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A skinhead is a member of a subculture originated among working class youths in London, England, in the 1960s and soon spread to other parts of the United Kingdom, with a second working class skinhead movement emerging worldwide in the 1980s. Motivated by social alienation and working class solidarity, skinheads are defined by their close-cropped or shaven heads and working-class clothing such as Dr. Martens and steel toe work boots, high rise and varying length straight-leg jeans, button-down collar shirts slim fitting in check or plain; the movement reached a peak during the 1960s, experienced a revival in the 1980s, since has endured in multiple contexts worldwide. The rise to prominence of skinheads came in two waves, with the first wave taking place in the late 1960s and the second wave originating in the mid 1970s to early 1980s; the first skinheads were working class youths motivated by an expression of alternative values and working class pride, rejecting both the austerity and conservatism of the 1950s-early 1960s and the more middle class or bourgeois hippie movement and peace and love ethos of the mid to late 1960s.

Skinheads were instead drawn towards more working class outsider subcultures, incorporating elements of early working class mod fashion and black Jamaican music and fashion from Jamaican rude boys. In the earlier stages of the movement, a considerable overlap existed between early skinhead subculture, mod subculture, the rude boy subculture found among Jamaican British and Jamaican immigrant youth, as these three groups interacted and fraternized with each other within the same working class and poor neighbourhoods in Britain; as skinheads adopted elements of mod subculture and Jamaican British and Jamaican immigrant rude boy subculture, both first and second generation skins were influenced by the heavy, repetitive rhythms of dub and ska, as well as rocksteady and African-American soul and blues and funk music. Members of the second generation in the 1980s were ex-punks or influenced by the punk subculture. Many of these second generation ex-punk and punk-influenced skinheads, though fans of ska and reggae like the previous generation of skinheads, continued to listen to and create punk music and were involved in the punk movement.

Skinhead subculture has remained connected with and has overlapped with punk subculture since. 1980s skins were aligned with first wave punk, working class Oi! and street punk, reggae, 2 Tone ska, ska punk, dancehall, anarcho-punk, hardcore punk and grunge. Contemporary skinhead fashions range from clean-cut 1960s mod-influenced styles to less-strict punk- and hardcore-influenced styles. During the early 1980s, political affiliations grew in significance and split the subculture, distancing the far right and far left strands, although many skins describe themselves as apolitical; as a pro-working class movement, highly regionalised and excluded by society's moral norms, skinhead culture sometimes attracted hard-line far-right radicals, was tainted in the mid-1980s by violent fringe elements espousing extreme racism. From the 1990s, Neo-Fascist or Neo-Nazi youths in the former nation of East Germany, Finland and Eastern European countries such as Russia adopted the style. However, many skinheads remain influenced by dissident, pro-working class left-wing, syndicalist, or center-left type politics or otherwise independent pro-working class politics that have been part of the movement since the beginning in the U.

K. and the U. S. while others continue to embrace the subculture as a apolitical working class movement. In the late 1950s the post-war economic boom led to an increase in disposable income among many young people; some of those youths spent that income on new fashions popularised by American soul groups, British R&B bands, certain film actors, Carnaby Street clothing merchants. These youths became known as mods, a youth subculture noted for its consumerism and devotion to fashion and scooters. Working class mods chose practical clothing styles that suited their lifestyle and employment circumstances: work boots or army boots, straight-leg jeans or Sta-Prest trousers, button-down shirts and braces; when possible, these working class mods spent their money on suits and other sharp outfits to wear at dancehalls, where they enjoyed soul and rocksteady music. Around 1966, a schism developed between the peacock mods, who were less violent and always wore the latest expensive clothes, the hard mods, who were identified by their shorter hair and more working class image.

