The Airedale line is one of the rail services in the West Yorkshire Metro area centred on West Yorkshire in northern England. The service is operated on the route connecting Leeds and Bradford with Skipton; some services along the line continue to Carlisle. The route covered by the service was part of the Midland Railway. According to SELRAP, the Airedale line is the most used passenger route outside the South East of England; the first section, between Leeds and Bradford, was opened by the Leeds and Bradford Railway on 1 July 1846. A number of the intermediate stations were closed in March 1965, however the line and its major stations remained open; some of the closed stations, such as Saltaire, were re-opened during the 1980s. In 1994 under Regional Railways, the line was electrified at 25 kV AC overhead between Leeds and Skipton, new British Rail Class 333 trains were introduced in the early 2000s. Investment in the line has seen passenger numbers grow, now overcrowding on trains is a problem.
New stock and longer trains are to be introduced by the new Northern Rail franchisee Arriva Rail North by December 2018 to tackle this issue. The route is described below; the line included a number of stations which are now closed: Leeds – the station was named Leeds to differentiate it from the other main line stations in the city, belonging to the North Eastern Railway Holbeck Armley Canal Road Kirkstall Kirkstall Forge Newlay and Horsforth Calverley and Rodley Location of Apperley Junction for the Wharfedale line Apperley Bridge & Rawdon – closed in 1965. The main line, opened from here to Skipton by the Leeds and Bradford Extension Railway in 1847, continues: Saltaire Location of Bingley tunnel Bingley Crossflatts Thwaites Keighley Location of the Worth Valley Branch junction to Oxenhope; the branch is now the Worth Valley Railway heritage line. Steeton & Silsden Kildwick and Crosshills Cononley Skipton. Trains of the Leeds–Morecambe line and Settle–Carlisle line run along the Airedale line from Leeds.
The line is operated by Northern. The fare structure is as follows: Zone 1 Leeds railway station Zone 2 Kirkstall Forge Zone 3 Apperley Bridge to Crossflatts. Shipley is served by the Leeds–Bradford line and the Wharfedale line Zone 4 Keighley Zone 5 Steeton & Silsden Zone 7 Cononley to Skipton Recent Network Rail reports have looked at ways of increasing capacity on the line; because of the difficulty of lengthening platforms at Shipley, it will be hard to introduce longer trains as is being proposed on the neighbouring Wharfedale line. It is therefore proposed to run more trains per hour between Leeds and Keighley, with a new platform at Keighley to accommodate this. New stations were opened at Apperley Bridge in December 2015 and Kirkstall Forge in June 2016London North Eastern Railway operate a small number of daily services on the line, between Skipton/Bradford and London King's Cross; these are operated by InterCity 225's. East Coast, Virgin Trains East Coast's predecessor, wanted to run more frequent services from December 2009 but to do so the line would need more capacity.
A recent report by Modern Railways claimed that a solid hourly service would operate on the line as far as Long Preston, but would serve Carlisle and Lancaster alternately. It may become a freight artery to improve capacity on the West Coast Main Line. Network Rail's own latest plans involve new signalling and other improvements for the sections of the line beyond Skipton. Carlisle services will be increased to a basic two-hour pattern with extra services to'fill in the gaps' at peak times during the day to give a 1 train/h frequency. Lancaster services will be made more frequent, however it has been suggested they will be terminated at Skipton in future, rather than continuing through to Leeds as at present. All of these plans are still dependent on getting enough government funding. Interactive route map
Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
The Yorkshire Dales is an upland area of the Pennines in Northern England in the historic county of Yorkshire, most of it in the Yorkshire Dales National Park created in 1954. The Dales comprises river valleys and the hills, rising from the Vale of York westwards to the hilltops of the Pennine watershed. In Ribblesdale and Garsdale, the area extends westwards across the watershed, but most of the valleys drain eastwards to the Vale of York, into the Ouse and the Humber; the extensive limestone cave systems are a major area for caving in the UK and numerous walking trails run through the hills and dales. The word dale, like dell, is derived from the Old English word dæl, it has cognates in the Nordic/Germanic words for valley, occurs in valley names across Yorkshire and Northern England. Usage here may have been reinforced by Nordic languages during the time of the Danelaw. Most of the dales are named after their stream; the best-known exception is Wensleydale, named after the small village and former market town of Wensley, rather than the River Ure, although an older name for the dale is Yoredale.
