Marie Under was one of the greatest Estonian poets. She was nominated for the Nobel prize in literature no less than eight times. Under was born in Tallinn to school teachers Priidu and Leena Under, she had two older siblings and Gottried and two younger and Christfried. She attended a private German girls' school. After graduating, she worked as a salesclerk in a bookstore. In her free time, she wrote poetry in German. In 1902, she married Carl Hacker; the couple had two children in a suburb of Moscow. However, in 1904, she fell in love with the Estonian artist Ants Laikmaa. Laikmaa convinced her to translate her poetry into Estonian and submitted her translated works to local newspapers. In 1906, Under returned to Reval. In 1913, she met Artur Adson, he compiled the first volumes of her published poetry. In 1924, Under divorced Carl Hacker and married Adson. In the late 1910s, Under was involved in the influential Siuru literary movement. Named after a fire-bird in Finno-Ugrian mythology, it was founded in 1917 and was an expressionistic and neo-romantic movement that ran counter to the Young Estonia formalist tradition.
Other Estonian poets and authors involved in the Siuru movement at the time were Peet Aren, Otto Krusten, Friedebert Tuglas, Artur Adson, August Gailit, Johannes Semper and Henrik Visnapuu. Between 1917 and 1919, the group of poets published three volumes of poetry. In 1919 conflicts within the group led Visnapuu and Gailit to leave, while Johannes Barbarus and August Alle joined as new members. Under was one of the founders of Estonian Writers' Union in 1922. In the 1920s, Under was a frequent visitor at the house of Igor Severyanin, a Russian poet, in the village of Toila, where she was on holiday. Severyanin published a book of translations from Under. Severyanin used word-by-word translations as a basis. Beginning in September 1944, the U. S. S. R. Reoccupied Estonia. Under and her family fled to Sweden, they spent a year in a refugee camp. In 1945, the family moved to Mälarhöjden, a suburb of Stockholm, where Under lived until her death on September 25, 1980, she is buried in the Skogskyrkogården in Stockholm.
In January 2015 it was announced. Under's work was translated into at least 26 languages, she is one of the best translated Estonian authors. Russian by Igor Severyanin. Komi by Nina Obrezkova. Udmurt by Nadezhda Pchelovodova. Estonian Literary Magazine article, einst.ee Marie Under in pictures, kirmus.ee
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery implies that the land is designated as a burial ground and applied to the Roman catacombs; the term graveyard is used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard refers to a burial ground within a churchyard. The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave", a mausoleum, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are observed in cemeteries; these ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to religious beliefs. Modern cemeteries include crematoria, some grounds used for both, continue as crematoria as a principal use long after the interment areas have been filled. Taforalt cave in Morocco is the oldest known cemetery in the world, it was the resting place of at least 34 Iberomaurusian individuals, the bulk of which have been dated to 15,100 to 14,000 years ago. Neolithic cemeteries are sometimes referred to by the term "grave field".
They are one of the chief sources of information on ancient and prehistoric cultures, numerous archaeological cultures are defined by their burial customs, such as the Urnfield culture of the European Bronze Age. From about the 7th century, in Europe a burial was under the control of the Church and could only take place on consecrated church ground. Practices varied, but in continental Europe, bodies were buried in a mass grave until they had decomposed; the bones were exhumed and stored in ossuaries, either along the arcaded bounding walls of the cemetery or within the church under floor slabs and behind walls. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of their name, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe, this was accompanied by a depiction of their coat of arms. Most others were buried in graveyards again divided by social status.
Mourners who could afford the work of a stonemason had a headstone engraved with a name, dates of birth and death and sometimes other biographical data, set up over the place of burial. The more writing and symbols carved on the headstone, the more expensive it was; as with most other human property such as houses and means of transport, richer families used to compete for the artistic value of their family headstone in comparison to others around it, sometimes adding a statue on the top of the grave. Those who could not pay for a headstone at all had some religious symbol made from wood on the place of burial such as a Christian cross; some families hired a blacksmith and had large crosses made from various metals put on the place of burial. Starting in the early 19th century, the burial of the dead in graveyards began to be discontinued, due to rapid population growth in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, continued outbreaks of infectious disease near graveyards and the limited space in graveyards for new interment.
In many European states, burial in graveyards was outlawed altogether through government legislation. Instead of graveyards new places of burial were established away from populated areas and outside of old towns and city centers. Many new cemeteries became municipally owned or were run by their own corporations, thus independent from churches and their churchyards. In some cases, skeletons were moved into ossuaries or catacombs. A large action of this type occurred in 18th century Paris when human remains were transferred from graveyards all over the city to the Catacombs of Paris; the bones of an estimated 6 million people are to be found there. An early example of a landscape-style cemetery is Père Lachaise in Paris; this embodied the idea of state- rather than church-controlled burial, a concept that spread through the continent of Europe with the Napoleonic invasions. This could include the opening of cemeteries by joint stock companies; the shift to municipal cemeteries or those established by private companies was accompanied by the establishing of landscaped burial grounds outside the city.
In Britain the movement was driven by public health concerns. The Rosary Cemetery in Norwich was opened in 1819 as a burial ground for all religious backgrounds. Similar private non-denominational cemeteries were established near industrialising towns with growing populations, such as Manchester and Liverpool; each cemetery required a separate Act of Parliament for authorisation, although the capital was raised through the formation of joint-stock companies. In the first 50 years of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled from 1 million to 2.3 million. The small parish churchyards were becoming dangerously overcrowded, decaying matter infiltrating the water supply was causing epidemics; the issue became acute after the cholera epidemic of 1831, which killed 52,000 people in Britain alone, putting unprecedented pressure on the country's burial capacity. Concerns were raised about the potential public health hazard arising from the inhalation of gases generated from human putrefaction under the prevailing miasma theory of disease.
Legislative action was slow in coming, but in 1832 Parliament acknowledged the need for the establishment of large municipal cemeter
Ivar Lo-Johansson was a Swedish writer of the proletarian school. His autobiographical 1979 memoir, won the Nordic Council's Literature Prize in 1979. Lo-Johansson was born in Ösmo in a family of bound agricultural labourers, he wrote over 50 proletarian novels and short-stories, all of which carried vivid portrayals of working-class people. He described the situation of the Swedish land-workers, statare, in his novels, short stories and journalism, which encouraged the adoption of certain land reforms in Sweden, he caused much controversy with his features on old-age pensioners and other non-privileged people. He died, aged 89, in Stockholm. Lo-Johansson first came to the literary fore in the mid-1930s with the publication of his short story collections, his stories were infused with realistic and detailed depictions of the plight of landless Swedish peasants, known as statare. The first of his short stories collection to be published was Statarna I–II, followed by his Jordproletärerna (1941. Autobiographical to a large extent, these works were more than one man's story.
They were a potent attack on the prevalent social conditions the inequality in Swedish society. Lo-Johansson's books combined political astuteness and literary craftsmanship to such a competent degree that they are regarded as the stimulant behind the labor movement that led to the abolition of indentured farm labor in 1945. Lo-Johansson is best known for his vivid recollections of the life in Swedish trade-unionist and literary circles of the twenties and forties, he continued throughout his long life to insist that literature should face the world from the under-dog's perspective. Lo-Johansson's works are characterized by a vivid expression of individual human suffering. A great example of this motif is character of the farm servant's wife in Only A Mother, he explored the conflict between individualism and collectivism extensively in his autobiographical series of eight novels. He published the series in the 1950s with The Illiterate, he published the last book in the series, The Proletarian Writer in 1960.
In the 1970s he wrote numerous short stories dealing with the seven deadly sins. In the 1980s he wrote several memoirs. Ivar Los park on Mariaberget, Stockholm is named after him. There is a 1991 bronze bust of Lo-Johansson by Nils Möllerberg in the park on Bastugatan; the Ivar Lo Society preserves his apartment in Stockholm as a museum. The Stockholm city library describes Lo-Johansson as "one of our greatest proletarian writers" and an "innovator of Swedish realistic prose, engaged with social issues like care of the elderly and the question of tied labour." Vagabondliv i Frankrike Kolet i våld. Skisser från de engelska gruvarbetarnas värld Ett lag historier Nederstigen i dödsriket. Fem veckor i Londons fattigvärld Zigenare. En sommar på det hemlösa folkets vandringsstigar Mina städers ansikten Jag tvivlar på idrotten Måna är död Godnatt, jord Kungsgatan Statarna Jordproletärerna Bara en mor Traktorn Geniet "En proletärförfattares självbiografi" Analfabeten Gårdfarihandlaren Stockholmaren Journalisten Författaren Socialisten Soldaten Proletärförfattaren Elektra Kvinna år 2070 "Passionssviten" Lyckan Astronomens hus Ordets makt Lastbara berättelser Memoirs Pubertet.