Hard mods became known as skinheads by about 1968. Their short hair may have come about for practical reasons, since long hair could be a liability in industrial jobs and streetfights. Skinheads may have cut their hair short in defiance of the more middle class hippie culture. In addition to retaining many mod influences, early skinheads were interested in Jamaican rude boy styles and culture the music: ska and early reggae. Skinhead culture became so popular by 1969 that the rock band Slade temporarily adopted the look as a marketing strategy; the subculture gained wider notice because of a series of violent and sexually explicit novels by Richard Allen, notably Skinhead and Skinhead Escapes. Due to largescale British migration to Perth, Western Australia, many British youths in that city joined skinhead/sharpies gangs in the late 1960s and developed their own Australian style. By the early 1

Blackburn and District Weavers', Winders' and Warpers' Association

The Blackburn and District Weavers' Winders' and Warpers' Association was a trade union representing cotton industry workers in Blackburn, Lancashire, in England. One of the earliest weavers' unions to endure, it formed a model that many others copied, was at the centre of early attempts to form a regional federation of cotton trade unions; the union was founded as the Blackburn Weavers' Friendly Society. While some previous unions of weavers had been formed, only the small Radcliffe Weavers' Society proved enduring, it was the model of the Blackburn union, copied in other Lancashire towns; as the pre-eminent weavers' union, in 1856 it formed the Power Loom Weavers' Association of Lancashire, Cheshire and Derbyshire, soon less ambitiously renamed as the Power Loom Weavers' Association of North and South Lancashire. The federation soon suffered from disputes, with most other affiliates leaving in 1858 to form the North East Lancashire Amalgamated Weavers' Association; this "First Amalgamation" proved far more successful.

However, in 1884 it did become a founding member of the new Amalgamated Weavers' Association. In 1885, one branch of the union split away, forming the rival Blackburn Power Loom Weavers' Protection Society; this remained smaller than the original union, which grew to 12,500 members by 1900, peaked 20,000 by 1920, before a long decline in the industry. The Protection Society became associated with the Conservative Party, but rejoined in 1949, while in 1960 the neighbouring Darwen Weavers', Winders' and Warpers' Association merged in. In 1901, the union was involved in a dispute. Encouraged by the Taff Vale decision against a trade union which had gone on strike, employers took action against the union which ended up costing it £11,000; this led the union, through the United Textile Workers' Factory Association, to shift its support to the new Labour Representation Committee, forerunner of the Labour Party.. The union survived until 1986, when declining membership led it to merge into the GMB. 1854: Ned Whittle 1858: John Whalley 1880: George Barker 1894: Joseph Cross 1906: D. Gouldsborough 1909: W. A. Duckworth 1912: Ernest Holden 1913: Luke Bates 1943: G. Bannister 1946: Fred Hague 1951: John Casson 1960s: William Rutter as of 1982: L. Sharples

Palpopleura lucia

Palpopleura lucia, the Lucia Widow, is a species of dragonfly in the family Libellulidae. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Comoros, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nigeria, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Burundi, its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, intermittent rivers, shrub-dominated wetlands, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, freshwater springs. Clausnitzer, V. 2005. Palpopleura lucia. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 10 August 2007


Faropenem is an orally active beta-lactam antibiotic belonging to the penem group. It is resistant to some forms of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, it is available for oral use. Faropenem was developed by Daiichi Asubio Pharma; the sodium salt faropenem sodium, available under the trade name Farom, has been marketed in Japan since 1997. The prodrug form faropenem medoxomil has been licensed from Daiichi Asubio Pharma by Replidyne, which plans to market it in conjunction with Forest Pharmaceuticals; the trade name proposed for the product was Orapem, but company officials announced this name was rejected by the FDA. As of 8 September 2015, Faropenem has yet to receive marketing approval in the United States, was submitted for consideration by the United States Food and Drug Administration on 20 December 2005; the new drug application dossier submitted included these proposed indications: acute bacterial sinusitis community-acquired pneumonia acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections urinary tract infections The FDA refused to approve faropenem, an antibiotic manufactured by Louisville-based Replidyne.

