State Higher Vocational School in Skierniewice
The State School of Higher Vocational Education in Skierniewice is a vocational university founded on 1 October 2005, on the strength of the Ministers’ Council’s resolution date of 27 September 2005 and offers BS or BA degree. The Rector was appointed on 17 October 2005; the first enrollment at the Economics and Sociology Departments in the year 2005/2006 took place on 17–30 October 2005, as a result of which 211 students were admitted. At that time the School used the premises of the Education Centre for Adults in Skierniewice, at 4 Al. Niepodległości; the enrollment for the academic years 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 took place at four departments: Economics, Polish Philology and Horticulture. At the end of September 2008 the School moved premises. At present classes are run in the main school building in Skierniewice, at 64C Batorego Street. Only some classes are held at the old premises, special laboratory classes are conducted in the SGGW building at 10 Sobieskiego Street; the School is to receive a large part of a former military complex in Skierniewice at 64 Batorego Street.
Part of the Indicative Investment Plan, the town of Skierniewice is going to receive funds necessary to adjust four further buildings to the needs of the School. Plans for the year 2009 include building a new laboratory. In the elections for the School Authorities in March 2007, the Rector’s office was taken by Professor Tadeusz Janusz, that of the Vice-Rector for General Affairs and Development – by Dr Daniel Stos, that of the Vice-Rector for Student Affairs and Didactics – by Professor Elżbieta Psyk-Piotrowska. In the academic year of 2006/2007 our students organized the first juwenalia in the history of Skierniewice, they participate in integration events, they have organized the Students’ Sports Club, they take part in the work of Polish Students’ Government, as well as the cultural and social life of Skierniewice. During the inauguration of the 2007/2008 academic year State Higher Vocational School in Skierniewice received the school banner. In the year 2008/2009 the School opened two new areas of study: Computer Science and Econometrics and Finance and Accountancy
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Piotrków Trybunalski is a city in central Poland with 74,694 inhabitants. It is situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, was the capital of the Piotrków Voivodeship, it is the capital of Piotrków County. According to tradition, but not confirmed by historical sources, Piotrków was founded by Piotr Włostowic, a powerful 12th century magnate from Silesia; the name of the city comes in a diminutive form. Trybunalski indicates; the town has been known in Yiddish as פּעטריקעװ or Petrikev, in German as Petrikau, in Russian as Петроков or Petrokov. Piotrków Trybunalski is situated in the middle-west part of the Łódź Uplands; the population of the city is 80,000 and its area is nearly 68 square kilometres. The landscape of the Piotrków region and its geological structure were formed during the glaciation of 180,000–128,000 years ago. There are hardly any forests on the Piotrków Plains. Two rivers cross the region, the Wolbórka and the Luciąża, which with their tributaries flow into the Pilica River and belong to the catchment area of the Vistula River.
The watershed of Poland's two main rivers, the Vistula and the Oder, runs along the meridional line three km west of Piotrków. Two small rivers, the Strawa and the Strawka flow through the city, it is between their valleys that the first settlement of Piotrków was founded in the early Middle Ages. Two more rivers have been included within the boundary of the city area - the Wierzejka, which in the western part of the city forms a reservoir, the Śrutowy Dołek to the south of Piotrków; the city is 200 m above sea level. The average temperature during the year is about 8 °C, the coldest month is January, the warmest is July. Yearly rainfall is from 550 to 600 mm; the sandy soil of the region is not fertile. In the early Middle Ages the Piotrków region was part of the province of Łęczyca ruled by the Piast dynasty. In c1264 it became part of a separate principality; the foundation of the city and its development were connected with its geographical position and the advantageous arrangement of the roads linking the provinces of Poland in Piast times.
At first a market town and a place of the princes' tribunals, Piotrków became an administrative centre, in centuries it became an important political centre in Poland. The first record of Piotrków is in a document issued in 1217 by the Prince of Kraków, Leszek I the White, where there is a mention of the prince's tribunal held "in Petrecoue". Mediaeval Piotrków was a trading place on the trade routes from Pomerania to Russia and Hungary, from Masovia to Silesia. During the 13th century, apart from the tribunals, Polish provincial princes made Piotrków the seat of some assemblies of the Sieradz knights, which according to historical sources were held in 1233, in 1241, in 1291, it might have been during the 1291 assembly that the Prince of Sieradz, Władysław I the Elbow-high, granted Piotrków civic rights, because in documents from the beginning of the 14th century he mentions "civitate nostra Petricouiensi". The first certificate of foundation and the other documents were burnt in a great fire which destroyed the city around 1400.
