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The term skiff is used for a number of unrelated styles of small boats. Traditionally, these are coastal craft or river craft used for leisure, as a utility craft and for fishing, have a one-person or small crew. Sailing skiffs have developed into high performance competitive classes. Many of today's skiff classes are based in Australia and New Zealand in the form of 12 ft, 13 ft, 16 ft and 18 ft skiffs; the 29er, 49er, SKUD and Musto Skiff are all considered to developed from the skiff concept, all of which are sailed internationally. The term skiff is used for a racing shell called single scull for competitive rowing, rowed by one rower with two oars; as opposed to sweep boats, where the rowers only have one oar each – coxless pair, coxless four etc. Of course a lone rower must have two oars to row, so sweep oar does not exist for the skiff/single scull; the word is related to ship and has a complicated etymology: "skiff" comes from the Middle English skif, which derives from the Old French esquif, which in turn derives from the Old Italian schifo, itself of Germanic origin.

"Ship" comes from the Old English "scip". The term has been used for a number of styles of craft round the United Kingdom small river and sea going craft, they varied from double ended rowing boats to small sailing boats. The poet John Milton refers to a'night foundered skiff' in Paradise Lost as early as 1670. There are references to skiffs on the River Thames as early as 1824 at Oxford. In August 1815, the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was taken on an expedition by skiff from Old Windsor to Lechlade by Charles Clairmont and Thomas Love Peacock, he subsequently settled at Marlow where he rowed his skiff through the locks. Shelley drowned sailing in a skiff off the coast of Italy, it was used in the Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott. The Thames skiff became formalised as a specific design in the early part of the 19th century, it is a round-bottom clinker-built rowing boat, still common on the River Thames and other rivers in England. Rowing skiffs became popular in Victorian Britain and a skiff journey up the River Thames features in Three Men in a Boat by Jerome K. Jerome, These skiffs could carry a sail and could be used for camping.

Although general usage has declined, skiffs are still used for racing. During the year, skiffing regattas are held in various riverside towns in England—the major event being the Skiff Championships Regatta at Henley. Akin to the skiff is the yoal or yole, a clinker built boat used for fishing in the Orkney and Shetland Islands; the boat itself is a version of the Norwegian Oselvar, similar to a skiff in appearance, while the word is cognate with "yawl". The French yole is a leisure craft similar to the Thames Skiff and is translated as "skiff", while the French skiff translates to a single scull. In Dutch and German, "Skiff" means a single scull, while Czech skif refers to sculling boats in general. Regattas take place across Northern Ireland with one of the largest being held in Portadown but smaller events take place throughout the year across County Down. In American usage, the term is used to apply to small sea-going fishing boats, it is referred to in literature in Moby-Dick by Herman Melville and The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway.

The skiff could be powered by sails as well as oars. One usage of skiff is to refer to a small flat-bottomed open boat with a pointed bow and a flat stern developed as an inexpensive and easy to build boat for use by inshore fishermen. Designed to be powered by rowing, their form has evolved so that they are efficiently powered by outboard motors; the design is still in common use today for both pleasure craft. They can be made of wood or other materials. There is a similar style of craft in Central America and Mexico called a panga; the term skiff has been applied to motorized boats of small size and construction used as sea-going vessels for piracy or drug smuggling. The skiff with a sail has developed into specific sailing boats bearing the name "skiff". In Sydney, the term was used for a number of racing classes; these were heavily crewed and canvassed boats that were short for the canvas and crew carried and were developed from working boats of the time. This style of boat is still active in the form of 18 foot classes.

The skiff classes developed to become much lighter and faster with smaller rigs and smaller crews. 12ft Skiff, 13 ft Skiff, 16ft Skiff, 18ft Skiff classes are raced in that form. With two crew on the 12 and 13 footer and three on the 16 and 18 these are still crewed boats for their size. Modern developments began with the introduction of carbon fibre reinforced composite hulls, allowing for a significant reduction in weight, an increase in rigidity. Following this, the use of carbon in masts and rigging allowed for more sail area, better gust response. Moulded sails are being tested in both 12 ft and 16 ft skiffs, with most modern Australian 18 ft Skiffs utilising the new technology; because the modern 18s have such a high profile, the term skiff is used internationally to refer to other high-performance sailing dinghy classes featuring asymmetrical spinnaker and trapeze which have been influenced by modern skiffs. Examples include: Cherub Skiff, International 14, 29er, 49er; these boats tend to be less crewed in relation to their length than the traditional Australian Skiff Classes.

