Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Schoolhouse Rock! Rocks
Schoolhouse Rock! Rocks is a tribute album based on the Emmy Award-winning animated TV series, Schoolhouse Rock!. It was released by Atlantic/Hollywood Records in 1996 and contains 15 tracks, the original "Schoolhouse Rocky" theme and covers of 14 songs from the series performed by popular music artists. There was a promo-only 7" single distributed to promote this album featuring the Man or Astro-man? Track and the Pavement track; this single was pressed on yellow vinyl. "Three Is a Magic Number" was one of the last recordings made by Blind Melon's Shannon Hoon, who died of a drug overdose in October 1995. A portion of the sales of the album went to the Children's Defense Fund. "Schoolhouse Rocky" - Bob Dorough and Friends "I'm Just a Bill" - Deluxx Folk Implosion "Three Is a Magic Number" - Blind Melon "Conjunction Junction" - Better Than Ezra "Electricity, Electricity!" - Goodness "No More Kings" - Pavement "The Shot Heard'Round the World" - Ween "My Hero, Zero" - The Lemonheads "The Energy Blues" - Biz Markie "Little Twelvetoes" - Chavez "Verb: That's What's Happening" - Moby "Interplanet Janet" - Man or Astro-man?
"Lolly, Lolly, Get Your Adverbs Here" - Buffalo Tom "Unpack Your Adjectives" - Daniel Johnston "The Tale of Mr. Morton" - Skee-Lo Side APavement - "No More Kings"Side BMan or Astro-man? - "Interplanet Janet" Reception to Schoolhouse Rock! Rocks was very positive, with Entertainment Weekly rating it a B+ and commenting on the surprising charm and high-quality contributions by the popular young artists
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was ran over by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case'John'. Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, to say with which the verb agrees. If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the'topic' of the sentence. These definitions seem clear enough for simple sentences such as the above, but as will be shown in the article below, problems in defining the subject arise when an attempt is made to extend the definitions to more complex sentences and to languages other than English. For example, in the sentence It is difficult to learn French, the grammatical subject seems to be the word'it', yet arguably the'real' subject is'to learn French'. Sentences beginning with a locative phrase, such as There is a problem, isn't there?, in which the tag question'isn't there?'
Seems to imply that the subject is the adverb'there' create difficulties for the definition of subject. In languages such as Latin or German the subject of a verb has a form, known as the nominative case: for example, the form'he' is used in sentences such as he ran, he broke the window, he is a teacher, he was hit by a car, but there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive is different from when the verb is transitive. In these languages, which are known as ergative languages, the concept of'subject' may not apply at all; the subject is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle, one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject. According to a tradition associated with predicate logic and dependency grammars, the subject is the most prominent overt argument of the predicate. By this position all languages with arguments have subjects, though there is no way to define this for all languages.
From a functional perspective, a subject is a phrase. Many languages do not do this, by this definition would not have subjects. All of these positions see the subject in English determining person and number agreement on the finite verb, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between he eats and they eat; the stereotypical subject precedes the finite verb in declarative sentences in English and represents an agent or a theme. The subject is a multi-word constituent and should be distinguished from parts of speech, which classify words within constituents; the subject is a constituent that can be realized in numerous forms in English and other languages, many of which are listed in the following table: There are several criteria for identifying subjects: 1. Subject-verb agreement: The subject agrees with the finite verb in person and number, e.g. I am vs. *I is.2. Position occupied: The subject immediately precedes the finite verb in declarative clauses in English, e.g. Tom laughs.3. Semantic role: A typical subject in the active voice is an agent or theme, i.e. it performs the action expressed by the verb or when it is a theme, it receives a property assigned to it by the predicate.
Of these three criteria, the first one is the most reliable. The subject in English and many other languages agrees with the finite verb in number; the second and third criterion are strong tendencies that can be flouted in certain constructions, e.g. a. Tom is studying chemistry. - The three criteria agree identifying Tom as the subject.b. Is Tom studying chemistry? - The 1st and the 3rd criteria identify Tom as the subject.c. Chemistry is being studied. - The 1st and the 2nd criteria identify Chemistry as the subject. In the first sentence, all three criteria combine to identify Tom as the subject. In the second sentence, which involves the subject-auxiliary inversion of a yes/no-question, the subject follows the finite verb, which means the second criterion is flouted, and in the third sentence expressed in the passive voice, the 1st and the 2nd criterion combine to identify chemistry as the subject, whereas the third criterion suggests that by Tom should be the subject because Tom is an agent.
