Dwayne Bernard Hickman is an American former actor and television executive at CBS. The brown-haired Hickman portrayed Chuck MacDonald, Bob Collins's crazy teenaged nephew, on the 1950s NBC series The Bob Cummings Show, the blond title character in CBS's The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. Born in Los Angeles and raised Catholic, Hickman is the younger brother of child actor Darryl Hickman, he graduated from Cathedral High School in 1952 and intended to become a Passionist priest, but chose not to and attended Loyola University. Hickman's early screen appearance was in the 1942 Our Gang comedy Melodies New, he had small roles in Captain Eddie, The Hoodlum Saint, The Return of Rusty and Faithful in My Fashion. In 1946, Hickman played young Chase in the movie The Secret Heart which starred Claudette Colbert, Walter Pidgeon, Lionel Barrymore and June Allyson. Hickman was in For the Love of Rusty, The Son of Rusty, Heaven Only Knows, Her Husband's Affairs, My Dog Rusty, Rusty Leads the Way,The Boy with Green Hair, The Sun Comes Up, Rusty Saves a Life, Mighty Joe Young, Rusty's Birthday, The Happy Years, which starred Darryl.
As a teen, he and Darryl guest-starred in a 1950 episode of The Lone Ranger titled Two Gold Lockets,Hickman focused on his studies for a few more years returned to acting with appearances in Public Defender, The Loretta Young Show, Lux Video Theatre, Waterfront. In 1955, Dwayne appeared in another Lone Ranger episode titled "Sunstroke Mesa". Hickman gained wide notice as "Chuck" on The Bob Cummings Show from 1955-59. At the time, he was studying at Loyola. Hickman was one of the first stars to have a breakout character in the series. Hickman considered Cummings a childhood television hero and has said that Cummings taught him everything he knows about acting, he was friends with Cummings throughout five seasons. While still on the Bob Cummings Show, Hickman guest starred on other shows, such as The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet and Men of Annapolis, he had a sizeable film role in Rally'Round the Flag, Boys!. In 1958, Hickman was cast as the lead of The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, which aired on CBS from 1959–63.
Although at the show's debut the Dobie character was a teenager in high school, Hickman was 25 years old. He played Dobie for four years. During the series' run Hickman did the voice for Aladdin in 1001 Arabian Nights. On June 23, 1960, Hickman appeared on NBC's Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford; when Dobie Gillis ended Hickman found himself stereotyped as a "youngster" when he was too old for such roles. He and Annette Funicello appeared together in an episode of ABC's circus drama The Greatest Show on Earth, starring Jack Palance, he guest starred on Valentine's Day, Vacation Playhouse and Wagon Train. In 1965, Hickman appeared in the comedy film Cat Ballou with Lee Marvin. Hickman signed a multi-picture deal with American International Pictures. For that studio he starred in Ski Party opposite Frankie Avalon, he made a cameo in Sergeant Deadhead. Hickman appeared in the episode "Run Sheep Run" on ABC's Combat! as a soldier who froze during an attack by a German machine gun nest which resulted in the death of a fellow GI.
Hickman had a support part in the comedy Doctor, You've Got to Be Kidding! but it would be his last feature film for a while. He starred in the pilot for a series, We'll Take Manhattan, but it was not picked up. Neither was Missy's Men. Hickman guest starred on Vacation Playhouse, Insight, The Flying Nun, My Friend Tony, Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color, Mod Squad, American Style, Kolchak: The Night Stalker, Ellery Queen, he reprised his most famous role in Whatever Happened to Dobie Gillis?, a one-shot pilot, appeared in a TV movie Don't Push, I'll Charge When I'm Ready. Hickman found his future in entertainment behind the scenes. From 1977 to 1988, Hickman served as a programming executive at CBS, he took time out for a cameo in the TV movie High School U. S. A.. Hickman reprised, his autobiography is titled Forever Dobie. In the late 1980s Hickman turned to directing episodic TV, doing episodes of Duet, Charles in Charge, Open House, Designing Women, Get a Life, Head of the Class and the Hendersons and Sister, Sister.
