this style are never referred to as Flatlanders, Skateboarding Technicians, Technical Skateboarders'.
"Stunt Kook Skateboarding" is a type of street skating in which the rider designs stunts to be done on his/her board, such as launching off large buildings, switching boards mid-flight, or jumping down stairs. Grass surfing
Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, an entertainment industry job, a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2009 report found that the skateboarding market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding will be represented at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. Since the 1970s, skateparks have been constructed for use by skateboarders, Freestyle BMXers, aggressive skaters, recently, scooters. However, skateboarding has become controversial in areas in which the activity, although illegal, has damaged curbs, steps, benches and parks; the first skateboards started with wooden boxes, or boards, with roller skate wheels attached to the bottom. Crate scooters preceded skateboards, having a wooden crate attached to the nose, which formed rudimentary handlebars.
The boxes turned into planks, similar to the skateboard decks of today. Skateboarding, as we know it, was born sometime in the late 1940s, or early 1950s, when surfers in California wanted something to do when the waves were flat; this was called "sidewalk surfing" – a new wave of surfing on the sidewalk as the sport of surfing became popular. No one knows; the first manufactured skateboards were ordered by a Los Angeles, California surf shop, meant to be used by surfers in their downtime. The shop owner, Bill Richard, made a deal with the Chicago Roller Skate Company to produce sets of skate wheels, which they attached to square wooden boards. Accordingly, skateboarding was denoted "sidewalk surfing" and early skaters emulated surfing style and maneuvers, performed barefoot. By the 1960s a small number of surfing manufacturers in Southern California such as Jack's, Kips', Bing's and Makaha started building skateboards that resembled small surfboards, assembled teams to promote their products.
One of the earliest Skateboard exhibitions was sponsored by Makaha's founder, Larry Stevenson, in 1963 and held at the Pier Avenue Junior High School in Hermosa Beach, California. Some of these same teams of skateboarders were featured on a television show called "Surf's Up" in 1964, hosted by Stan Richards, that helped promote skateboarding as something new and fun to do; as the popularity of skateboarding began expanding, the first skateboarding magazine, The Quarterly Skateboarder was published in 1964. John Severson, who published the magazine, wrote in his first editorial: Today's skateboarders are founders in this sport—they're pioneers—they are the first. There is no history in Skateboarding—its being made now—by you; the sport is being molded and we believe that doing the right thing now will lead to a bright future for the sport. There are storm clouds on the horizon with opponents of the sport talking about ban and restriction; the magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975.
The first broadcast of an actual skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships, which were held in Anaheim and aired on ABC's Wide World of Sports. Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were only two original disciplines during competitions: flatland freestyle and slalom downhill racing. One of the earliest sponsored skateboarders, Patti McGee, was paid by Hobie and Vita Pak to travel around the country to do skateboarding exhibitions and to demonstrate skateboarding safety tips. McGee made the cover of Life magazine in 1965 and was featured on several popular television programs—The Mike Douglas Show, What's My Line? and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson—which helped make skateboarding more popular at the time. Some other well known surfer-style skateboarders of the time were Danny Bearer, Torger Johnson, Bruce Logan and Mark Richards, Woody Woodward, & Jim Fitzpatrick; the growth of the sport during this period can be seen in sales figures for Makaha, which quoted $10 million worth of board sales between 1963 and 1965.
By 1966 a variety of sources began to claim that skateboarding was dangerous, resulting in shops being reluctant to sell them, parents being reluctant to buy them. In 1966 sales had dropped and Skateboarder Magazine had stopped publication; the popularity of skateboarding remained low until the early 1970s. In the early 1970s, Frank Nasworthy started to develop a skateboard wheel made of polyurethane, calling his company Cadillac Wheels. Prior to this new material, skateboards wheels were "clay" wheels; the improvement in traction and performance was so immense that from the wheel's release in 1972 the popularity of skateboarding started to rise again, causing companies to invest more in product development. Nasworthy commissioned artist Jim Evans to do a series of paintings promoting Cadillac Wheels, they were featured as ads and posters in the resurrected Skateboarder magazine, proved immensely popular in promoting the new style of skateboarding. In the early 1970s skateparks hadn't been invented yet, so skateboarders would flock and skateboard in such urban places as The Escondido reservoir in San Diego, California.
