Jonathan King is an English singer-songwriter, record producer, music entrepreneur, former television and radio presenter. King first came to prominence in 1965 when "Everyone's Gone to the Moon", a song that he wrote and sang while still an undergraduate, achieved chart success in Britain and the United States; the Guardian reported in 2002. As an independent producer, he discovered and named Genesis in 1967, producing their first album From Genesis to Revelation, he founded his own label, UK Records in 1972. He produced songs for 10cc and the Bay City Rollers. In the 1970s King became known for hits that he performed and/or produced under different names, including "Johnny Reggae", "Loop di Love", "Hooked On A Feeling" and "Una Paloma Blanca". Rod Liddle described him as someone who could "storm the pop charts at will, under a hundred different disguises". While living in New York in the 1980s, King appeared on radio and television in the UK, including on the BBC's Top of the Pops and Entertainment USA.
In the early 1990s he produced the Brit Awards, from 1995 he selected and produced the British entries for the Eurovision Song Contest, including the winning entry in 1997, "Love Shine a Light" by Katrina and the Waves. In September 2001, King was convicted of child sexual abuse and sentenced to seven years in prison, for having sexually assaulted five boys, aged 14 and 15, in the 1980s. In November 2001 he was acquitted of 22 similar charges, he was released on parole in March 2005. A further trial for sexual offences against teenage boys resulted in several not guilty verdicts and the trial being abandoned in June 2018. King was born in a nursing home in Bentinck Street, London, the first child of Jimmy King and his wife, Ailsa Linley Leon, a former actress. From New Jersey, Jimmy King had moved to England when he was 14, he attended Oundle School and Trinity College, before joining the American Field Service during World War II and Tootal Ties and Shirts as managing director. King's birth was a forceps delivery and a muscle on his upper lip was affected during it, giving him his crooked smile.
After he was born, the family lived in Gloucester Place, Marylebone moved to Surrey, where King and his younger brothers and Anthony, were raised in Brookhurst Grange, a mansion near Ewhurst. King was sent to boarding school, first as a weekly boarder to pre-prep school in Hindhead, Surrey when he was eight, to Stoke House Preparatory School in Seaford, East Sussex. A year in 1954, his father died from a heart attack. Brookhurst Grange was sold, the family moved to Cobbetts, a cottage in nearby Forest Green. Music became a passion around this time. King would save his pocket money for train trips to London to watch My Fair Lady, The King and I, Irma la Douce, Salad Days, Damn Yankees and Kismet from the cheap seats in the balcony, he discovered pop music and bought his first single, Guy Mitchell's "Singing the Blues". In 1958 King became a boarder at Charterhouse in Surrey, he wrote that he "loved Charterhouse immediately", with its history and "every possible area of encouragement from sport to intellectual pursuits."
Unlike at Stoke House, there were other boys there. He bought a transistor radio and earphones and joined the "under the bedclothes" club, listening to Tony Hall, Jimmy Savile, Don Moss and Pete Murray on Radio Luxembourg, keeping track of the New Musical Express charts; the music Buddy Holly, Adam Faith, Roy Orbison and Gene Pitney, made him "ache with desire": Since "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" swept me off my feet, I had become a raving pop addict, desperate for a fix every few seconds. I kept thick notebooks packed with copies of the weekly charts, adverts for new products, pages of predictions of future hits and comments about current artistes. Looking at them now, there was no way I could have avoided a future in the music industry. King left Charterhouse in 1962 to attend a London crammer, for his A levels. With his wages from a job stacking shelves in a supermarket, he made a demo of himself the following year singing "It Doesn't Matter Anymore" and "Fool's Paradise" with the Ted Taylor Trio, a professional group in Rickmansworth.
Wearing a pinstripe suit and trainers, he approached John Schroeder of Oriole Records and told him he could make a hit record. "I have been studying the music industry for the last three years and it is one big joke," Schroeder reported him as saying. "Anyone can make it if they're clever and can fool a few people." After hearing King's demo, Schroeder booked a studio session with an orchestra but thought that King could not sing in tune. King joined a local band in Cranleigh, the Bumblies, as manager/producer and occasional singer—wearing thigh-length boots and long black gloves, during the band's appearances at birthday parties and similar. Despite the cramming, King failed the scholarship exam for Trinity College, but he was offered a place in 1963 after an interview, he accepted, but first took a gap year and spent six months travelling with a round-the-world ticket from his mother. Staying in youth hostels, he visited Greece, the Middle East, Asia and the United States, including Hawaii, where, in June 1964, he met the manager of the Beatles, Brian Epstein.