4. Morphological case: In languages that have case systems, the subject is marked by a specific case the nominative.5. Omission: Many languages systematically omit a subject, known in discourse; the fourth criterion is better applicable to languages other than English given that English lacks morphological case marking, the exception being the subject and object forms of pronouns, I/me, he/him, she/her, they/them. The fifth criterion is helpful in languages that drop pronominal subjects, such as Spanish, Italian, Greek and Mandarin. Though most of these languages are rich in verb forms for determining the person and number of the subject and Mandarin have no such forms at all; this dropping pattern does not automatically make a language a pro-drop language. In other languages, like English and French, most clauses should have a subject, which should be either a noun, a pronoun, or a
Nine Lives (Deuce album)
Nine Lives is the debut studio album by former Hollywood Undead frontman Deuce. The album was released on April 2012 through 10th Street Entertainment; the album uses both new songs, remake versions, demo songs recorded following Deuce's departure from Hollywood Undead in early 2010. The album's first single, "Let's Get It Crackin'", which features Jeffree Star, was released on November 28, 2011, with an accompanying music video; the second single, entitled "America", was released on January 10, 2012, due to an early leak of the music video. The third single, "Help Me", was released on April 2012, shortly before the album's release date; the fourth single, a clean version of the song "Nobody Likes Me", featuring Truth and Ronnie Radke of rock band Falling in Reverse, was released through iTunes on April 23, 2012, just before his studio album has been released the next day. His fifth single "I Came to Party" featuring Travie McCoy and Truth is released in the Party Pack single on September 4, 2012, which includes the "Rock Mix" version of the song along its two versions of music videos.
On February 15, 2013, the remake version of "The One" recorded for The Two Thousand Eight EP, his first extended play for original digital download in 2008, was released as his sixth single alongside its music video, directed by James Jou. After he won a lawsuit and was free of his contract from A&M/Octone Records, Deuce began producing a full-length debut album Nine Lives, completed in late 2011 and would be released on April 24, 2012; the album will be released under 10th Street Entertainment and Five Seven Music and will contain collaborations with Travie McCoy, Ronnie Radke, Skee-Lo, amongst others. The album's lead single, "Let's Get It Crackin'", was released November 28, 2011 with an accompanying music video and features Jeffree Star; the album's second single, "America", was set to be released on January 17, 2012, but was released a week early on January 10 due to a leak of the full music video in December 2011. Deuce commented on the album, saying, "This album has that signature Deuce sound and is similar in flavor to what I on Swan Songs, but unrestricted and rated NC-17.
I took some of the shit I couldn’t get away with on Swan Songs and brought it to another level for Nine Lives. If you liked what I did before, you will love this..."The album artwork for Nine Lives was released in February 2012 by Loudwire, the same day Deuce announced that he will be joining artists such as Blood on the Dance Floor, BrokeNCYDE, The Bunny The Bear, William Control, New Years Day, Polkadot Cadaver, Haley Rose on the "Fight To Unite Tour". "Help Me", delayed over a month, was released on April 3, 2012 with a music video released by Hot Topic on April 17. The full album was streamed on Spotify a week before release on April 17, 2012. Leading up to the release of Nine Lives, Deuce has released nine short videos previewing and explaining each song on the album. Nine Lives opens with the lead single "Let's Get It Crackin'", a party song featuring pop singer/model Jeffree Star which Deuce has described as "nasty"; the second track is the album's third single, "Help Me", which addresses Deuce's troubles with his old label holding him under contract as well as Hollywood Undead.
The third song on the album is "America", a politically themed song with more of a rock influence than some of Deuce's other songs. "America" is the most successful single, selling 36,000 copies since its release and has been played on several radio stations. Track number four of the record, "I Came to Party", is a party themed song featuring Truth and successful east-coast rapper Travie McCoy of Gym Class Heroes; the song fuses dubstep, rock and pop elements to create an upbeat and diverse dance-track. The next song is a remastered version of a track released with The Two Thousand Eight EP in 2008, titled "The One", although it models the redone 2010 version; when speaking of the song, Deuce states that "through my music, I could so much." The sixth song of the record is a remastered version of a previous release named "Freaky Now". This song is similar in content to "Let's Get It Crackin'" and could be described as "nasty" and it is explicit; the song features Jeffree Star, as well as fellow rapper Truth.
The seventh track called "Nobody Likes Me" is a biographic-themed song featuring Falling in Reverse lead singer Ronnie Radke and Truth. The song tells of how each vocalist felt they were betrayed by their previous bands, expresses the various emotions that come with being in that situation. Radke delivers his verse through the form of a rap; the song features a small part from Truth. The eighth song of the record is an emotional track titled "Walk Alone" is aimed at Johnny 3 Tears, ex-bandmate from Hollywood Undead; the next and ninth track on the album is "Till I Drop", an upbeat, anthem-style song featuring rappers Veze Skante and Gadjet. The song contains fast-paced verses from all parties, with Deuce singing catchy choruses and using his signature melodic-rap style to end the song. Deuce mentions moving on from his previous band to his newest project with "there's no more Undead, it's Nine Lives..." halfway into the final verse. Deuce describes "Till I Drop" as a "powerful song." "Gravestone", the album's tenth song, a remastered version of a released song.