The FDA said the drug was “nonapprovable”, but did not refer to specific safety concerns about the product. The company will have to conduct new studies and clinical trials, lasting an estimated two more years, to prove the drug treats community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, skin infections. In India it is available as DrugBank website

Fighting Back (1982 American film)

Fighting Back is a 1982 vigilante action crime–drama film written by Thomas Hedley Jr and David Zelag Goodman and directed by Lewis Teague. The film stars Tom Skerritt, Patti LuPone, Michael Sarrazin, Yaphet Kotto, David Rasche, Lewis Van Bergen, Earle Hyman, Ted Ross; the film opens with Philadelphia television reporters viewing and broadcasting a news story about violence in society since JFK's assassination in 1963. With the increase in crime, Philadelphia is becoming unsafe. Proud Italian-American, John D'Angelo, runs a deli in town. While driving with his wife, John comes across a pimp known as Eldorado, brutalizing one of his prostitutes. John's wife confronts the pimp, who chases the D'Angelos and rams his car into the back of the D'Angelos' vehicle, injuring Lisa and killing their unborn baby. John's mother, Vera, is assaulted in the neighborhood by robbers who tried to take her wedding ring. John decides to make a stand, organizing a neighborhood patrol of regular citizens who are fed up with the crime in their neighborhood.

They call themselves The People's Neighborhood Patrol. They have their own uniforms of blue hats and vests that have a PNP logo on them, headquarters to take phone calls, vehicles containing the PNP logo and led by John and his best friend Vince Morelli, a police officer. After D'Angelo's house is burglarized and their dog is killed, the film cuts to the reporters' studio footage of Anthony Imperiale ten years after the 1967 Newark riots, self-defense classes in Beverly Hills, various target practice sessions and the Guardian Angels on patrol in New York City. With Vince's help, the police allow the PNP to patrol the neighborhood. However, the PNP does what it wants. To make their first stand and to introduce themselves to the neighborhood, the group goes to a dirty bar in town known for being a hot spot for criminals, including Eldorado and his men. John casually walks into the bar with the rest of the PNP behind him. John confronts the bartender to try to get answers as to, responsible for mugging his mother.

Things turn violent when the bartender laughs in John's face, triggering an all-out brawl, but the PNP comes out on top. John and the PNP start gaining media attention, the neighborhood starts to rally behind the PNP; the group starts taking out various street criminals. The PNP operates above the law. John does what he wants, his actions are seen as racial discrimination by a small portion of the African-American community. John meets with a black leader of a similar vigilante movement. Ivanhoe presents John with the two men who mugged his mother, one of whom is white while the other is black. John beats up the black man, proving Ivanhoe's point. With widespread media attention, John decides to run for councilman in the upcoming election. Just when things are looking good for the city, tragedy strikes when Vince is gunned down and killed at the hands of Eldorado and his men. In retaliation, John organizes a large-scale attack on the park. All members of the PNP heads to the park; when their demands are ignored, the PNP takes action and starts to clear out the park by brute force.

A large brawl soon erupts, police arrive on the scene not long afterward. John chases after him. Eldorado manages to get away. Meeting with the Police Commissioner, John is informed where Eldorado is, the Commissioner sardonically explaining that John can understand that at the moment the police are "too busy" to arrest Eldorado and in effect invite John to assassinate Eldorado; when John explains he does not know how to thank him, the Commissioner says "oh yes, he does" and explains that his job is based on working with people and paying and collecting favors and that John is going to owe him some big favors when he is elected. Having permission from the Commissioner to take out Eldorado, John waits patiently on the roof above Eldorado's vehicle; when Eldorado and his men enter the car, John drops a grenade through the vehicle's roof. The grenade explodes, killing everyone inside the car. John ends up winning the election, a large celebration with family and friends takes place inside his deli.