The privileges and rights were re-granted by King Władysław II Jagiełło in 1404. The city walls were built during the reign of King Casimir III, after the great fire they were rebuilt at the beginning of the 15th century. During the reign of Casimir III, many expelled German Jews from the Holy Roman Empire migrated to the town, which grew to have one of the largest Jewish settlements in the kingdom. Between 1354 and 1567 the city held general assemblies of Polish knights, general or elective meetings of the Polish Sejm, it was in the city of Piotrków that the Polish Parliament was given its final structure with the division into an Upper House and Lower Chamber in 1493. King John I Albert published his "Piotrków privilege" on May 26, 1493, which expanded the privileges of the szlachta at the expense of the bourgeoisie and the peasantry. Piotrków became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569; when the seat of the Parliament was moved to Warsaw, the town became the seat of the highest court of Poland, the Crown Tribunal, trials were held there from 1578–1793.
Piotrków's Jewish population was expelled in 1578 and only allowed back a century later. The town became a post station in 1684. Around 1705, German settlers founded villages. While the importance of Piotrków in the political life of the country had contributed to its development in the 16th century, the city declined in the 17th and 18th centuries, due to fires, wars against Sweden, the Partitions of Poland; the first official inventory of important buildings in Poland, A General View of the Nature of Ancient Monuments in the Kingdom of Poland, led by Kazimierz Stronczynski from 1844–55, describes the Great Synagogue as one of Poland's architecturally notable buildings. In 1793, the Kingdom of Prussia annexed the town in the Second Partition of Poland and administered it as part of the Province of South Prussia. During the Napoleonic Wars, Piotrków became part of the Duchy of Warsaw (180
Voivodeships of Poland
A województwo is the highest-level administrative subdivision of Poland, corresponding to a "province" in many other countries. The term "województwo" has been in use since the 14th century, is translated in English as "province". Województwo is rendered in English by "voivodeship" or a variant spelling; the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998, which went into effect on 1 January 1999, created sixteen new voivodeships. These replaced the 49 former voivodeships that had existed from 1 July 1975, bear greater resemblance to the voivodeships that existed between 1950 and 1975. Today's voivodeships are named after historical and geographical regions, while those prior to 1998 took their names from the cities on which they were centered; the new units range in area from under 10,000 km2 to over 35,000 km2, in population from one million to over five million. Administrative authority at the voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed governor called a voivode, an elected assembly called a sejmik, an executive board chosen by that assembly, headed by a voivodeship marshal.
Voivodeships are further divided into powiats and gminas: see Administrative divisions of Poland. This is a list of Polish voivodeships by gross regional product per capita, based on purchasing power standards and shown in euros. Statistics shown are for 2017 levels; this is a list of Polish voivodeships by nominal gross regional product shown in billion euros. Statistics shown are for 2017 levels. Competences and powers at voivodeship level are shared between the voivode, the sejmik and the marshal. In most cases these institutions are all based in one city, but in Kuyavian-Pomeranian and Lubusz Voivodeship the voivode's offices are in a different city from those of the executive and the sejmik. Voivodeship capitals are listed in the table below; the voivode is appointed by the Prime Minister and is the regional representative of the central government. The voivode acts as the head of central government institutions at regional level, manages central government property in the region, oversees the functioning of local government, coordinates actions in the field of public safety and environment protection, exercises special powers in emergencies.