The term is used for

Paul J. Turek

Dr. Paul J Turek is an American physician and surgeon, men's reproductive health specialist, businessman. Turek is a recent recipient of a National Institutes of Health grant for research designed to help infertile men become fathers using stem cells. Turek was born in Connecticut to immigrant parents, his mother was the administrative secretary in the Manchester public school system, while his father was a sheet metal mechanic and welder. He attended Manchester High School and graduated salutatorian in 1978. At Yale College he graduated summa cum laude, Phi Beta Kappa, received the Henry J. Belknap Prize in the Biological Sciences, co-authored several scientific publications from work in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Handschumacher in the Department of Pharmacology at the Yale School of Medicine. While at Stanford Medical School, he participated in immunology research and developed an interest in the surgical discipline of urology, he pursued his internship and residency training in urology at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

During this time, he developed an interest in urologic microsurgery and reproductive medicine and soon after pursued fellowship training in microsurgery and male reproductive medicine under the guidance of Dr. Larry Lipshultz at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. After completing his fellowship, he was recruited to the faculty of the University of California San Francisco. Turek is a board-certified microsurgeon, specializing in male fertility, he has performed and published research in men's reproductive health issues including genetic infertility, ejaculatory duct obstruction, immunologic infertility, quality of life issues with infertility, testis cancer and stem cell science, has developed several techniques for evaluating and treating male infertility. While at UCSF, he was Director of the Male Reproductive Clinical Laboratory, Program Leader of PROGENI, Director of the UCSF Men's Reproductive Health Clinic and Research Program, the director of a National Institutes of Health grant to train new faculty in men's reproductive health.

He has authored more than 175 publications on scientific issues in reproductive health. Through his published work, he is a proponent of the theory that male infertility is an early marker for other diseases that occur in life, he became a full professor, with an endowed chair in teaching funded by the Academy at UCSF, a chair he abandoned in favor of starting his own private clinic. He is now Director of The Turek Clinics, medical centers in California that specialize in men's reproductive health care, he was President in 2011 of the American Society of Andrology and the Society of Male Reproduction and Urology in 2013. Turek has designed and led in numerous key research programs, as well as inventing several procedures, that have had significant impact on the science of men's reproductive health. Turek is an advocate for men's general health, speaks about on the topic on television and at companies such as Google, he is on the medical advisory board for a LIVESTRONG Foundation initiative. Turek is the inventor of Fine Needle Aspiration Mapping known less formally as sperm mapping, testicular cartography, or "GPS for the testis."

FNA Mapping is a non-invasive office procedure that can be performed in a standardized, template fashion to identify men who qualify for, assist in the planning of, sperm retrieval for IVF-ICSI. This technique has been important because it has improved identification of men who are to have a successful sperm retrieval while at the same time avoiding costly and unnecessary assisted reproductive techniques. FNA Mapping has become a fundamental procedure in the profession and has been adopted at most reproductive centers around the world; the success of assisted reproductive techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection encouraged reproductive clinicians to look beyond the ejaculate and into the male reproductive tract to find sperm. In men with no sperm count, it soon became clear that sperm could be found in the testes and used with ICSI, but sperm production was characteristically "patchy" or "focal" in azoospermic testes. FNA Mapping was designed to diagnose the degree of "patchiness" of sperm production in azoospermic men and determine, among other things, whether a sperm retrieval would succeed in a specific patient.

Prior to FNA Mapping, testis biopsy was the major procedure for determining the quality of sperm presence. Testis biopsy is a more invasive procedure than FNA Mapping, studies have shown that FNA Mapping provides better and more complete information about sperm presence. In addition, FNA Mapping has been used to determine the effectiveness of mapping in patients after sterilizing chemotherapy, the ability to find and diagnose small testis tumors, the ability of mapping to define subsets of infertile men for more accurate phenotyping for molecular biology and genetic studies. In a series of papers and his team made a significant advancement in the diagnosis of ejaculatory duct obstruction as a cause of male infertility by studying and investigating the approach and limitations of current treatments for this condition; this led to a prospective, comparative study of used techniques to diagnosis EDO followed by the invention and publication of a dynamic, physiologically relevant test, termed ejaculatory duct manometry, to definitively diagnose this surgical condition.

The Hypoosmotic Swelling Test is a laboratory test to measure the functional integrity of the human sperm membrane. In this test, the sperm is exposed to a hypososmotic solution consisting of a 50:50 mixt

Sheffield Cathedral

The Cathedral Church of St Peter and St Paul, Sheffield called Sheffield Cathedral, is the cathedral church for the Church of England diocese of Sheffield, England. A parish church, it was elevated to cathedral status when the diocese was created in 1914. Sheffield Cathedral is one of five Grade I listed buildings in the city, along with Town Hall, Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet, the parish churches at Ecclesfield and Bradfield, it is located in the city centre on Church Street and served by Sheffield Supertram's Cathedral stop. It is one of three stops to be served by all tram lines; the site of the cathedral has a long history of Christian use. The shaft of the 9th-century Sheffield Cross, believed to have been sited here, is now held by the British Museum, it is probable that Sheffield's parish church, a satellite of Worksop Priory, was constructed here in the 12th century by William de Lovetot at the opposite end of the town to Sheffield Castle. This established the area of the parish of Sheffield, unchanged until the 19th century.

This church was burnt down in 1266 during the Second Barons' War against King Henry III. Another parish church was completed in 1280, but this church was demolished and rebuilt about 1430 on a cruciform floor plan; the Shrewsbury Chapel was added in the next century, a vestry chapel was added in 1777. The north and south walls of the nave were rebuilt in 1790–93 and a major restoration by Flockton & Gibbs, which included the addition of new north and south transepts, was completed in 1880; the church was dedicated to Saint Peter, but from some time after the reformation into the 19th century it was dedicated to Holy Trinity. The parish of Sheffield was subdivided into smaller parishes in 1848; the church is still the parish church for the smaller Parish of Sheffield, but in 1914 it was made the cathedral church for the newly created Diocese of Sheffield. Plans were drafted by Charles Nicholson to extend the church and reorient it on its axis, but due to World War II these were scaled down; the resulting additions leave the church an awkward shape in plan, but with an impressive south elevation.

On Thursday 2 April 2015, the Royal Maundy service was held in Sheffield Cathedral. The Queen distributed specially-minted Maundy money to 89 women; the east end of the current church is the oldest. In the east wall of the sanctuary there are stones from the 13th-century church. Dating from the 15th century are the sanctuary and chancel; the 15th-century cruciform church included lofts and a rood chapel but these were ordered to be removed by Elizabeth I. Their scars can be seen on the walls; the chancel roof dates to the 16th century and is a hammerbeam roof with gilded angels. The outstretched wings are a modern gift from the 1960s by George Bailey. In the 1770s, rebuilding included the addition of tracery into the windows and a resurfacing of the walls with moorstone; the addition of the vestry chapel of St Katherine destroyed the cruciform shape of the plan. The Shrewsbury Chapel was constructed in order to house the Tudor monuments of the Earls of Shrewsbury; the altarpiece in this chapel is considered medieval in date.

On the south wall of the Shrewsbury Chapel is the alabaster monument to George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury with its architectural surround, armoured effigy, Latin inscription. Several members of the family are buried in the vault; the monument on the left towards the sanctuary is to 4th Earl of Shrewsbury. It is made of fine marble, carved in an Italian style to depict the Earl and his two wives in positions of prayer, they are both fine examples of Tudor monuments. The east window is a monument to James Montgomery. In the 1880s further reconstruction and rebuilding removed the galleries, moved the organ to the north transept to clear the chancel, installed new oak pews; the north and south transepts and west end were extended. A screen was constructed by local craftsmen for the Shrewsbury Chapel but was modified and moved to the north aisle in the 1900s. During restoration work in 2013, it was discovered that a number of the Shrewsbury coffins were missing from the crypt. Charles Nicholson's design in the 1900s called for a radical realignment of the church axis by 90 degrees.