Asfalt. Tröskeln. Frihet. Till en författare Skriva för livet Blå jungfrun Tisteldalen
Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Common traits include fast tempos, a shrieking vocal style distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, raw recording, unconventional song structures, an emphasis on atmosphere. Artists appear in corpse paint and adopt pseudonyms. During the 1980s, several thrash metal and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal; this so-called first wave included bands such as Venom, Mercyful Fate and Celtic Frost. A second wave arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Gorgoroth; the early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre. Norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently; some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this second wave, such as Marduk and Dark Funeral. A synonym for "Satanic metal", black metal has sparked controversy, due to the actions and ideologies associated with the genre.
Many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views, advocating various forms of Satanism or ethnic paganism. In the 1990s, members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church murders. There is a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal, although it has been shunned by many prominent artists. Black metal strives to remain underground, inaccessible to the mainstream and those who are not committed. Although contemporary black metal refers to the Norwegian style with shrieking vocals and raw production, the term has been applied to bands with differing sounds. Norwegian-inspired black metal guitarists favor high-pitched or trebly guitar tones and heavy distortion; the guitar is played with fast, un-muted tremolo picking. Guitarists use dissonance—along with specific scales and chord progressions—to create a sense of dread; the tritone, or flat-fifth, is used. Guitar solos and low guitar tunings are rare in black metal; the bass guitar is used to play stand-alone melodies. It is not uncommon for the bass to be muted against the guitar, or for it to homophonically follow the low-pitched riffs of the guitar.
While electronic keyboards were "not heard in type of music", Dimmu Borgir say they started using keyboards "in the background" and started using them as a "proper instrument" for creating "atmosphere". Some newer black metal bands began raising their production quality and introducing additional instruments such as synthesizers and orchestras; the drumming is fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach 300 beats per minute. These fast tempos require great skill and physical stamina, typified by black metal drummers Frost and Hellhammer. Still, authenticity is still prioritized over technique. "This professionalism has to go," insists well-respected drummer and metal historian Fenriz of Darkthrone. "I want to de-learn playing drums, I want to play primitive and simple, I don't want to play like a drum solo all the time and make these complicated riffs". Black metal songs stray from conventional song structure and lack clear verse-chorus sections.
Instead, many black metal songs contain repetitive instrumental sections. The Greek style—established by Rotting Christ and Varathron—has more traditional heavy metal and death metal traits than Norwegian black metal. Traditional black metal bands tend to favor raspy, high-pitched vocals which include techniques such as shrieking and snarling, a vocal style influenced by Quorthon of Bathory. Death growls, common in the death metal genre, are sometimes used, but less than the characteristic black metal shriek. Black metal lyrics attack Christianity and the other institutional religions using apocalyptic language. Satanic lyrics are common, many see them as essential to black metal. For Satanist black metal artists, "Black metal songs are meant to be like Calvinist sermons. Misanthropy, global catastrophe, death and rebirth are common themes. Another topic found in black metal lyrics is that of the wild and extreme aspects and phenomena of the natural world the wilderness, mountains, winter and blizzards.
Black metal has a fascination with the distant past. Many bands write about the mythology and folklore of their homelands and promote a revival of pre-Christian, pagan traditions. A significant number of bands write lyrics only in their native language and a few have lyrics in archaic languages; some doom metal-influenced artists' lyrics focus on depression, introspection, self-harm and suicide. Many bands choose not to play live. Many of those who do play live maintain that their performances "are not for entertainment or spectacle. Sincerity and extremity are valued above all else"; some bands consider their concerts to be rituals and make use of stage props and theatrics. Bands such as Mayhem and Gorgoroth are noted for their controversial shows, which have featured impaled animal heads, mock crucifixions, medieval weaponry and band members doused in animal blood. A few vocalists, such as Dead and Kvarforth, are known for cutting themselves while singing onstage. Black metal artists appear dressed in black with combat boots, bullet belts, spiked wristbands and inverted crosses and inverted pentagrams to reinforce their anti-Christian or anti-religious stance.
The Philadelphia Flyers are a professional ice hockey team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are members of the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League. Part of the 1967 NHL Expansion, the Flyers were the first expansion team in the post–Original Six era to win the Stanley Cup, victorious in 1973–74 and again in 1974–75; the Flyers' all-time points percentage of 57.5% is the third-best in the NHL, behind only the Vegas Golden Knights and Montreal Canadiens. Additionally, the Flyers have the most appearances in the conference finals of all 24 expansion teams, they are second behind the St. Louis Blues for the most playoff appearances out of all expansion teams; the Flyers have played their home games on Broad Street since their inception, first at the Spectrum from 1967 until 1996, at the Wells Fargo Center since 1996. The Flyers have had rivalries with several teams over the years, their biggest adversaries have been the New York Rangers, with an intense rivalry stretching back to the 1970s.