River valleys all over Yorkshire are called "+dale"—but only the more northern valleys are included in the term "The Dales". The Yorkshire Dales are surrounded by the North Pennines and Orton Fells in the north, the Vales of York and Mowbray in the east, the South Pennines in the south, the Lake District and Howgill Fells to the west, they spread to the north from the market and spa towns of Settle, Skipton and Harrogate in North Yorkshire, to the southern boundary in Wharfedale and Airedale. Natural England define the area as most of the Yorkshire Dales National Park with fringes of the Nidderdale AONB, but without the towns listed above apart from Settle; the lower reaches of Airedale and Wharfedale are not included in the area, Calderdale, south of Airedale and in the South Pennines, is not considered part of the Dales though it is a dale, is in Yorkshire, its upper reaches are as scenic and rural as many further north. Additionally, although the National Park includes the Howgill Fells and Orton Fells, they are not considered part of the Dales.
Most of the larger southern dales, Ribblesdale and Airedale, Wharfedale and Nidderdale, run parallel from north to south. The more northerly dales and Swaledale run from west to east. There are many other smaller or lesser known dales such as Arkengarthdale, Clapdale, Kingsdale, Langstrothdale, Raydale and the Washburn Valley whose tributary streams and rivers feed into the larger valleys, Barbondale, Dentdale and Garsdale which feed west to the River Lune; the characteristic scenery of the Dales is green upland pastures separated by dry-stone walls and grazed by sheep and cattle. A survey carried out in 1988, estimated that there were just over 4,971 miles of dry-stone walling in the Yorkshire Dales. Many upland areas consist of heather moorland, used for grouse shooting from 12 August. Much of the rural area is used for agriculture, with residents living in small villages and hamlets or in farmsteads. Miles of dry stone walls and much of the traditional architecture has remained, including some field barns, though many are no longer in active use.
Breeding of sheep and rearing of cattle remains common. To supplement their incomes, many farmers have diversified, with some providing accommodations for tourists. A number of agricultural shows are held each year. Lead mining was common in some areas of the Dales in the 19th century during 1821 to 1861, some industrial remains can still be found, such as the Grassington miners’ cottages. Certain former mining sites are maintained by Historic England; the Grassington Moor Lead Mining Trail, with its many remaining structures, has received funding from a variety of sources. The National Parks Service provides an app for those. In this agricultural area, tourism has become an important contributor to the economy. In 2016, there were 3.8 million visits to the Yorkshire Dales National Park including 0.48 million who stayed at least one night. The parks service estimates that this contributed £252 million to the economy and provided 3,583 full time equivalent jobs; the wider Yorkshire Dales area received 9.7 million visitors who contributed £644 million to the economy.
Visitors are attracted by the hiking trails, including some that lead to beautiful waterfalls and by the picturesque villages. The latter include Kirkby Lonsdale, Appletreewick, Clapham, Long Preston and Malham; the 73 mile-long Settle–Carlisle line railway, operated by Network Rail, runs through the National Park using tunnels and viaducts, including Ribblehead. The top-rated attractions according to travellers using the Trip Advisor site include Aysgarth Falls, Malham Cove and Ribblehead Viaduct; the dales are'U' and'V' shaped valleys, the former enlarged and shaped by glaciers in the most recent Devensian ice age. The underlying rock is Carboniferous Limestone, which results in a large areas of karst topography, in places overlain with shale and sandstone and topped with Millstone Grit, although to the north and west of the Dent Fault the hills are formed from older Silurian and Ordovician rocks; the underlying limestone in parts of the Dales has extensive cave systems, including the 87-kilometre long Three Counties System, making it a major area for caving in the UK.
There are over 2500 known caves. Visitors can try caving
Bradford is a city in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines, 8.6 miles west of Leeds, 16 miles north-west of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, received its charter as a city in 1897. Following local government reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the City of Bradford metropolitan borough. Bradford forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area, which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom, with Bradford itself having a population of 529,870. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence in the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture wool, it was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, amongst the earliest industrialised settlements becoming the "wool capital of the world". The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment.
The textile sector in Bradford fell into decline from the mid-20th century. Bradford has since emerged as a tourist destination, becoming the first UNESCO City of Film with attractions such as the National Science and Media Museum, Bradford City Park, the Alhambra theatre and Cartwright Hall. Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of post-industrial Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest and economic deprivation; the name Bradford is derived from the Old English brad and ford the broad ford which referred to a crossing of the Bradford Beck at Church Bank below the site of Bradford Cathedral, around which a settlement grew in Saxon times. It was recorded as "Bradeford" in 1086. After an uprising in 1070, during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North, the manor of Bradford was laid waste and is described as such in the Domesday Book of 1086, it became part of the Honour of Pontefract given to Ilbert de Lacy for service to the Conqueror, in whose family the manor remained until 1311.
