Fier is a city and a municipality in Fier County in southwest Albania. The population of the municipality at the 2011 census was 85,845. Geographically, it is located on the center of the country surrounded by hills; the city is located 100 kilometres south of Tirana. Fier is 11 km from the ruins of the ancient city of Apollonia; the city was founded in 588 BCE by Greek colonists from Corfu and Corinth, on a site occupied by Illyrian tribes. The name comes from Albanian meaning fern. A hypothesis is that the name of the city comes from the Italian word fiera, meaning trade fair in English; the history of Fier is bound up with that of the oil and bitumen deposits nearby. The presence of asphalt and burning escapes of natural gas in the vicinity was recorded as early as the 1st century AD. Dioscorides, in Materia Medica, describes lumps of bitumen in the adjacent river Seman, the concentrated pitch on the banks of the Vjosë river Strabo, writing in about AD 17 states: On the territory of the people of Apolonia in Illyria there is what is called a nymphaeum.
It is a rock. Below it are springs flowing with hot water and asphalt... the asphalt is dug out of a neighboring hill: the parts excavated are replaced by fresh earth, which in time is converted to asphalt. In the 14th and 15th century the location was used by the Venetian traders as a marketplace to purchase agricultural products from the Myzeqe lowlands; the settlement took city status in 1864 when Kahreman Pasha Vrioni, the local governor, asked from some French architects to project a future city as an artisan and trade center. During the 1864–1865 period a market for 122 merchants was built along the Gjanica river; the first inhabitants of the city were the servants of Kahreman Pasha Vrioni and members of Vlach families that had lived in the area since the early 19th century period. Twelve kilometres away from Fier is situated Apollonia, one of the two most important ancient Illyrian colonial settlements in present-day Albania, it was founded in 600 BC on a hill near the sea, near what was the course of Vjosë river by settlers from Corfu and Corinth.
At the time before the changes in land formation and the Adriatic coastline caused by an earthquake in the 3rd century AD, the harbour af Apollonia could accommodate as many as 100 ships. The site is thought to be on the southern boundary of a native Illyrian settlement, being mentioned in Periplus, a sailor's account of the Adriatic written in the middle of the 4th century BC by a Greek writer, it was near the territory occupied by the Illyrian tribes and close to the Greek tribe of the Chaonians. The colony was said to have been named Gylaceia after its Corinthian founder and changed its name to that of city of the God Apollo. According to archaeological investigations for 100 years Greek and Illyrian have lived in separate communities; the economic prosperity of Apolonia grew on the basis of trade in slaves, the local rich pastoral agricultural. In the middle of the 5th century BC, a workshop for minting coins was set up here. Through trade and commercial transactions these coins spread throughout Illyria and beyond its boundaries.
In the years 214 BC onwards, the city was involved in the war between the Illyrian Taulantii and Cassander, the king of Macedonia, in 229 BC came under Roman control. In 168 BC, its loyalty to Rome was rewarded. For 200 years, it was of central importance in the Roman effort to colonize the east and may have been an original terminus of the Egnatian Way, it was a vital stronghold for Caesar in the civil war between Julius Caesar. In 45 and 44 BC, Octavian to become the Emperor Augustus, studied for 6 months in Apolonia, which had established a high reputation as a center of Greek learning the art of rhetoric, it was noted in the Philippics, as ` magna urbs et gravis' a great and important city. Under the Empire, Apolonia remained a prosperous center, but began to decline as the Vjosë silted up and the coastline changed after the earthquake; the first attempts to conduct excavations in Apolonia were made during the first World War, by Austrian archaeologists who unearthed and explored the walls that encircled the city.
Systematic excavations began in 1824 by a French archaeological mission directed by Leon Rey, who brought to light a complex of monuments at the center of the city. Many excavations have been made by Albanian archaeologists during the last 40 years. Many objects are exhibited in the museum, the monastery of St. Mary; this monument decorated the center of the city. The structure had the form of a semicircle and served as an assembly place of the council of the city - the Bule; the front part of the structure was decorated in a special manner: there are 6 pillars crowned with capitals of the Corinthian style. An inscription dating from the middle of the 2nd century AD tells that the building was constructed by high-ranking officers of the city, a monument with the purpose of commemorating the death of his soldier brother. On the day of the inauguration of the monument, a show was staged in the city with the participation of 25 couples of gladiators. On the western side, from the top of the monumental structure, the tourists can see the ruins of the small temple of Artemis.