Deuce describes the song as being about "changes" and how certain experiences can change your life and outlook on life. "It's kinda' saying good bye to the old you it's a gravestone to the old you, you don't wanna be that person any more." The final song on the album is titled "Now You See My Life", once again, is a remastered version
Aron Erlichman, better known by his stage name Deuce, is an American music producer, singer and guitarist. Brought to fame as a producer, singer-songwriter and one of the founding members of rap rock band Hollywood Undead, Deuce has since moved on to solo work through the label "Five Seven Music", a branch of Eleven Seven Music, he is involved in a movement with fellow rapper Truth called "Nine Lives". Deuce released his debut album of the same name on April 24, 2012, which sold 11,425 copies in its first week. Deuce has collaborated with artists Marc Bosserman, Ronnie Radke and Blood on the Dance Floor. Deuce began creating rock-based music under his birth name of Aron Erlichman, early in 2005. In 2005, he released four tracks—"Franny", "Surface Air", "Breaking Through", "Sometimes"—from his first EP called The Aron EP on Broadjam, an Internet sharing site for opinions and ratings, where he gained little recognition, he co-founded Hollywood Undead with Jorel Decker and Jeff Phillips, sang clean vocals and produced instrumentals for the band, until his departure in early 2010.
In early February 2012, three more pre-Hollywood Undead tracks were released and surfaced, including "Far Away", "Fallen Stone", "Dreams". Deuce co-founded the band Hollywood Undead as a vocalist and producer with close friend Jorel Decker; the band began their musical career with the creation of the rap-rock song "The Kids", promoted by Jeffree Star. Deuce adopted and recorded songs with the band under the pseudonym "Tha Producer" due to his role in production but shortened this pseudonym to "Deuce" not long after. At the time of Deuce's departure, Hollywood Undead had gained success with Swan Songs, which peaked at number 22 on the Billboard 200 in its first week. A few EPs were released, the Swan Songs B-Sides EP and the Swan Songs Rarities EP in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In 2009, Hollywood Undead released their first live album, Desperate Measures, which peaked at number 29 on the Billboard 200. In late 2009, Deuce left due to differences within the band members; the first song he wrote following his departure was a song titled "Story of a Snitch" about Hollywood Undead, the'snitch' being about Hollywood Undead member J-Dog, with the lyrics consisting of obscenities and insults directed towards Hollywood Undead making claims such as he was kicked out of the band and that members of the band were "tryin' to spit just like me but they don't have it".
In an interview with YouTube interviewer Bryan Stars, Hollywood Undead members Johnny 3 Tears and Da Kurlzz were asked why Deuce had left the band, revealing that he was not working well with the band and that they had to "bend over backwards to accommodate Deuce in a lot of ways..." and that he held them back on their song writing quality." Deuce in a different interview with Bryan Stars however stated that the band were in fact jealous of his leading role in the band and that he was responsible for the band's current position. Hollywood Undead stated that Deuce required a personal assistant, revealed to be Jimmy Yuma, now Deuce's guitarist and lyricist, Yuma replied that Deuce paid him himself, not the band, to set equipment up and to tour with him. Deuce commented that on one tour, the band was waiting for him in order to fly to their next destination and blamed it on Deuce for being late. During an interview with JackedUp Radio, Deuce states that one of the disputes he had with Hollywood Undead was over having a personal Twitter account.
Upon signing with A&M/Octone with Hollywood Undead in 2008, Deuce states that he was signed as a solo artist. He released his first four-track EP, The Two Thousand Eight EP, which contained songs "The One", "Gravestone", "Hollyhood Vacation" and "Deuce Dot Com", all of which would four years be remastered and released within his début album, the latter of the two being bonus tracks; the EP received little success. Shortly after Deuce was evicted from the band, the EP disappeared from iTunes. Deuce accused the label of breaching the original contract terms and sued the company under this accusation. Deuce discovered a loophole that revealed he was permitted to produce remixes and mixtape-style songs using the instrumentals of other musicians, so long as he did not incur a profit. In September 2010, Deuce made his first official live performance as a solo artist at California's Epicenter music festival, opening for Eminem, Blink-182, Bush, Rise Against, others. In September 2011, The Call Me Big Deuce EP was released as the first collective release of material by American singer-rapper Deuce as an independent solo-artist.
The mixtape consists of 14 released songs compiled into one download at the artist's newly launched website, as most of the songs were released at random times and file-sharing websites between 2005 and 2011. The mixtape was released in order to promote the first album and contains verses over instrumentals by 50 Cent, Tupac Shakur, B.o. B and Jay-Z; the mixtape did not contain the released songs "Freaky Now", "Surface Air" and "Now You See My Life", which would be released with his debut album a year later. "Now You See My Life" would be remixed to contain a verse from rapper Skee-Lo, repl