He still acted, appearing in Murder, She Wrote, A Night at the Roxbury. He had a semi regular role on the TV series of Clueless He could be seen in Surviving Gilligan's Island: The Incredibly True Story of the Longest Three Hour Tour in History and Angels with Angles. Official website Interview with Dwayne Hickman Dwayne Hickman on IMDb Dwayne Hickman discography at Discogs
A college is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university, an institution offering vocational education or a secondary school. In the United States, "college" may refer to a constituent part of a university or to a degree-awarding tertiary educational institution, but "college" and "university" are used interchangeably, whereas in the United Kingdom, South Asia, Southern Africa and Canada, "college" may refer to a secondary or high school, a college of further education, a training institution that awards trade qualifications, a higher education provider that does not have university status, or a constituent part of a university. In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of people living together under a common set of rules. Aside from the modern educational context - nowadays the most common use of "college" - there are various other meanings derived from the original Latin term, such as Electoral college.
Within higher education, the term can be used to refer to: a constituent part of a collegiate university, for example King's College, Cambridge, or of a federal university, for example King's College London a liberal arts college, an independent institution of higher education focusing on undergraduate education, such as Williams College or Amherst College a liberal arts division of a university whose undergraduate program does not otherwise follow a liberal arts model, such as the Yuanpei College at Peking University an institute providing specialised training, such as a college of further education, for example Belfast Metropolitan College, a teacher training college, or an art college In the United States, college is sometimes but a synonym for a research university, such as Dartmouth College, one of the eight universities in the Ivy League A sixth form college or college of further education is an educational institution in England, Northern Ireland, The Caribbean, Norway, Brunei, or Southern Africa, among others, where students aged 16 to 19 study for advanced school-level qualifications, such as A-levels, BTEC, HND or its equivalent and the International Baccalaureate Diploma, or school-level qualifications such as GCSEs.
In Singapore and India, this is known as a junior college. The municipal government of the city of Paris uses the phrase "sixth form college" as the English name for a lycée. In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called "colleges" or have "college" as part of their title. In Australia the term "college" is applied to any private or independent primary and secondary school as distinct from a state school. Melbourne Grammar School, Cranbrook School and The King's School, Parramatta are considered colleges. There has been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as "colleges". In the state of Victoria, some state high schools are referred to as secondary colleges, although the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne is still named Melbourne High School. In Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, "college" is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, some older ones. In New South Wales, some high schools multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as "secondary colleges".
In Queensland some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, but state schools offering only secondary education are called "State High School". In Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, "college" refers to the final two years of high school, the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a shorter version of matriculation college. In a number of Canadian cities, many government-run secondary schools are called "collegiates" or "collegiate institutes", a complicated form of the word "college" which avoids the usual "post-secondary" connotation; this is because these secondary schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational and ability levels. Some private secondary schools choose to use the word "college" in their names nevertheless; some secondary schools elsewhere in the country ones within the separate school system, may use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
In New Zealand the word "college" refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17 and "college" appears as part of the name of private or integrated schools. "Colleges" most appear in the North Island, whereas "high schools" are more common in the South Island. In South Africa, some secondary schools private schools on the English public school model, have "college" in their title, thus no less than six of South Africa's Elite Seven high schools call themselves "college" and fit this description. A typical example of this category would be St John's College. Private schools that specialize in improving children's marks through intensive focus on examination needs are informally called "cram-colleges". In Sri Lanka the word "college" refers to a secondary school, which signifies above the 5th standard. During the British colonial period a limit
Special effects are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world. Special effects are traditionally divided into the categories of mechanical effects and optical effects. With the emergence of digital film-making a distinction between special effects and visual effects has grown, with the latter referring to digital post-production while "special effects" referring to mechanical and optical effects. Mechanical effects are accomplished during the live-action shooting; this includes the use of mechanized props, scale models, animatronics and atmospheric effects: creating physical wind, fog, clouds, making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building, etc. Mechanical effects are often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with break-away doors or walls to enhance a fight scene, or prosthetic makeup can be used to make an actor look like a non-human creature.