Skateboarding magazine would publish the location and Skateboarders made up nicknames for each location such as the Tea Bowl, the Fruit Bowl, the Rabbit Hole, Bird Bath, the Egg Bowl, Upland Pool and the Sewer Slide. Some of the development concepts in the terrain of skateparks were taken from the Escondido re
The kickflip is a maneuver in skateboarding in which a rider flips their skateboard 360° along the axis that extends from the nose to the tail of the deck. When the rider is regular footed the board spins counter-clockwise if viewed from the back, it was the first of many modern flip tricks to be invented or modified by Rodney Mullen in the early 1980s. The original kickflip was invented by pioneer Curt Lindgren prior to 1978 and was modified and popularized by Mullen. In March 2011, the first kickflip in surfing was landed by Zoltan "The Magician" Torkos. Torkos's feat was criticized and remains disputed as to whether or not it traveled up and off the lip of the wave. In the 1970s freestyle skateboarders learned to flip the board over beneath them by lifting an edge of the board with the top of one toe. While the board flipped over, It did not gain much clearance from the ground, the setup required the rider to stand more parallel to the direction of motion, with both feet facing the nose. Well known and performed today, the kickflip is a basic skateboarding trick.
Once they have mastered the trick on flat ground, many skateboarders like to up the stakes and start taking this learned maneuver down obstacles. They start combining it with other tricks such as kickflip to frontside boardslide. In 1982 Rodney Mullen invented the modern form of the trick naming it the "magic flip", he first would use his new flatground ollie to leave the ground instead of lifting an edge with a toe, he initiated the flip by sliding his front foot off the top of the board. Mullen's kickflip technique gave him more control in several areas: the height of the clearance, the initiation time and speed of the flip, the board's direction during the flip; this technique was adopted by freestyle skaters and by street skaters, introducing skateboarding to the era of flip tricks, many of which Rodney Mullen created. To perform a kickflip, the rider ollies into the air, lifts the back foot from the board while sliding the front foot off the skateboard diagonally forward and towards the heel of the foot.
This front foot motion, sometimes called "the flick", spins the board, flipping it over. Before landing, the rider stops the spin by returning the feet to the board as it nears its original position; the board revolves like an aileron roll. To understand this motion and the direction of rotation, imagine stepping backwards off of a skateboard, leaving it in front of you rolling it over on the ground toward you. During a heelflip, a similar trick, the board rotates in the opposite direction. Once a skateboarder masters the kickflip, many variations are possible: Using a faster "flick" motion, the rider can spin the board multiple revolutions before landing; these tricks are named with respect to the number of revolutions: Triple Flip, etc.. Many tricks combine the kickflip with a revolution of the board on the z axis in multiples of 180 degrees, as happens during a pop shove-it. Backside rotations form 360 Flip, 540 Flip, etc.. Frontside rotations form the 360 Hardflip. During a kickflip the board and rider may both rotate together backside.
These tricks are named using the number of degrees rotated and the direction of the spin—e.g. Backside 180 Kickflip --but may have special names for 360 rotations; the rider may rotate frontside in the air while the board does not. The most common variation is the Kickflip Body Varial, where the rider spin frontside 180 degrees, landing on the board in switch stance; the rider and board may rotate in opposite directions. These rarer tricks have less-established names; some skaters have coined "Mother Flip" to describe a 360 Flip combined with a 360 frontside body varial. During the board's spin, the rider may catch it with his/her hand before landing; these tricks are named according to the type of grab used. E.g. Kickflip Indy, Kickflip Melon; the rider may initiate the board's flip in the ollie, or with the foot used to pop the board off the ground. E.g. the most common is a Nollie Lateflip, where the rider initiates the "flick" of a kickflip in the middle of a nollie. The Backfoot Lateflip has the rider using the back foot to initiate the flip during an ollie.