The voivode's offices collectively are known as the urząd wojewódzki. The sejmik is elected every five years, at the same time as the local authorities at powiat and gmina level, it passes bylaws, including budget. It elects the marszałek and other members of the executive, holds them to account; the executive, headed by the marszałek drafts the budget and development strategies, implements the resolutions of the sejmik, manages the voivodeship's property, deals with many aspects of regional policy, including management of European Union funding. The marshal's offices are collectively known as the urząd marszałkowski. According to 2014 Eurostat data, the GDP per capita of Polish voivodeships varies notably and there is a large gap between the richest per capita voivodeship and the poorest per capita. Poznań Voivodeship Kalisz Voivodeship Gniezno Voivodeship from 1768 Sieradz Voivodeship Łęczyca Voivodeship Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship Inowrocław Voivodeship Chełmno Voivodeship Malbork Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Duchy of Warmia Duchy of Prussia Płock Voivodeship Rawa Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Kraków Voivodeship Sandomierz Voivodeship Lublin Voivodeship Podlaskie Voivodeship Ruthenian Voivodeship Bełz Voivodeship Volhynian Voivodeship Podole Voivodeship Bracław Voivodeship Kijów Voivodeship Czernihów Voivodeship Wilno Voivodship Troki Voivodship Nowogrodek Voivodship Brest-Litovsk Voivodship Minsk Voivodship Mscislaw Voivodship Smolensk Voivodship Vitebsk Voivodship Polock Voivodship Duchy of Samogita Wenden Voivodship since 1598 till the 1620s Dorpat Voivodship since 1598 till the 1620
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
The Warsaw-Vienna Railway was a railway system which operated in Congress Poland, a part of the Russian Empire, from 1845 until 1912, when it was nationalized by the Russian government. The main component of its network was a line 327.6 km in length from Warsaw to the Granica station on the border with the Austrian Empire, from 1867 known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire. There the line reached the Austrian railway network, it was the first railway line built in Congress Poland and the second in the Russian Empire, after a short stretch of 27 km between Tsarskoye Selo and Saint Petersburg which opened in 1837. The line used the standard European gauge, as opposed to all other railways in the Russian Empire which used the broad gauge, hence it formed a system physically separated from other Russian railways; the first concrete plan to build a railway between Warsaw and the southern border of the Congress Poland was submitted to Bank Polski by a consortium led by Henryk Łubieński in January 1835.
Three years in 1838 Towarzystwo Akcyjne Drogi Żelaznej Warszawsko-Wiedeńskiej was established and granted a licence to build the railway. Arguments between proponents of horse and steam traction lasted many years, only in 1840 the latter was chosen when the building work started; the company was taken over by the state. In 1857 the line was leased to a private company for 75 years, however it was re-nationalised in 1912, with a compensation paid to the shareholders; the first stretch of the line, from Warsaw to Grodzisk Mazowiecki, opened on 14 June 1845, was extended to Skierniewice with a branch to Łowicz on 15 October 1845. Trains reached Częstochowa in 1846, Ząbkowice in 1847 and the Austrian border on 1 April 1848. There were 27 stations on the line; the line was single, but from the outset, the earthworks were prepared for a second track, added to the whole route between 1872 and 1881. The terminal border station lay close to Szczakowa Station of the Upper Silesia railway; this line indirectly, via the two Prussian lines of the Upper Silesian Railway and William's Railway was joined to the Austrian Northern Railway, which reached the Prussian border from Vienna.
An Austrian communication was not available before 1856, when the Austrian Eastern National Railway, predecessor of the Kraków and Upper Silesia Railway, closed the gap with a branch from Trzebinia to Czechowice-Dziedzice. The Warsaw terminus, designed by Enrico Marconi, opened in 1845 and remained in use for over 75 years; the building, facing Aleje Jerozolimskie, was 166 metres long and 18 metres wide, with the three storey central part, flanked by two 25 metre towers. The western tower housed an optical telegraph station on the top floor, the eastern one had a clock. Marconi designed the southern terminus of the line, in Granica, on a much more modest scale; the first five locomotives were purchased from John Cockerill's factory in Seraing. On additional engines were obtained from Borsig and other West European factories. From 1901 locomotives were different from common Russian stock. Main line: Warszawa - Grodzisk Mazowiecki - Skierniewice - Koluszki - Piotrków Trybunalski - Radomsko - Częstochowa - Zawiercie - Ząbkowice Będzińskie - Strzemieszyce Południowe - Granica Branch lines: Skierniewice - Łowicz Ząbkowice - Sosnowiec Koluszki - Łódź-Fabryczna History of rail transport in Poland Stawarz, Andrzej.
Gdy do. Tow. Przyjaciół Grodziska Mazowieckiego. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona