Skiing is a means of transport using skis to glide on snow. Variations of purpose include basic transport, a recreational activity, or a competitive winter sport. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee, the International Ski Federation. Skiing has a history of five millennia. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now China, according to an interpretation of ancient paintings; the word "ski" is one of a handful of words. It comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood". Asymmetrical skis were used in northern Sweden until at least the late 19th century. On one foot, the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding, a shorter ski was worn on the other foot for kicking; the underside of the short ski was either plain or covered with animal skin to aid this use, while the long ski supporting the weight of the skier was treated with animal fat in a similar manner to modern ski waxing.
Early skiers used spear. The first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. Troops on continental Europe were equipped with skis by 1747. Skiing was used for transport until the mid-19th century, but since has become a recreation and sport. Military ski races were held in Norway during the 18th century, ski warfare was studied in the late 18th century; as equipment evolved and ski lifts were developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, two main genres of skiing emerged—Alpine skiing and Nordic skiing. The main difference between the two is the type of ski binding. Called "downhill skiing", Alpine skiing takes place on a piste at a ski resort, it is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot. Ski lifts, including chairlifts, bring skiers up the slope. Backcountry skiing can be accessed by helicopter, snowcat and snowmobile. Facilities at resorts can include night skiing, après-ski, glade skiing under the supervision of the ski patrol and the ski school.
Alpine skiing branched off from the older Nordic type of skiing around the 1920s when the advent of ski lifts meant that it was not necessary to walk any longer. Alpine equipment has specialized to the point; the Nordic disciplines include cross-country skiing and ski jumping, which both use bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Cross-country skiing may be practiced in undeveloped backcountry areas. Ski jumping is practiced in certain areas that are reserved for ski jumping. Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline, named after the Telemark region of Norway, it uses equipment similar to Nordic skiing, where the ski bindings are attached only at the toes of the ski boots, allowing the skier's heel to be raised throughout the turn. However, the skis themselves are the same width as Alpine skis; the following disciplines are sanctioned by the FIS. Many are included in the Winter Olympic Games. Cross-country – Encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths.
Races occur on homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic and free-style events, where skate skiing may be employed. The main competitions are the FIS Cross-Country World Cup and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, various cross-country skiing events have been incorporated into the Winter Olympics since its inception in 1924; the discipline incorporates: cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation. Paralympic cross-country skiing and paralympic biathlon are both included in the Winter Paralympic Games. Ski jumping – Contested at the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, the FIS Ski Flying World Championships. Ski jumping has been a regular Olympic discipline at every Winter Games since 1924. Freeriding skiing – This category of skiing includes any practice of the sport on non-groomed terrain. Nordic combined – A combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping, this discipline is contested at the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, at the Winter Olympics.
Alpine skiing – Includes downhill, giant slalom, super giant slalom, para-alpine events. There are combined events where the competitors must complete one run of each event, for example, the Super Combined event consists of one run of super-G and one run of slalom skiing; the dual slalom event, where racers ski head-to-head, was invented in 1941 and has been a competitive event since 1960. Alpine skiing is contested at the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup, the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, the Winter Olympics. Para-alpine skiing is contested at the World Para Alpine Skiing Championships and the Winter Paralympics. Speed skiing – Dating from 1898, with official records beginning in 1932 with an 89-mile-per-hour run by Leo Gasperi, this became an FIS discipline in the 1960s, it is contested at the FIS Speed Ski World Cup, was demonstrated at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville. Freestyle sk
Powis House was an 18th-century mansion in London, England. It stood on the northern side of Great Ormond Street, not far from Queen Square; the first version of Powis House was built in the 1690s for 2nd Marquess of Powis. No drawings of this version survive. At some point it was let for use as the French embassy, on 26 January 1713 it burned to the ground. Jonathan Swift attributed this event to "the carelessness of the rascally French servants". A replacement house was soon built, it was 104 feet wide. The subtle but lively façade featured a phoenix above the front door; the architect may have been French. The staircase walls were painted by the Venetian painter of Giacomo Amiconi. Philip Yorke, 1st Earl of Hardwicke leased the house in the mid 18th century and from 1764 to 1783 it was the Spanish embassy. However, the locality was falling from favour with the aristocracy, making the demise of the house more or less inevitable, by the end of the 18th century it had been demolished. There is now a small access street to Great Ormond Street Hospital called Powis Place.
Beth Hayes was an American economist specializing in theoretical microeconomics. She has been memorialized by an award established by the University of Pennsylvania. Hayes graduated from the honors program at the University of Michigan in 1977 and received her Ph. D. in Economics in 1982 from the University of Pennsylvania, studying under David Cass. Her dissertation, Three Essays in Microeconomic Theory, formed the basis for her foundational work in research on two-part tariffs and asymmetrical information, insurance contracts. Beth Hayes was a professor of managerial economics in the J. L. Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University until her death in a traffic fatality in 1984. Hayes produced foundational research on two-part tariffs, the economics of information asymmetry, insurance contracts, public regulation; the model of strike behavior has been referenced and empirically tested. "The Hayes asymmetric information model of strike activity predicts a negative relationship between actual firm profits and strike frequency, a positive relationship between the trade union's expectations of firm profitability and the duration of strikes."
Other references to the Hayes model appear in articles by Joseph S. Tracy, David Card, Other references to the model appear in studies examining trade union behavior in Papua New Guinea, Japan; the model continues to be cited in studies on union strike behavior. In 1994, David Cass was instrumental in establishing the Beth Hayes Prize for Graduate Research Accomplishment at the University of Pennsylvania; the prize was created in honor and memory of Dr. Hayes, one of his former graduate students whom he describes in his essay "On Women." In its original form, the prize was awarded biennially to the woman in the economics graduate program who had produced the most significant piece of original research in the preceding two years. The award was modified with Cass's approval to include eligibility for male students. Following his death, the University renamed the award as The Beth Hayes/David Cass Prize for Graduate Research Accomplishment in Economics; the Beth Hayes/David Cass Prize at the University of Pennsylvania Cass, David.
"On Women". Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2008. Hayes, Beth. "Unions and Strikes with Asymmetric Information". Journal of Labor Economics.. 2: 57–83. Doi:10.1086/298023. JSTOR 2535017. Hayes, Beth. "Competition and Two-Part Tariffs". Journal of Business. University of Chicago Press. 60: 41–54. Doi:10.1086/296384. JSTOR 2352946