In "late" flips, since the flip occurs when the board is more parallel to the ground, the rider must initiate it with a downward tap of the foot rather than sliding a foot off an edge. The Double Kickflip is combined with other types of kickflips. Examples include the Varial Double Flip, Double Hardflip, the Double 360 Flip. During the flip of the board, the rider may use the top of the front foot to alter the trick. In a Kickflip Underflip, the rider reverses the direction of the spin after the board has flipped once. In a Hospital Flip, the rider stops the rotation half-way flips the board 180 degrees on the axis pointing in the direction of the rider's feet so it lands right side up in the opposite direction. How to Kickflip Video How to Kickflip How to Kickflip like Mike-Mo Ollie Kickflip Tricktips
A brakeboard is a skateboard fitted with a specialised truck assembly that includes a braking mechanism. The Brakeboard was first invented in 1999 by Ben Newman of Western Australia. From 2001 the first version was sold worldwide. In 2010 The Australian Government provided an R&D grant which enabled the development of a new iteration, released in Melbourne in January 2013. In August 2013, Brakeboard was accepted on the USA Kickstarter site for new inventions, it received support from more than 200 backers. In September 2014, a new version of the Brakeboard truck set was released featuring a removable pedal, additional colour choices and heavier-duty brake linings. A new wheel manufacturing process now includes moulded slots. In April 2015, Brakeboard introduced a new model with air-cooled stainless steel rotors. There are a number of other mechanical improvements; this new brake mechanism is designed for both street commuting and long downhill runs. The new 3.1 rotors can be retro-fitted to all earlier model Brakeboard trucks In August 2015 a carbon-fibre extension to the pedal was introduced to provide for those requiring more powerful brake action.
In December 2015 a new model of Canadian maple decks was released. Assembled decks with Brakeboard trucks include the carbon-fibre extension pedal. Https://www.facebook.com/brakeboard/videos/1080304251982272/?theater The cone brakes, contained within the rear axle assembly or truck, can be attached to the rear of any skateboard deck. It is however, intended for the longboard, it is activated by a foot pedal located on the surface of the board. The brake allows the rider to control his speed on a downhill run and bring the board to a safe stop. In April 2015, the cone brake was replaced with an air-cooled disk brake; the Brakeboard is sold as a box pedal mechanism. Existing wheels can be used with a small modification. Alternatively, a set of specially designed wheels is available. Any deck can be used by drilling one hole for the pedal plunger. Brakeboard have their own range of decks so the whole brake system and deck can be supplied assembled. Components and wheels are manufactured in China. Decks are manufactured in California.
Distribution centres include Shanghai and Melbourne. A patent has been granted in the USA. Brakeboard's trade name is registered with US authorities; the original Brakeboard by Ben Newman was Western Australian winner and national finalist in the Yellow Pages Business Ideas Award in 2001 and a sector winner on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s The New Inventors program 2006 Newman was a runner-up to the winner of the inaugural WA Inventor of the Year competition in 2006, though there was some controversy about the eligibility of award applications. Official website Brakeboard on Facebook
Vert skateboarding is the act of riding a skateboard on a skate ramp or other incline and involves the skateboarder transitioning from the horizontal plane to the vertical plane in order to perform skateboarding tricks. Vert skateboarding has its genesis in "pool riding" - the riding of skateboards in an emptied backyard swimming pool - during the 1970s; as riders moved from general street skateboarding and occasional "pool riding" into purpose-built skate parks, vert skateboarding became more popular. Skateboarders began to develop, practice and techniques for vert skateboarding. Vert skateboarding became a common style of skateboarding and was introduced into many competitions and events including the X Games and the Maloof Money Cup. In 2008 ESPN and X Games organisers announced that vert skateboarding would be removed from X Games competitions in favour of free-movement skate-park-style courses where participants would still be able to perform vert skateboarding tricks but would need to do so in combination with other street skateboarding elements.
After public condemnation from professional skateboarders Bob Burnquist, Tony Hawk and others, organisers re-instated vert skateboarding. However, in 2011 ESPN announced that the X Games would no longer feature a Women's Vert Skateboarding event, citing a lack of, "a growing participant base, an established annual competition schedule" and, "myriad other factors". Professional skateboarder Lyn-Z Adams Hawkins said the decision would, "end the growth for women's vert skating as we know it". Despite waning support for standalone competition vert skateboarding, vert ramps are present in most modern skateparks. For vert skateboarding, riders set up their boards with 55 mm wheels and wider decks for more stability. Dropping in Vert skating
A caster board or vigorboard is a two-wheeled, human-powered land vehicle. It is a skateboard. Other names are waveboard "J-board" and RipStik. A caster board has two narrow platforms known as "decks" that are joined by a "torsion bar", which consists of a metal beam coated by rubber, that houses a strong spring. One polyurethane wheel is mounted to each deck with a caster so that each wheel can steer independently, each caster has a steering axis, tilted about 30° back from the vertical; the motion requires that the board be twisted back and forth so as to move either just the back foot or both the front and back feet side to side pushing the board forward at the outside of the movement, before the foot is brought back in the other direction. In principle, the act is similar to what is required to propel one, riding inline skates forward, as opposed to how skateboarders push with their feet on the ground. Riding a caster board requires using a twisting motion of hips and legs. A rider or "caster boarder" gains speed because each wheel is mounted on a 30° slant on the bottom of each deck.