There is evidence of a castle in the time of the Lacys. The manor passed to the Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, The Crown and private ownership in 1620. By the middle ages Bradford, had become a small town centred on Kirkgate and Ivegate. In 1316 there is mention of a fulling mill, a soke mill where all the manor corn was milled and a market. During the Wars of the Roses the inhabitants sided with House of Lancaster. Edward IV granted the right to hold two annual fairs and from this time the town began to prosper. In the reign of Henry VIII Bradford exceeded Leeds as a manufacturing centre. Bradford grew over the next two-hundred years as the woollen trade gained in prominence. During the Civil War the town was garrisoned for the Parliamentarians and in 1642 was unsuccessfully attacked by Royalist forces from Leeds. Sir Thomas Fairfax took the command of the garrison and marched to meet the Duke of Newcastle but was defeated; the Parliamentarians retreated to Bradford and the Royalists set up headquarters at Bolling Hall from where the town was besieged leading to its surrender.
The Civil War caused a decline in industry but after the accession of William III and Mary II in 1689 prosperity began to return. The launch of manufacturing in the early 18th century marked the start of the town's development while new canal and turnpike road links encouraged trade. In 1801, Bradford was a rural market town of 6,393 people, where wool spinning and cloth weaving was carried out in local cottages and farms. Bradford was thus not much bigger than nearby Keighley and was smaller than Halifax and Huddersfield; this small town acted as a hub for three nearby townships – Manningham and Great and Little Horton, which were separated from the town by countryside. Blast furnaces were established in about 1788 by Hird, Dawson Hardy at Low Moor and iron was worked by the Bowling Iron Company until about 1900. Yorkshire iron was used for shackles and piston rods for locomotives, colliery cages and other mining appliances where toughness was required; the Low Moor Company made pig iron and the company employed 1,500 men in 1929.
When the municipal borough of Bradford was created in 1847 there were 46 coal mines within its boundaries. Coal output continued to expand, reaching a peak in 1868 when Bradford contributed a quarter of all the coal and iron produced in Yorkshire. In 1825 the wool-combers union called a strike that lasted five-months but workers were forced to return to work through hardship leading to the introduction of machine-combing; this Industrial Revolution led to rapid growth, with wool imported in vast quantities for the manufacture of worsted cloth in which Bradford specialised, the town soon became known as the wool capital of the world. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Bradford Moor Barracks in 1844. Bradford had ample supplies of locally mined coal to provide the power. Local sandstone was an excellent resource for building the mills, with a population of 182,000 by 1850, the town grew as workers were attracted by jobs in the textile mills. A desperate shortage of water in Bradford Dale was a serious limitation on industrial expansion and improvement in urban sanitary conditions.
In 1854 Bradford Corporation bought the Bradford Water Company and embarked on a huge engineering programme to bring supplies of soft water from Airedale and Nidderdale. By 1882 water supply had radically improved. Meanwhile, urban expansion took place along the routes out of the city towards th
Wharfedale is one of the Yorkshire Dales. It is situated within the boroughs of Craven, Harrogate in North Yorkshire, the cities of Leeds, Bradford in West Yorkshire, it is the upper valley of the River Wharfe. Towns and villages in Wharfedale include Buckden, Conistone, Hebden, Bolton Abbey, Ilkley, Burley-in-Wharfedale, Pool-in-Wharfedale, Arthington and Wetherby. Beyond Wetherby, the valley becomes part of the Vale of York; the section from the river's source to around Addingham is known as Upper Wharfedale and lies in North Yorkshire and in the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The first 15 miles or so is known as Langstrothdale, including the settlements of Beckermonds and Hubberholme, famous for its church, the resting place of the writer J. B. Priestley; as it turns southwards, the Wharfe runs through a green and lush valley, characterised by limestone outcrops, such as Kilnsey Crag, woodland quite unusual in the dales. Below Addingham, the dale turns to the east; this section is shared between North Yorkshire and West Yorkshire and includes the towns of Ilkley and Wetherby.
The northern side of Lower Wharfedale, opposite Ilkley, Burley-in-Wharfedale and Otley, is in the Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Yorkshire Dales Rivers Trust has a remit to conserve the ecological condition of Wharfedale, Wensleydale and Nidderdale catchments from their headwaters to the Humber estuary; as an electoral subdivision Wharfedale is a ward in the north east of the City of Bradford metropolitan borough. It consists of the settlements of Burley-in-Wharfedale, Burley Woodhead and Menston along with surrounding moorland; the population of the ward taken at the 2011 Census was 11,836. In 2017, by considering regional geography, The Church of England changed its subdivisions and re-grouped the Deanery of Wharfedale with that of South Craven, in order that the similar regions can work together more effectively. One of the most renowned painters of the Victorian era, John Atkinson Grimshaw portrayed the area in his piece, "Moonlight, Wharfedale", he is known as one of the best and most accomplished nightscape and townscape artists of all time, this painting is prime example of his mastery.
Upper Wharfedale School Website
On United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland public transport systems, a penalty fare, standard fare, or fixed penalty notice is a special fare charged at a higher than normal price because the purchaser did not comply with the normal ticket purchasing rules. It should not be confused with an unpaid fares notice. Penalty fares are incurred by passengers failing to purchase a ticket before travelling or by purchasing an incorrect ticket which does not cover their whole journey. Penalty fares are a civil debt, not a fine, a person whose penalty fare is paid is not considered to have committed a criminal offence. Penalty fares are used to discourage casual fare evasion and disregard for the ticketing rules without resorting to the drastic and costly step of prosecution under the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 or other laws dealing with theft and fraud. More egregious fare avoiders can still be imprisoned if convicted. Penalty fares were first introduced on British Rail's Network SouthEast services under the British Rail Act 1989.
Over time they have been extended to cover many parts of the National Rail network. The penalty fare was set at £10 or twice the full single fare to the next station in addition to the full single fare for the rest of the journey; this was raised to £20. Penalty fares on National Rail services are due to increase to £50 or four times the full single fare to the next station in addition to the full single fare for the rest of the journey in 2014. A 50% prompt payment discount will come into force. Penalty fares on the National Rail network are based on section 130 of the Railways Act 1993; the rules which govern the application of penalty fares are the Penalty Fares Rules 2002. Under these rules any passenger found to be without a valid ticket can be issued a penalty fare irrespective of whether it was their intent to travel without paying. Penalty fares can only be issued by Authorised Collectors known as Revenue Protection Inspectors, either on the train or at the destination station; some RPIs receive commission on each penalty issued.
RPIs are different from regular train conductors. Passengers unable to pay the fare on the spot are allowed to pay within 21 days. If a Penalty Fare is issued, it is a legal requirement for the passenger to provide their Name and Address when so required to do by the Revenue Protection Inspector. Refusing to do so or providing a false address is a criminal offence under the Railways Act 1889. Penalty fares cannot be issued in some circumstances, including: if passengers were unable to purchase a ticket due to faulty ticket machines or closed ticket offices, if warning notices are not displayed if the train or station is excluded from a penalty fares scheme, or if the National Rail Conditions of Carriage allow an excess fare to be paid. RPIs can use their discretion not to give penalty fares to passengers who may have greater difficulty in purchasing tickets e.g. elderly, disabled or pregnant passengers, those with learning difficulties, or those who do not understand English. Travellers issued with penalty fares which they believe to be unfair may appeal the fare within 21 days to an appeal service, which varies depending on the mode of transport.
For National Rail services this is the Independent Penalty Fares Appeal Service, run by Southeastern Trains Ltd. Some penalty fares schemes include stations with Compulsory Ticket Areas, in which people without valid tickets or other authorities may be charged a penalty fare if they have not travelled and if they do not intend to travel; these include Amersham, Beaconsfield, Birmingham Moor Street, Birmingham Snow Hill and Latimer, Derby, Ealing Broadway, Gerrards Cross, Greenford TfL station, Harrow on the Hill, High Wycombe, London Marylebone, London St Pancras, Nottingham, Sheffield, South Ruislip The London Regional Transport Act 1992 and the Greater London Authority Act 1999 allows Transport for London to charge penalty fares under similar but not identical rules to those on National Rail services. The maximum penalty fare was set at £10 or twice the full single fare to the next station in addition to the full single fare for the rest of the journey, it was raised to £20 for all transport modes.