Optical effects are techniques in which images or film frames are created photographically, either "in-camera" using multiple exposure, mattes or the Schüfftan process or in post-production using an optical printer. An optical effect might be used to place sets against a different background. Since the 1990s, computer-generated imagery has come to the forefront of special effects technologies, it gives filmmakers greater control, allows many effects to be accomplished more safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs. As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI. In 1857, Oscar Rejlander created the world's first "special effects" image by combining different sections of 32 negatives into a single image, making a montaged combination print. In 1895, Alfred Clark created what is accepted as the first-ever motion picture special effect. While filming a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots, Clark instructed an actor to step up to the block in Mary's costume.
As the executioner brought the axe above his head, Clark stopped the camera, had all of the actors freeze, had the person playing Mary step off the set. He placed a Mary dummy in the actor's place, restarted filming, allowed the executioner to bring the axe down, severing the dummy's head. Techniques like these would dominate the production of special effects for a century, it wasn't only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was the first type of photographic trickery, only possible in a motion picture, referred to as the "stop trick". Georges Méliès, an early motion picture pioneer, accidentally discovered the same "stop trick." According to Méliès, his camera jammed. When he screened the film, he found that the "stop trick" had caused a truck to turn into a hearse, pedestrians to change direction, men to turn into women. Méliès, the stage manager at the Theatre Robert-Houdin, was inspired to develop a series of more than 500 short films, between 1914, in the process developing or inventing such techniques as multiple exposures, time-lapse photography and hand painted color.
Because of his ability to manipulate and transform reality with the cinematograph, the prolific Méliès is sometimes referred to as the "Cinemagician." His most famous film, Le Voyage dans la lune, a whimsical parody of Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon, featured a combination of live action and animation, incorporated extensive miniature and matte painting work. From 1910 to 1920, the main innovations in special effects were the improvements on the matte shot by Norman Dawn. With the original matte shot, pieces of cardboard were placed to block the exposure of the film, which would be exposed later. Dawn combined this technique with the "glass shot." Rather than using cardboard to block certain areas of the film exposure, Dawn painted certain areas black to prevent any light from exposing the film. From the exposed film, a single frame is projected onto an easel, where the matte is drawn. By creating the matte from an image directly from the film, it became easy to paint an image with proper respect to scale and perspective.
Dawn's technique became the textbook for matte shots due to the natural images. During the 1920s and 1930s, special effects techniques were improved and refined by the motion picture industry. Many techniques—such as the Schüfftan process—were modifications of illusions from the theater and still photography. Rear projection was a refinement of the use of painted backgrounds in the theater, substituting moving pictures to create moving backgrounds. Lifecasting of faces was imported from traditional maskmaking. Along with makeup advances, fantastic masks could be created; as material science advanced, horror film maskmaking followed closely. Many studios established in-house "special effects" departments, which were responsible for nearly all optical and mechanical aspects of motion-picture trickery; the challenge of simulating spectacle in motion encouraged the development of the use of miniatures. Animation, creating the illusion of motion, was accomplished with drawings and with three-dimensional models.
Naval battles could be depicted with models in studio. Tanks and airplanes could be flown without risk of life and l
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Robert Q. Lewis
Robert Q. Lewis was an American radio and television personality, game show host, actor. Lewis added the middle initial "Q" to his name accidentally on the air in 1942, when he responded to a reference to radio comedian F. Chase Taylor's character, Colonel Lemuel Q. Stoopnagle, by saying, "and this is Robert Q. Lewis." He subsequently decided to retain the initial, telling interviewers that it stood for "Quizzical."Lewis is best known for his game show participation, having been the first host of The Name's the Same, appearing on other Goodson-Todman panel shows. He hosted and appeared on a multitude of television shows of the 1940s through the 1970s, his most distinguishing feature was his horn-rimmed glasses, to the point that the title card for his second Robert Q. Lewis Show featured a pair of such glasses as a logo, they were mentioned in the title of his lecture; as a frequent guest panelist on What's My Line?, Lewis's blindfold featured a sketched pair of glasses. Lewis was born Robert Goldberg in Manhattan to Jewish immigrants from Imperial Russia.