The PNP has cleaned up the neighborhood, crime is no more. The final scene shows children playing in the same park, once occupied by criminals. Tom Skerritt as John D'Angelo Patti LuPone as Lisa D'Angelo Michael Sarrazin as Vince Morelli Yaphet Kotto as Ivanhoe Washington David Rasche as Michael Taylor Lewis Van Bergen as Laz Burkofsky Earle Hyman as Police Officer Ted Ross as Police Commissioner Frank Sivero as Frank Russo Pat Cooper as Harry Janelli Paul Rawson as Jim Gina DeAngelis as Vera D'Angerlo Allan Graf as Carl-The Bartender Donna de Varona as Sara Rogers Jonathan Adam Sherman as Danny D'Angelo Pete Richardson as Eldorado Joseph Rangno as Mike Pelyk Sal Richards as Bill Gallo Jim Moody as Lester Baldwin Fighting Back was filmed in and around the Kensington section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Opening the weekend of May 23, 1982, Fighting Back brought in $1,624,381; the film received $3,355,948 in gross sales. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gives Fighting Back a score of 20% based on reviews from 5 critics and a rating average of 4.5 out of 10.

Richard F. Shepard of The New York Times wrote in his review: "This Dino De Laurentiis production is, more realistic in its parts than in its whole, which tries to attack the entire problem of crime and neighborhood self-protection, of selfless community service and of temptations to use service as a stepping stone, it approaches and to

Howard Cassady

Howard Albert "Hopalong" Cassady was an American professional football player, a running back. He won the Heisman Trophy in 1955, was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1979, he played professionally in the National Football League for eight seasons, seven of them for the Detroit Lions, with whom he won the 1957 NFL Championship Game. Cassady was born in Columbus and attended the now closed Central High School. Cassady played football for the Ohio State Buckeyes from 1952 to 1955. During his college career, he scored 37 touchdowns in 36 games, he played defensive back. He was twice selected as a consensus All-American, in 1954 and 1955; the 1954 Buckeyes won a consensus national championship. That year Cassady finished third in the vote for the Heisman Trophy, behind Alan Ameche of Wisconsin. In 1955, he won the Heisman Trophy and the Maxwell Award, was named the Associated Press Athlete of the Year. During his playing days, he was 5'10" and 170 pounds. Cassady earned the nickname "Hopalong" during his first game as a freshman for Ohio State.

Columbus sportswriters who saw him play said he "hopped all over the field like the performing cowboy", a reference to the fictional character Hopalong Cassidy. In that game, Cassady came off the bench to score three touchdowns in a win over Indiana University. During an Ohio State practice in 1953, Cassady was having trouble executing an off-tackle run. At this point Coach Woody Hayes told Cassady to take a seat and brought in backup running back Robert Croce, who executed the play flawlessly and carried the ball for 20+ yards. Hayes told Cassady, "Cassady, did you see that Croce was just slow enough to hit the hole. You're hitting the line too fast!" Cassady held some Ohio State career records for many years following his graduation. He held the career rushing record until it was surpassed by Jim Otis in 1969, the career all-purpose yards record until surpassed by Archie Griffin in 1974, the scoring record until surpassed by Pete Johnson in 1975. Cassady played baseball for Ohio State, he led the team in home runs in 1955, stolen bases in 1956.

He became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity there. He was a member of The Pigskin Club Of Washington, D. C. National Intercollegiate All-American Football Players Honor Roll. Cassady played eight seasons in the National Football League: seven for the Detroit Lions, one season split between the Cleveland Browns and the Philadelphia Eagles. In the NFL he was an all-purpose back, playing both receiver and running back and scoring 27 career touchdowns. After retiring from football, Cassady became an entrepreneur forming a company manufacturing concrete pipe, he served as a scout for the New York Yankees baseball team, as the first base coach for their former AAA affiliate, the Columbus Clippers. His son Craig Cassady played defensive back at Ohio State, in the NFL for the New Orleans Saints in the 1970s. Cassady died on September 2019 at his home in Tampa, Florida. Howard Cassady at the College Football Hall of Fame Howard Cassady at the Heisman Trophy official website