When each deck is pushed to the side, it causes the board to be pushed upward by the wheels' rotation against the gradient of the mounts. This creates potential energy, released moves back down under the rider's weight and its own combined; the weight pushing the board back down causes the wheels to turn to face straight again. While riding on a caster board, the increase in height is noticeable unless the rider twists the board along the vertical axis too hard, causing stability to be momentarily reduced. Caster boarding has been introduced into many school curricula as a means of teaching the basic movement principles that govern board-sports; the success in its ability to engage with pupils not interested in sport was assessed in a 12-week, 6 secondary school case study in the UK carried out by Curriculum Ex. Foot placement is critical on a caster board because one wheel rests under each foot while in use. In order to start with proper foot placement, it is necessary to have the front foot above the center of the front caster and to allow the back foot to give a good push of speed that will allow the board to keep proper balance.
Attempting to place the back foot too will make it more difficult to achieve a desirable foot placement, so it is best to give that foot a maximum of two seconds for it to properly set itself on the board. More experienced riders will be able to place their back feet more quickly. A manual is performed by putting the rear foot on the back end of the rear deck without letting it come off and lifting the front foot. If the user is riding the board and the user recognizes that the foot placement is undesirable, he/she could replace both feet without interrupting his/her ride, taking place; this is done by the rider's first making sure that he/she is riding at a normal speed and that the riding surface ahead is stable for riding on and jumping with both feet at a minimal height that allows both shoes to separate their treads from the grips of the caster board. The rider may continue to "hop around" the board until a most desirable foot placement is achieved and for as long as a proper speed is maintained.
Hopping around may more produce better results than getting off the board and getting back on again. A much more difficult means of replacing the feet while riding is attempting to correct only one foot at a time, increasing the risk of shifting his/her weight too far forward or backward and falling to the ground. In order to steer properly on a caster board, the front foot must lean into the curve while the back foot leans out of the curve. By leaning the front foot in and the back foot out, the front wheel, which will have its front facing inward, is forced to form an arc with the back wheel, which will have its front facing outward; this arcing allows for sharp turning, but can be exercised for making wide turns as well. While attempting to turn on the board at a higher speed and/or using a tighter arc, the rider leans his/her center of gravity into the turn to keep from falling from the board. However, like all vehicles, there is a limit to the combined sharpness and speed of turning on a caster board without it becoming overturned.
It is possible to propel the board while turning by making weaving motions that are smaller than those of a straight trajectory. The wrong way to turn on a caster board is to lean both decks in the direction of the turn, which will cause the board to move away from the leaning direction in a parallel-sliding fashion. A helmet, elbow pads, knee pads and shin guards are recommended when using a caster board. Falling is common for inexperienced riders. A variety of tricks can be done on a caster board, they are coping and ledge tricks, manuals and flips. The various flips tricks include: Kickflip, No Comply Impossible, Double Kickflip, Fakie Kickflip, Switch Kickflip, Fakie Bigspin, Nollie Kickflip, Nollie Heelflip, Nollie Frontside 180 Bigspin, Varial Kickflip, Varial Heelflip, Backside 180 Kickflip, Frontside 180 Heelflip, Frontside 180 Kickflip, 360 Kickflip and the Frontside 180 Double Kickflip. Casterboarders can ride in skateparks as with other types of skateboards. However, some skateparks have prohibited caster boards.
Planet Park skatepark in Tokyo, Japan allows only skateboards with a single deck. The Japan Skatepark Association claims that if a caster board rider falls, it can be difficult to predict which direction the board will travel, constituting an unpredictable element of danger that may interfere with other skateboarders, inline-ska