They spent hours together in Honolulu discussing the music industry, King wrote. In October that year King began to study for his degree in English literature at Cambridge, lodging in Jesus Lane. Around the time King began at Cambridge, the Bumblies (featuring Terry
Dream Theater is an American progressive metal band formed in 1985 under the name Majesty by John Petrucci, John Myung and Mike Portnoy while they attended Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts. They subsequently dropped out of their studies to concentrate further on the band that would become Dream Theater. Though a number of lineup changes followed, the three original members remained together until September 8, 2010, when Portnoy left the band. Mike Mangini was announced as the new permanent drummer on April 29, 2011; the band's highest-selling album is the gold-selling Images and Words, which reached No. 61 on the Billboard 200 chart. Both the 1994 release Awake and their 2002 release Six Degrees of Inner Turbulence entered the charts at No. 32 and No. 46 and received positive reviews. Metropolis Pt. 2: Scenes from a Memory was ranked number 95 on the October 2006 issue of Guitar World magazine's list of The greatest 100 guitar albums of all time. It is ranked as the 15th Greatest Concept Album as of March 2003 by Classic Rock Magazine.
As of 2018, Dream Theater has sold over 12 million records worldwide and has received two Grammy Award nominations. Dream Theater was formed in Massachusetts in 1985 when guitarist John Petrucci, bassist John Myung, drummer Mike Portnoy decided to form a band while attending the Berklee College of Music; the trio started by covering Iron Maiden songs in the rehearsal rooms at Berklee. Myung and Portnoy joined together on the name Majesty for their newly formed group. According to The Score So Far... documentary, they were waiting in line for tickets to a Rush concert at the Berklee Performance Center while listening to the band on a boom box. Portnoy commented that the ending of the song "Bastille Day" sounded "majestic", it was decided that Majesty would be the band's name. The trio set out to fill the remaining positions in the group. Petrucci asked. After he accepted the position, another friend from home, Chris Collins, was recruited as lead vocalist after band members heard him sing a cover of "Queen of the Reich" by Queensrÿche.
During this time, Portnoy and Myung's hectic schedules forced them to abandon their studies to concentrate on their music, as they did not feel they could learn more in college. Moore left his college, SUNY Fredonia, to concentrate on the band; the beginning months of 1986 were filled with various concert dates in and around the New York City area. During this time, the band recorded a collection of demos, titled The Majesty Demos; the initial run of 1,000 sold out within six months, dubbed copies of the cassette became popular within the progressive metal scene. The Majesty Demos are still available in their original tape format today, despite being released on CD, through Mike Portnoy's YtseJam Records. In November 1986, after a few months of writing and performing together, Chris Collins was fired. After a year of trying to find a replacement, Charlie Dominici, far older and more experienced than anyone else in the band auditioned for the group. With the stability that Dominici's appointment brought to Majesty, they began to increase the number of shows played in the New York City area, gaining a considerable amount of exposure.
Shortly after hiring Dominici, a Las Vegas group named Majesty threatened legal action for intellectual property infringement related to the use of their name, so the band was forced to adopt a new moniker. Various possibilities were proposed and tested, among them Glasser, M1, which were all rejected, though the band did go as Glasser for about a week, with poor reactions from fans. Portnoy's father suggested the name Dream Theater, the name of a small theater in Monterey and the name stuck. With their new name and band stability, Dream Theater concentrated on writing more material while playing more concerts in New York and in neighboring states; this attracted the attention of Mechanic Records, a division of MCA. Dream Theater signed their first record contract with Mechanic on June 23, 1988 and set out to record their debut album; the band recorded the album at Kajem Victory Studios in Pennsylvania. Recording the basic tracks took about 10 days, the entire album was completed in about 3 weeks.