However and World Wars forced the designs to change. Those changes were implemented throughout the 20th century; the bulk of the changes have affected the northern part of the cathedral, extensively expanded. To the north of the nave is the chapel of Saint George, which commemorates the York and Lancaster Regiment, it is furnished with regiment flags and a screen made up of the bayonets and swords of the first regiment. Under the chapel of St George is the vaulted crypt chapel of All Saints and the Te Deum window, designed by Christopher Webb. At the furthest north end is the Chapel of the Holy Spirit with a four-part vaulting system and a beautifully painted screen; the main entrance of the church is at the expanded west end, added in 1966 when the church was rededicated. The baptism font is at this end; the lantern tower was an earlier addition to improve light but its glass was replaced by an abstract design designed by Amber Hiscott in 1998–99. In September 2010 it was announced that the cathedral would be applying for a £980,000 Heritage Lottery Fund grant to fund a £1.25 million scheme to make the building more attractive to visitors.

As of 2 January 2020: Dean — Peter Bradley Vice-Dean & Canon Missioner — Keith Farrow Canon Precentor — vacant since Chris Burke's 2019 collation as Archdeacon of Barking vacancy —

Nikolai Stojanov

Academician Nikolai Andreev Stojanov, was a botanist, among the founders of botany in Bulgaria. He was for many years professor at Sofia University, the founder and first director of the Institute of Botany of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Nikolai Stojanov was born in Grodno, Russia on 21 November 1883. In 1903 he was admitted to study at the Agronomy Department of the Kiev Polytechnic University, but in 1906 was interned for revolutionary activities, he fled to Bulgaria in 1909, where he graduated in 1911 in the Biological sciences at Sofia University. He studied botany in Germany and the UK. Between 1913 and 1951 he was a member of the faculty at Sofia University. From 1926 to 1930 was an extraordinary professor, from 1930 full Professor, he was head of the department of Agricultural Botany within the Agronomy and Forestry Faculty between 1930 and 1936 and held the post of Dean 1931–1932. From 1936 to 1951 he was Professor and Head of Department of Plant Systematics and Plant Geography in the Physics and Mathematics Department of Sofia University.

In 1923 Nikolai Stojanov became a founder member of the Bulgarian Botanical Society. In 1947, he became the founder and first director of the Institute of Botany of the Botanical Garden of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. At the same time from 1951 to 1956 he was the Secretary of the Biology and Medical Science Department of the BAS. Between 1956 and 1959 he served as chief scientific secretary of the BAS, he was a member of the Bulgarian Communist Party from 1946. He died in Sofia 9 October 1968. Stojanov's research and teaching interests were associated with the classification of higher plants and plant geography in the Balkans and Bulgaria, he was author of 190 scientific papers published in Bulgaria and abroad, as well as numerous books, such as земеделска ботаника and растителна география. Together with Boris Stefanoff he produced the "Flora of Bulgaria", which lists 2,936 species of fern and angiosperms, he found more than 400 plant taxa new to science, established the beginning of research in geobotany and paleobotany in Bulgaria.