They have waged lengthy campaigns against the New York Islanders in the 70s and 80s, the Boston Bruins, a bruising battle in the 1970s, the Washington Capitals, which has always been intense since their days in the Patrick Division, as well as the New Jersey Devils, with whom they traded the Atlantic Division title every season between 1994–95 and 2006–07, they enjoy a spirited rivalry with their cross-state and expansion brethren, the Pittsburgh Penguins, considered by some to be the best rivalry in the league. Prior to 1967, Philadelphia had only iced a team in the NHL in the 1930–31 season, when the financially struggling Pittsburgh Pirates relocated in 1930 as the Philadelphia Quakers, playing at The Arena at 46th and Market Streets; the club, garbed in orange and black like today's Flyers, was coached by J. Cooper Smeaton, to be elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame 30 years for his far more notable role as an NHL referee. Among the young Quakers' skaters in 1930–31 was another future Hall of Famer in 19-year-old rookie center Syd Howe.
The Quakers' only "claim to fame" was to establish a single season NHL record for futility which has stood since, by compiling a dismal record of 4–36–4, still the fewest games won in a season by an NHL club. The Quakers suspended operations after that single dreadful campaign to again leave the Can-Am League's Philadelphia Arrows as Philadelphia's lone hockey team; the Quakers' dormant NHL franchise was canceled by the league in 1936.)In 1946, a group led by Montreal and Philadelphia sportsman Len Peto announced plans to put another NHL team in Philadelphia, to build a $2.5 million rink to seat 20,000 where stood the old Baker Bowl and to acquire the franchise of the old Montreal Maroons. The latter was held by owner of the Montreal Canadiens. However, Peto's group was unable to raise funding for the new arena project by the league-imposed deadline, the NHL cancelled the Maroons franchise. While attending a basketball game on November 29, 1964, at the Boston Garden, Ed Snider, the then-vice-president of the Philadelphia Eagles, observed a crowd of Boston Bruins fans lining up to purchase tickets to see a last-place ice hockey team.
He began making plans for a new arena upon hearing the NHL was looking to expand due to fears of a competing league taking hold on the West Coast and the desire for a new television contract in the United States. Snider made his proposal to the league, which chose the Philadelphia group—including Snider, Bill Putnam, Jerome Schiff and Philadelphia Eagles owner Jerry Wolman—over the Baltimore group. On April 4, 1966, Putnam announced a name-the-team contest. Details of the contest were released on July 12; the team name was announced on August 3. The new teams were hampered by restrictive rules that kept all major talent with the "Original Six" teams. In the NHL Expansion Draft, most of the players available were either aging veterans or career minor-leaguers before expansion occurred. Among the Flyers' 20 selections were Bernie Parent, Doug Favell, Bill Sutherland, Ed Van Impe, Joe Watson, Lou Angotti, Leon Rochefort and Gary Dornhoefer. Having purchased the minor-league Quebec Aces, the team had a distinctly francophone flavor in its early years, with Parent, Andre Lacroix, Serge Bernier, Jean-Guy Gendron, Simon Nolet and Rosaire Paiement among others.
Beginning play in 1967–68, the Philadelphia Flyers made their debut on October 11, 1967, losing 5–1 on the road to the California Seals. They won their first game a week defeating the St. Louis Blues on the road, 2–1; the Flyers made their home debut in front of a crowd of 7,812, shutting-out their intrastate rivals, the Pittsburgh Penguins, 1–0 on October 19. Lou Angotti was named the first captain in Flyers history, while Rochefort was the Flyers' top goal scorer after netting a total of 21 goals. With all six expansion teams grouped into the same division, the Flyers were able to win the division with a sub-.500 record despite being forced to play their last seven home games on the road due to a storm blowing parts of the Spectrum's roof off. However, playoff success did not come so as the Flyers were upset by St. Louis in a first round, seven-game series. Angotti was replaced by Van Impe as team captain. Led by Van Impe and the team-leading 24 goals of Andre Lacroix, the Flyers struggled during their sophomore season by finishing 15 games under.500.
Despite their poor regular season showing in 1968–69, they made the playoffs. They again lost to this time being dispatched in a four-game sweep. Not wanting his team to be physically outmatched again