When Dream and Day Unite was released in 1989 to far less fanfare than the band had anticipated. Mechanic ended up breaking the majority of the financial promises they had made to Dream Theater prior to signing their contract, so the band was restricted to playing around New York City; the promotional tour for the album consisted of just five concerts, all of which were local. Their first show was at Sundance in Bay Shore, New York opening for the classic rock power trio Zebra. After the fourth show, Charlie Dominici was let go because the band was starting to feel the limitations of his voice based upon the vocal style they wanted; the band was looking for a singer with a style more like Bruce Dickinson or Geoff Tate, Dominici's stage presence was not what they wanted for a front man. Shortly after, the band Marillion asked Dream Theater to open for them at a gig at the Ritz in New York, so Dominici was given the opportunity to perform one last time, it would be another two years. Following Dominici's departure, Dream Theater fought to be released from their contract with Mechanic, set about auditioning singers and writing material for their next album.
In their search for a new singer, they auditioned over 200 people, among them former Fates Warning front man John Arch. John decided that his personal commitme
Fulham is an affluent area of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in South West London, England, 3.7 miles south-west of Charing Cross. It lies on the north bank of the River Thames, between Hammersmith and Kensington and Chelsea, facing Wandsworth and the Barn Elms part of Barnes. Fulham has a history of industry and enterprise dating back to the 15th century, with pottery, tapestry-weaving, paper-making and brewing in the 17th and 18th centuries in present-day Fulham High Street, involvement in the automotive industry, early aviation, food production, laundries. In the 19th-century there was glass-blowing and this resurged in the 21st-century with the Aronson-Noon studio and Zest gallery in Rickett Street that fell victim to the so-called'Earl's Court Regeneration' scheme in 2012. Lillie Bridge Depot, a railway engineering depot opened in 1872, is associated with the building and extension of the London Underground, the electrification of Tube lines from the nearby Lots Road Power Station, for well over a century has been the maintenance hub for rolling stock and track.
Two football clubs and Chelsea, play in Fulham. There are two exclusive sporting clubs, the Hurlingham Club, known for polo, the Queen's tennis club, known for its annual pre-Wimbledon tennis tournament. In the 1800s, Lillie Bridge Grounds hosted the first meetings of the Amateur Athletic Association of England, the second FA Cup Final, the first amateur boxing matches; the Lillie Bridge area was the home ground of the Middlesex County Cricket Club, before it moved to Marylebone. Since the late 20th-century Fulham has a reputation as one of the most sought-after locations in London and has the highest capital values per square foot of prime South West London. Fulham is considered a prime London area by estate agents. Fulham, or in its earliest form "Fulanhamme", is thought to have signified land in river bend "of fowls" or "mud", or "belonging to an Anglo Saxon chief named Fulla"; the manor of Fulham is in medieval documents stated to have been given to Bishop Erkenwald about the year 691 for himself and his successors in the See of London.
In effect, as is geographically clear, Fulham Palace, for nine centuries the summer residence of the Bishops of London, is the manor and parish of Fulham. In 879 Danish invaders, sailed up the Thames and wintered at Fulham and Hammersmith. Raphael Holinshed wrote that the Bishop of London was lodging in his manor place in 1141 when Geoffrey de Mandeville, riding out from the Tower of London, took him prisoner. During the Commonwealth the manor was temporarily out of the bishops' hands, having been sold to Colonel Edmund Harvey. In recent years there has been a great revival of interest in Fulham's earliest history, due entirely to the efforts of the Fulham Archaeological Rescue Group; this has carried out a number of interesting digs in the vicinity of Fulham Palace, which show that 5,000 years ago Neolithic people were living by the riverside and in other parts of the area. Excavations have revealed Roman settlements during the third and fourth centuries AD. There is no record of the original erection of a parish church in Fulham, but the first written record of a church dates from 1154 as a result of a tithe dispute.
The first known parish priest of All Saints Church, Fulham was appointed in 1242. The medieval extant part of All Saints Church was demolished in 1881, during reconstruction by Sir Arthur Blomfield, in order to enlarge it, however, it did not date farther back than the 15th century. There is a comparably old church on the opposite bank of the Thames, St Mary's Church, across what was a ferried crossing. In 1642 the Earl of Essex withdrawing from the Battle of Brentford ordered to be put a bridge of boats on the Thames to unite with his detachment in Kingston in pursuit of Charles I, who ordered Prince Rupert to retreat from Brentford back west; the King and Prince moved their troops from Reading to Oxford for the winter. This is thought to have been near the first bridge, it was named Fulham Bridge, built in 1729 and was replaced in 1886 with Putney Bridge. Margravine Road recalls the existence of Brandenburg House, a riverside mansion built by Sir Nicholas Crispe in the time of Charles I, used as the headquarters of General Fairfax in 1647 during the civil wars.