He investigatd contemporary and historical plant geography of the Balkans and wrote papers on the vegetation of Pirin, the Sofia Plain and the Danube islands. He wrote on the acclimatization of plants, he worked on floristics, the morphology of plants and plant ecology. He was author of numerous scientific and popular articles and was Bulgarian regional adviser for Flora Europaea. For his scientific achievements he was awarded the "Georgi Dimitrov" medal in 1950 Stojanov, N. Stefanoff, B. Флора на България Stoyanov, N. Опит за характеристика на главните фитоценози в България, Год. на СУ, ФМФ, vol. 3, 1941 Stoyanov, N. Kitanov B. Диви полезни растения в България, Sofia, 1960. Kitanov B. Velinova, L. Николай Стоянов. Биобиблиография (Nikolai Stojanov: Biobibliography, Sofia, 1955. Markova, M. Сто години от рождението на акад. Николай А. Стоянов, Publishing House of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, 1988 Stanev, S. Първостроители на българската ботаника, University Press "Paisiy Hilendarski", Plovdiv, 2001

Emilio Sagi Liñán

Emilio Sagi Liñán, was a Spanish footballer who played as a left-winger for FC Barcelona, the Catalan XI and Spain during the 1920s and 1930s. He was the son of Emilio Sagi Barba, the Catalan baritone singer, Concepción Liñán Pelegrí, a dancer, as a result, was referred to as Sagibarba. During his playing career he played 455 games and scored 134 goals for FC Barcelona and is best remembered for forming a successful partnership with Paulino Alcántara. Together with Josep Samitier, Ricardo Zamora, Félix Sesúmaga and Franz Platko they were prominent members of the successful FC Barcelona team coached by Jack Greenwell, his younger brother, Luís Sagi Vela, followed in his father's footsteps and became a successful baritone singer. His son, Victor Sagi ran one of the biggest advertising agencies in Spain and in 1978 announced his candidacy for the presidency of FC Barcelona, but withdrew before the election was held. Emilio was born in Argentina, where his father toured and performed, but returned to Catalonia when he was three.

He was educated at the Colegio Condal and Colegio Bonanova and his childhood friends included Salvador Dalí and Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together, he played football at school and as a junior with FC Catalònia, before joining FC Barcelona in 1915. In 1917, as a 17-year-old, Emilio made his senior debut with FC Barcelona and during the 1918–19 season he helped the team win the Championat de Catalunya. In 1919 he left FC Barcelona to study in Terrassa. After getting married, he retired from the game; however in 1922 he rejoined FC Barcelona and embarked on a successful career which saw him win ten Championats de Catalunya, four Copa del Rey and the inaugural La Liga. Between 1922 and 1936 he played at least 15 games and scored at least 5 goals for the Catalan XI. However, records from the era do not always include accurate statistics and he may have played and scored more. Together with Paulino Alcántara, Josep Samitier and Ricardo Zamora he helped the Catalan XI win an inter-regional competition, the Copa Princep de Asturies, three times during the 1920s.

He scored in the 1924 final, a 4–4 draw with a Castile XI, before helping the Catalan XI win the replay 3–2. He played once for Spain, in a 4–2 win over Hungary in 1926. FC BarcelonaSpanish League: 1929 Spanish Cup: 1922, 1925, 1926, 1928 Catalan Champions: 1918–19, 1921–22, 1923–24, 1924–25, 1925–26, 1926–27, 1927–28, 1929–30, 1930–31, 1931–32 Catalan XICopa Príncep d'Astúries: 1922, 1924, 1926 List of Spain international footballers born outside Spain Emilio Sagi Liñán at BDFutbol National team data FC Barcelona archives FC Barcelona profile

Municipality of the District of Yarmouth

Yarmouth named the Municipality of the District of Yarmouth, is a district municipality in Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Statistics Canada classifies the district municipality as a municipal district; the district municipality forms the western part of Yarmouth County. It is one of three municipal units in the county, the other two being the Town of Yarmouth and the Municipality of the District of Argyle. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Municipality of the District of Yarmouth recorded a population of 9,845 living in 4,250 of its 4,981 total private dwellings, a change of -2.6% from its 2011 population of 10,105. With a land area of 586.65 km2, it had a population density of 16.8/km2 in 2016. Education: No certificate, diploma or degree: 35.32% High school certificate: 18.16% Apprenticeship or trade certificate or diploma: 13.43% Community college, CEGEP or other non-university certificate or diploma: 20.06% University certificate or diploma: 12.96%Unemployment rate: 10.9%Average house value: $141,461 Communities include: List of municipalities in Nova Scotia Official website