On 11 January 2009, it was further raised to £50 on TfL services although like many other civil penalties in the UK, a 50% discount is applied for early payments. Since 2 January 2012, all TfL modes have had a penalty fare of £80. In addition to the London services mentioned above, penalty fares apply on several other tram and metro systems in Great Britain, including the Midland Metro, Nottingham Express Transit, the Tyne and Wear Metro. Variations on the penalty fare are used by the Manchester Metrolink, which it calls a "Standard Fare", by Edinburgh Trams, which calls it an "On-board Fare". Penalty Fares on buses and trains in Northern Ireland are applied in accordance with regulations made under the Transport Act 1967. While still part of the UK, Scotland has its own legal system, train services are overseen by a separate government body. Abellio ScotRail, the franchise that operates most of the trains in Scotland, does not issue penalty fares. ScotRail may collect details and send a bill for a ticket, plus an administration fee, but it does.
Ticket inspectors are found on mos
Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is on the River Lune and has a population of 52,234. Long a commercial and educational centre, Lancaster gives Lancashire its name; the House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, the Duke of Lancaster. Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church and the Ashton Memorial, it is home to Lancaster University and a campus of the University of Cumbria. The city's name, first recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086 as Loncastre, where "Lon" refers to the River Lune, "castre", from the Old English cæster and Latin castrum for "fort", refers to the Roman fort which stood at the site. A Roman fort was built by the end of the 1st century AD on the hill where Lancaster Castle now stands, as early as the 60s, based on Roman coin evidence; the coin evidence suggests that the fort was not continuously inhabited in those early years.
It was rebuilt in stone around AD 102. The fort's name is known only in an abbreviated form. Roman baths were discovered in 1812 and can be seen near the junction of Bridge Lane and Church Street. There was a bath-house belonging to the 4th-century fort; the Roman baths incorporated a reused inscription of the Gallic Emperor Postumus, dating from AD 262–266. The 3rd-century fort was garrisoned by the numerus Barcariorum Tigrisiensium; the ancient Wery Wall was identified in 1950 as the north wall of the 4th-century fort, which constituted a drastic remodelling of the 3rd-century one, while retaining the same orientation. Exceptionally the fort is the only example in north-west Britain of a 4th-century type, with massive curtain-wall and projecting bastions typical of the Saxon Shore or in Wales; the extension of this technique as far north as Lancaster shows that the coast between Cumberland and North Wales was not left defenceless after the attacks on the west coast and the disaster in the Carausian Revolt of AD 296, following on from those under Albinus in AD 197.
The fort underwent a few more extensions, at its largest area it was 9–10 acres. The evidence suggests that the fort remained active up to the end of Roman occupation of Britain in the early 5th century. Little is known about Lancaster between the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century and the Norman Conquest in the late 11th century. Despite a lack of documentation from the period, it is that Lancaster was still inhabited. Lancaster was on the fringes of the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, over time, control may have changed from one to the other. Archaeological evidence suggests there was a monastery on or near the site of today's Lancaster Priory by the 700s or 800s. For example, an Anglo-Saxon runic cross found at the Priory in 1807, known as "Cynibald's cross", is thought to have been made in the late 9th century. Lancaster was one of the numerous monasteries founded under Wilfrid. Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Lancaster fell under the control of William I, as stated in the Domesday Book of 1086, the earliest known mention of Lancaster in any document.
The founding charter of the Priory, dated 1094, is the first known document, specific to Lancaster. By this time William had given its surrounding region to Roger de Poitou; this document suggests that the monastery had been refounded as a parish church at some point before 1066. Lancaster became a borough in 1193 under King Richard I, its first charter, dated 12 June 1193, was from John, Count of Mortain, who became King of England. Lancaster Castle built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman garrison. Lancaster Castle is well known as the site of the Pendle witch trials in 1612, it was said that the court based in the castle sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the country outside London, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town". Lancaster figured prominently in the suppression of Catholicism during the reformation with the execution of at least eleven Catholic priests. A memorial to the Lancaster Martyrs is located close to the city centre.
The traditional emblem for the House of Lancaster is a red rose, the red rose of Lancaster, similar to that of the House of York, a white rose. These names derive from the emblems of the Royal Duchies of York in the 15th century; this erupted into a civil war over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses. In more recent times, the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams representing Lancashire and Yorkshire, not just the cities of Lancaster and York, it is applied to the Roses Tournament in which Lancaster and York universities compete every year. Lancaster gained its first charter in 1193 as a market town and borough, but was not given city status until 1937. Many buildings in the city centre and along St. George's Quay date from the 19th century, built during a period when the port became one of the busiest in the UK. One prominent Lancaster slave-trader was Dodshon Foster. However, Lancaster's role as a major port was short-lived. Morecambe, Glasson Dock and Sunderland Point served as Lancaster's port for brief periods.
Heysham now serves as the district's main port. Lancaster is a service-oriented city. Products of Lancaster include anima