In 1792 it was occupied by Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his wife, in 1820 by Caroline, consort of George IV. His non-political ` wife' was Maria Fitzherbert, they are reputed to have had several children. During the 18th century Fulham had a reputation for debauchery, becoming a playground for the wealthy of London, where there was much gambling and prostitution and breweries; until an Act of 1834, the neighbouring village-turned-town of Hammersmith had been a perpetual curacy under the parish of Fulham. By 1834 it had so many residents, a separate parish with a vicar and vestry for works was created; the two areas did not come together again until the commencement of the London Government Act in 1965. The 19th century roused Walham Green village, the surrounding hamlets that made up the parish of Fulham, from their rural slumber and market gardens with the advent first of power production and more hesitant transport development; this was accompanied by accelerating urbanisation, as in other centres in the county of Middlesex, which encouraged trade skills among the growing population.
In 1824 the Imperial Gas Light and Coke Company, the first public utility company in the world, bought the Sandford estate in Sands End to produce gas for lighting - and in the case of the
Thunder are an English hard rock band from London. Formed in 1989, the group was founded by former Terraplane members Danny Bowes, Luke Morley and Gary "Harry" James, along with second guitarist and keyboardist Ben Matthews and bassist Mark "Snake" Luckhurst. Signed to EMI Records in the UK, the band released their debut album Backstreet Symphony in 1990, which reached number 21 on the UK Albums Chart and number 114 on the US Billboard 200; the 1992 follow-up Laughing on Judgement Day reached number 2, while both albums were certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry. All nine singles released from the two albums reached the UK Singles Chart top 40. Luckhurst left the band in late 1992, was replaced the following February by former Great King Rat bassist Mikael Höglund; the new lineup recorded only one studio album, Behind Closed Doors, which peaked at number 5 in the UK and spawned three UK top 40 singles. The 1995 compilation Their Finest Hour reached number 22 in the UK and was certified silver by the BPI.
Höglund left in 1996 and was replaced by Chris Childs, after Morley performed bass on fourth album The Thrill of It All, which reached the UK top 20. Thunder's 1998 live album Live reached number 35 on the UK Albums Chart, while the following year's fifth studio album Giving the Game Away reached number 49; the band broke up in early 2000 due to "outside business forces". After a brief hiatus, Thunder formed their own record label, STC Recordings; the band's sixth studio album Shooting at the Sun was released the following year, supported by the UK top 50 single "Loser". After three more new studio albums – 2005's The Magnificent Seventh, 2006's Robert Johnson's Tombstone and 2008's Bang! – Thunder decided to break up in 2009. Two years however, the group returned for a third active spell, scheduling a number of sporadic live shows over the following years. A tenth studio album, Wonder Days, was released on the earMusic label in 2015, giving the band their first UK top ten since 1995 when it peaked at number 9.
Rip It Up followed in 2017, reaching a peak UK Albums Chart position of number 3. On 1 January 1989, at the group's annual New Year's Day meeting, Terraplane was disbanded by vocalist Danny Bowes and guitarist Luke Morley, who decided to form a new band under the name Thunder. In the month, the pair recorded a number of demos at Great Linford Manor Studios in Milton Keynes with producer Andy Taylor and engineer Ben Matthews, as well as Terraplane drummer Gary "Harry" James, brought in after the planned drummer failed to attend. According to Morley, the band name was chosen as a combination of two elements: a song he had written called "Distant Thunder", Taylor's debut solo album. Enlisting Bad Company's Steve Price to play bass temporarily, the group invited a number of record labels to their rehearsals in London, signed with EMI in April. Mark "Snake" Luckhurst joined Thunder as the group's original bassist on 2 May 1989, having been recommended by James after the two had performed together in Hellfire Corner.