At age ten he became the family's disc jockey. Lewis made his radio debut in 1931, at age 11, on a local radio show, "Dr. Posner's Kiddie Hour", he enrolled in the University of Michigan in 1938, where he was a member of the Phi Sigma Delta fraternity. In 1942 he left to enlist in the U. S. Army during the second world became a radio operator in the Signal Corps. After the war, he became an disc jockey. Among those who served as writers on Lewis's radio programmes were playwright Neil Simon and dramatist Paddy Chayefsky, radio comedy writer Goodman Ace. Simon and Ace headed a CBS team of comedy writers that acted as "script doctors" for existing shows in need of fixing. Ace was frustrated over a CBS revamp of the show he assembled for Lewis, The Little Show: "I give them a good, fifteen-minute comedy show", Ace told Time, "and what do they do? Expand it to half an hour and throw in an orchestra and an audience. Who the hell said a comedy show had to be half an hour, Marconi? Ida Cantor?"Future talk-show host and producer Merv Griffin sang on Lewis's show.
Besides his many guest appearances on variety programs and game shows in the early years of television, his favorite medium as host continued with radio, first for CBS and as a disc jockey in Los Angeles. One of his radio series, Robert Q.'s Waxworks, was devoted to playing old records, setting a pattern that radio personalities like Dr. Demento would follow, his interview-based program was heard locally on KFI, Los Angeles, in 1972. Lewis was an early arrival on presiding over more than one series at a time; the Robert Q. Lewis Show had a six-month run on CBS's Sunday night television lineup from July 16, 1950 to January 7, 1951. At the same time he hosted CBS's TV talent-search variety program The Show Goes On from January 19, 1950 to February 16, 1952, he had two daytime variety shows on CBS. The first, Robert Q's Matinee, was a 45-minute daily show, which lasted 14 weeks, from October 16, 1950 to January 19, 1951; the second, more successful The Robert Q. Lewis Show ran on CBS-TV from January 11, 1954 to May 25, 1956.
Lewis was recruited to fill in for performers who were ill or otherwise unable to perform. He sat in for Arthur Godfrey, considered his tutor. Lewis credited Godfrey with giving him his first big breaks in show business. Jackie Gleason invited "Robert Q. Lewis and His Gang" to take over his American Scene Magazine time slot while he was away; these emergency replacements became part of Lewis's comic monologue. Who's sick?"Robert Q. became a fixture on television quiz shows in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1952, he settled into his most enduring game show role. In 1954, Lewis gave up the show to devote more time to his variety program. In 1958, he hosted the short-lived original version of Make Me Laugh. In 1962, he substituted for and replaced Merv Griffin as host of Play Your Hunch. In 1964, he hosted the short-lived game show Get the Message on ABC, he was a frequent participant on the panel show What's My Line?, making 40 appearances on the show. He first appeared as a panelist in 1951, about a year into the show's run.
His most regular run on the show was alternating weeks with comedian Fred Allen following the departure of regular panelist Steve Allen, beginning in 1954 through early 1955. Lewis continued to make regular guest appearances on the panel right up to the show's final year in 1967, he made one appearance as the show's "Mystery Guest" in 1955. He was a guest panelist/player on a number of Goodson-Todman shows, including To Tell The Truth, Get The Message, Hollywood Squares, both the original and 1970s versions of Match Game. Lewis was always an enthusiast of vintage music, he revived old Tin Pan Alley tunes on his radio and TV shows, in his popular nightclub act. From the 1940s he sang for Columbia Records, MGM Records, Coral Records, he scored his biggest hit in 1951 with the dialect novelty song, "Where's-a Your House?", an answer record to the Rosemary Clooney hit "Come On-a My House". In 1967, he recorded I'm Just Wild About Vaudeville for Atco—this collection of circa-1930 songs has Lewis cleverly imitating different singing styles of the day.