At the eastern side there is a street. On the opposite side of the monument of the Agonothetes, there is a colonnade decorated with marble statues; this structure rises behind the colonnade. Opposite the monument of Aganothetes stands ` small theatre' for 200 spectators; the building had an orchestra and tiers. There they gave musical shows and held oratorical and philosophical disc
Skrapar District was one of the thirty-six districts of Albania, now part of Berat County. It had a population of 10,200, an area of 775 km², it is in the centre of the country, its capital is Çorovodë. It is most famous for a traditional brandy consumed by many Albanians; the district consisted of the following municipalities: Bogovë Çepan Çorovodë Gjerbës Leshnjë Potom Qendër Vëndreshë Zhepë PoliçanNote: - urban municipalities in bold Abas Ermenji, Albanian politician and historian Riza Cerova, Albanian political figure Xhelal bej Koprencka, modern Albania's founding father Ilir Meta, Albanian politician Berat County Travel Guide
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Dibër is a municipality in Dibër County, northeastern Albania. It was created in 2015 by the merger of the former municipalities Arras, Fushë-Çidhën, Kala e Dodës, Lurë, Maqellarë, Muhurr, Selishtë, Sllovë, Zall-Dardhë and Zall-Reç; the seat of the municipality is the town Peshkopi. The total population is 61,619, in a total area of 937.88 km2. It is coterminous with the former Dibër District; the area is located on the border with Macedonia. The eastern and western borders are formed by mountain ranges, with the broad river valley of the Drin running from south to north between them. On the eastern side, the valley floor rises for some time suddenly rises steeply to high mountains. On this terrace-like area at the base of the mountains there are many settlements, including the municipal capital, Peshkopi; the Korab mountains, which form the border with Macedonia, include Mount Korab, the tallest mountain in Albania and Macedonia, at 2764 metres. The rugged mountainous area to the west includes the Lurë National Park.
Despite the municipality's proximity to Macedonia, Dibër's ethnic make-up is homogeneous, but there is a small Macedonian minority living in the villages around Maqellarë. Unlike the Macedonians who live around Lake Prespa, Macedonians in Dibër have no linguistic rights and no autonomous subdivisions. There has been an active campaign to change this situation for ten years. 90 percent of the population are Muslim, while the Macedonian minority is Orthodox. The Khalwati order has a khanqah in the village of Herbel, while Allajbegi's Mosque in Maqellarë is a recognised cultural monument. Albanians and Macedonians in the area have relatives in Macedonia, so there is a lot of interaction across the national border. Like all the rural municipalities of Albania, Dibër is effected by emigration. List of mayors of Dibër Macedonians in Albania
Durrës known as Epidamnos and Dyrrachium, is the second most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is the capital of the surrounding Durrës County, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is 165 kilometres northwest of Sarandë, 31 kilometres west of Tirana, 83 kilometres south of Shkodër and 579 kilometres east of Rome. Located on the Adriatic Sea, it is the country's economic and historic center. Founded by Greek colonists from Corinth and Corfu under the name of Epidamnos around the 7th century BC, the city developed to become significant as it became an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire; the Via Egnatia, the continuation of the Via Appia, started in the city and led across the interior of the Balkan Peninsula to Constantinople in the east. In the Middle Ages, it was contested between Bulgarian and Ottoman dominions. Following the Albanian Declaration of Independence, the city served as the capital of the Principality of Albania for a short period of time.