The band's lineup was completed with the addition of Matthews, who had earlier played keyboards for Terraplane's last two shows and engineered Thunder's January demos. Thunder played their first live show on 13 July 1989 at the Reid's Club in Southend-on-Sea, the first date in a short run of seven UK dates dubbed "The Toilet Tour". In August the band returned to the Great Linford Manor to record their debut studio album, again working with Taylor as producer; the album was mixed at London's AIR Studios by Mike Fraser, who engineered the record. "She's So Fine" was released as the first single from the upcoming album on 30 October, after which the band embarked on a 27-date tour of the UK and Ireland dubbed the "Static Discharge Tour", which included two shows supporting Aerosmith at the NEC Arena in Birmingham. "Dirty Love" was released in February 1990 and entered the UK Singles Chart at number 40, before peaking the following week at number 32. The band's debut album Backstreet Symphony was released on 5 March and entered the UK Albums Chart at its peak position of number 21.
By 1991, it had been certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry. Four more tracks from Backstreet Symphony were issued as singles – the title track, "Gimme Some Lovin'", a reissue of "She's So Fine", "Love Walked In" – all of which reached the top 40 of the UK Singles Chart. Writing for Classic Rock magazine in 2002, journalist Dave Ling claimed that the album was "greeted with critical rapture", calling it "one of the all-time great hard rock debuts". AllMusic's Alex Henderson, proposed that while the record "wasn't lacking when it came to spirit and enthusiasm", it displayed Thunder as " the most original or groundbreaking band in the world". Backstreet Symphony was featured at number 7 on the Kerrang! "Albums of the Year" feature for 1990, in 2008 was voted by the magazine's readers to be the 84th best British rock album of all-time. Backstreet Symphony was promoted on a UK tour running from late February through until the end of March, after which Thunder travelled to the United States to perform a pair of shows for American media and meet with EMI's sister label Capitol Records, who had released the album in the US.
According to journalist Mick Wall, travelling with Thunder for a number of months, "Capitol in America were notorious at the time for not supporting acts signed to EMI in the UK", which resulted in the band splitting with the label shortly after their meeting. Thunder continued touring in support of their debut album, including a stint supporting Heart in April and May, another supporting
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and accompanied with keyboards. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock, while others began to return to a hard rock sound. Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop and Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes.
Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain successful recording careers. Hard rock is a form of aggressive rock music; the electric guitar is emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, as a solo lead instrument. Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis; the bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums playing riffs, but providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars. Vocals are growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or falsetto voice. Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience white, working-class adolescents.
In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but began to be used to describe music played with more volume and intensity. While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them. Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, which further differentiated the two styles. Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres; the roots of hard rock can be traced back to the 1950s electric blues, which laid the foundations for key elements such as a rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances.
Electric blues guitarists began experimenting with hard rock elements such as driving rhythms, distorted guitar solos and power chords in the 1950s, evident in the work of Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues". Other antecedents include Link Wray's instrumental "Rumble" in 1958, the surf rock instrumentals of Dick Dale, such as "Let's Go Trippin'" and "Misirlou". In the 1960s, American and British blues and rock bands began to modify rock and roll by adding harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming, louder vocals, from electric blues. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the work of Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" which made it a garage rock standard, the songs of rhythm and blues influenced British Invasion acts, including "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, "My Generation" by the Who, "Shapes of Things" by the Yardbirds, "Inside Looking Out" by the Animals, " Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones.
From the late 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music that emerged from psychedelia into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. In contrast, hard rock was most derived from blues rock and was played louder and with more intensity. Blues rock acts that pioneered the sound included Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, the Jeff Beck Group. Cream, in songs like "I Feel Free" combined blues rock with pop and psychedelia in the riffs and guitar solos of Eric Clapton. Jimi Hendrix produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz and rock and roll. From 1967 Jeff Beck brought lead guitar to new heights of technical virtuosity and moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, the Jeff Beck Group. Dave Davies of the Kinks, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, Pete Townshend of the Who, Hendrix and Beck all pioneered the use of new guitar effects like phasing and distortion.