Lewis's fondness for show
Ski jumping is a winter sport in which competitors aim to achieve the longest jump after descending from a specially designed ramp on their skis. Along with jump length, competitor's style and other factors affect the final score. Ski jumping was first contested in Norway in the late 19th century, spread through Europe and North America in the early 20th century. Along with cross-country skiing, it constitutes the traditional group of Nordic skiing disciplines; the ski jumping venue referred to as a hill, consists of the jumping ramp, take-off table, a landing hill. Each jump is evaluated according to the distance traveled and the style performed; the distance score is related to the construction point, a line drawn in the landing area and serves as a "target" for the competitors to reach. The score of each judge evaluating the style can reach a maximum of 20 points; the jumping technique has evolved over the years, from jumps with the parallel skis with both arms pointing forwards, to the "V-style", used today.
Ski jumping has been included at the Winter Olympics since 1924 and at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships since 1925. Women's participation in the sport began in the 1990s, while the first women's event at the Olympics has been held in 2014. All major ski jumping competitions are organised by the International Ski Federation. Stefan Kraft holds the official record for the world's longest ski jump with 253.5 metres, set on the ski flying hill in Vikersund in 2017. Ski jumping can be performed in the summer on an in-run where the tracks are made from porcelain and the grass on the slope is covered with water-soaked plastic; the highest level summer competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, contested since 1994. Like most of the Nordic skiing disciplines, the first ski jumping competitions were held in Norway in the 19th century, although there is evidence of ski jumping in the late 18th century; the recorded origins of the first ski jump trace back to 1808. Sondre Norheim, regarded as the "father" of the modern ski jumping, won the first-ever ski jumping competition with prizes, held in Høydalsmo in 1866.
The first larger ski jumping competition was held on Husebyrennet hill in Oslo, Norway, in 1875. Due to its poor infrastructure and the weather conditions, in 1892 the event was moved to Holmenkollen, today still one of the main ski jumping events in the season. In the late 19th century, Sondre Norheim and Nordic skier Karl Hovelsen immigrated to the United States and started developing the sport in that country. In 1924, ski jumping was featured at the 1924 Winter Olympics in France; the sport has been featured at every Olympics since. Ski jumping was brought to Canada by Norwegian immigrant Nels Nelsen. Starting with his example in 1915 until the late 1960s, annual ski jumping competitions were held on Mount Revelstoke — the ski hill Nelsen designed — the longest period of any Canadian ski jumping venue. Revelstoke's was the biggest natural ski jump hill in Canada and internationally recognized as one of the best in North America; the length and natural grade of its 600 m hill made possible jumps of over 60 m —the longest in Canada.
It was the only hill in Canada where world ski jumping records were set, in 1916, 1921, 1925, 1932, 1933. In 1935, the origins of the ski flying began in Planica, where Josef Bradl became the first competitor in history to jump over 100 m. At the same venue, the first official jump over 200 m was achieved in 1994, when Toni Nieminen landed at 203 metres. In 1964 in Zakopane, the large hill event was introduced at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. In the same year, the normal hill event was included on the Olympic programme at the 1964 Winter Olympics; the team event was added at the 1988 Winter Olympics. A ski jumping hill is located on a steep slope, it consists of the jumping ramp, take-off table, a landing hill. Competitors glide down from a common point at the top of the in-run, achieving considerable speeds at the take-off table, where they take off with help of speed and their own leap. While airborne, they maintain an aerodynamic position with their bodies and skis, that would allow them to maximize the length of the jump.
The landing slope is constructed so that the jumper's trajectory is near-parallel with it, the athlete's relative height to the ground is lost, allowing for a gentle and safe landing. The landing space is followed by an out-run, a substantial flat or counter-inclined area that permits the skier to safely slow down; the out-run area is surrounded by a public auditorium. The slopes are classified according to the distance that the competitors travel in the air, between the end of the table and the landing; each hill has a construction point. The classification of the hills are as follows: Competitors are ranked according to a numerical score obtained by adding up components based on distance, inrun length and wind conditions. In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner. Distance score depends on the hill's K-point. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K-point is set at 120 metres, respectively. Competitors are awarded 120 points if they land on the K-point.
For every metre beyond the K-point, the competitor is awarded extra points. A competitor's distance is measured between the takeoff and t