The Beatles began producing songs in the new
Jethro Tull (band)
Jethro Tull are a British rock band formed in Blackpool, Lancashire, in 1967. Playing blues rock, the band developed their sound to incorporate elements of hard and folk rock to forge a progressive rock signature; the band is led by vocalist/flautist/guitarist Ian Anderson, has featured a revolving door of lineups through the years including significant members such as guitarists Mick Abrahams and Martin Barre, keyboardist John Evan, drummers Clive Bunker, Barriemore Barlow, Doane Perry, bassists Glenn Cornick, Jeffrey Hammond, John Glascock, Dave Pegg. The group first achieved commercial success in 1969, with the folk-tinged blues album Stand Up, which reached No. 1 in the UK, they toured in the UK and the US. Their musical style shifted in the direction of progressive rock with the albums Aqualung, Thick as a Brick and A Passion Play, shifted again to hard rock mixed with folk rock with Songs from the Wood and Heavy Horses. Jethro Tull have sold an estimated 60 million albums worldwide, with 11 gold and five platinum albums among them.
They have been described by Rolling Stone as "one of the most commercially successful and eccentric progressive rock bands". The last works as a group to contain new material were released in 2003, though the band continued to tour until 2011. Anderson said Jethro Tull were finished in 2014; the current band line-up includes musicians who have been members of Anderson's solo band since 2012. The band began a world tour on 1 March 2018. Ian Anderson, Jeffrey Hammond and John Evan, who would become members of Jethro Tull, attended grammar school together in Blackpool. Anderson was born in Dunfermline and grew up in Edinburgh before moving to Blackpool in January 1960. Evans had become a fan of the Beatles after seeing them play "Love Me Do" on Granada Television's Scene at 6:30. Though he was an accomplished pianist, he decided to take up the drums, as it was an instrument featured in the Beatles' line-up. Anderson had acquired a Spanish guitar and taught himself how to play it, the pair decided to form a band.
The pair recruited Hammond on bass. The group played as a three piece at local clubs and venues, before Evans became influenced by Georgie Fame and the Animals and switched to organ, recruiting drummer Barrie Barlow and guitarist Mike Stevens from local band the Atlantics. By 1964 the band had recruited guitarist Chris Riley and developed into a six-piece blue-eyed soul band called the John Evan Band. Evans had shortened his surname to "Evan" at the insistence of Hammond, who thought it sounded better and more unusual; the group recruited Johnny Taylor as a booking agent and played gigs further afield around northwest England, playing a mixture of blues and Motown covers. Hammond subsequently quit the band to go to art school, he was replaced by Derek Ward by Glenn Cornick. Riley quit and was replaced by Neil Smith; the group recorded three songs at Regent Sound Studios in Denmark Street, London in April 1967, appeared at The Marquee club in June. In November 1967, the band moved to the London area.
They signed a management deal with Terry Ellis and Chris Wright and replaced Smith with guitarist Mick Abrahams, but realised that supporting a 6-piece band was financially impractical, the group split up. Anderson and Cornick decided to stay together, recruiting Abrahams' friend Clive Bunker on drums and becoming a British blues band. Cornick recalled that although Evan left, the band said he was welcome to rejoin at a date; as the only member not having nearby family, Anderson lived in a bed-sit "on the verge of starvation" and worked as a cleaner for the Luton Ritz Cinema to pay the rent. Jethro Tull formed on 20 December. At first, the new band had trouble getting repeat bookings and they took to changing their name to continue playing the London club circuit, names which included "Navy Blue", "Ian Henderson's Bag o' Nails", "Candy Coloured Rain". Anderson recalled looking at a poster at a club and concluding that the band name he didn't recognise was his. Band names were supplied by their booking agents' staff, one of whom, a history enthusiast christened them "Jethro Tull" after the 18th-century agriculturist.
The name stuck because they happened to be using it the first time a club manager liked their show enough to invite them to return. They recorded a session with producer Derek Lawrence, which resulted in the single "Sunshine Day"; the B-side "Aeroplane" was an old John Evan Band track with the saxophones mixed out. It was released in February 1968 on MGM Records, miscredited to "Jethro Toe". Anderson has since questioned the misnomer as a way to avoid paying royalties; the more common version, with the name spelled is a counterfeit made in New York. Anderson met Hammond while in London and the two renewed their friendship, while Anderson moved into a bedsit in Chelsea with Evan. Hammond became the subject of several songs, beginning with their next single, "A Song for Jeffrey"; because he was living in a cold bedsit, Anderson bought a large overcoat to keep him warm, along with the flute, it became part of his early stage image. It was around this time that Anderson purchased a flute after becoming frustrated with his inability to play guitar as well as Abrahams, because their managers thought he should remain a rhythm guitarist, with Abrahams becoming the front man.
I didn't want to be just another third-