Subsequently, it was annexed by the Kingdom of Nazi Germany in the interwar period. Moreover, the city experienced a strong expansion in its demography and economic activity during the Communism in Albania. Durrës is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest on the Adriatic Sea, which connects the city to Italy and other neighbouring countries, its most considerable attraction is the Amphitheatre of Durrës, included on the tentative list of Albania for designation as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Once having a capacity for 20,000 people, it is the largest amphitheatre in the Balkan Peninsula. In antiquity, the city was named Epidamnos and Dyrrhachion in Greek, corresponding to Latin Epidamnus and Dyrrachium; the name Dyrrhachion is explained as a Greek compound from δυσ-'bad' and ῥαχία'rocky shore, roaring waves', an explanation hinted at in antiquity by Cassius Dio, who writes it referred to the difficulties of the rocky coastline, while reporting that other Roman authors linked it to the name of an eponymous hero Dyrrachius.
The modern names of the city in Albanian and Italian are derived from Dyrrachium through the Medieval Slavic form Дърачь, from the era when the city was held by the Bulgarian and Serbian empires. This is the root of the Ottoman Turkish name Dıraç. In English usage, the Italian form Durazzo used to be widespread, but the local Albanian name Durrës has replaced it in recent decades. Though surviving remains are minimal, as one of the oldest cities in Albania, the city was founded as Epidamnos in the ancient region of Illyria in 627 BC by ancient Greek colonists from Corinth and Corcyra, modern-day Corfu; the Romans replaced the rule of Teuta with that of Demetrius of one of her generals. He lost his kingdom, including Epidamnus, to the Romans in 219 BC at the Second Illyrian War. In the Third Illyrian War Epidamnus was attacked by Gentius but he was defeated by the Romans at the same year. For Catullus, the city was Durrachium Hadriae tabernam, "the taberna of the Adriatic", one of the stopping places for a Roman traveling up the Adriatic, as Catullus had done himself in the sailing season of 56.
After the Illyrian Wars with the Roman Republic in 229 BC ended in a decisive defeat for the Illyrians, the city passed to Roman rule, under which it was developed as a major military and naval base. The Romans renamed it Dyrrachium, they considered the name Epidamnos to be inauspicious because of its wholly coincidental similarities with the Latin word damnum, meaning "loss" or "harm". The meaning of Dyrrachium is unclear, but it has been suggested that it refers to the imposing cliffs near the city. Julius Caesar's rival Pompey made a stand there in 48 BC before fleeing south to Greece. Under Roman rule, Dyrrachium prospered. Another lesser road led south to the city of the modern Butrint; the Roman emperor Caesar Augustus made the city a colony for veterans of his legions following the Battle of Actium, proclaiming it a civitas libera. In the 4th century, Dyrrachium was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova, it was the birthplace of the emperor Anastasius I in c. 430. Sometime that century, Dyrrachium was struck by a powerful earthquake which destroyed the city's defences.
Anastasius I rebuilt and strengthened the city walls, thus creating the strongest fortifications in the western Balkans. The 12-metre-high walls were so thick that, according to the Byzantine historian Anna Komnene, four horsemen could ride abreast on them. Significant portions of the ancient city defences still remain, although they have been much reduced over the centuries. Like much of the rest of the Balkans and the surrounding Dyrraciensis provinciae suffered from barbarian incursions during the Migrations Period, it was besieged in 481 by Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, in subsequent centuries had to fend off frequent attacks by the Bulgarians. Unaffected by the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the city continued under the Byzantine Empire as an important port and a major link between the Empire and western Europe; the city and the surrounding coast became a Byzantine province, the Theme of Dyrrhachium in the first decade of the 9th century. The city remained in Byzantine hands until the late 10th century, when
Delvinë is a town and a municipality in Vlorë County, southern Albania, 16 kilometres northeast of Saranda. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Delvinë and Vergo, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the town Delvinë. The total population is 7,598, in a total area of 182.90 square kilometres. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 5,754; the town is built on a mountain slope. It has a mosque, a Catholic church, a Protestant church, an Orthodox church. Nearby are the remainders of a medieval castle. To the south west of the city is the site of ancient Phoenice, declared an Archaeological Park in 2005. There is little local employment apart from that provided by the State, Delvinë benefits little from the tourist boom in Saranda; the town has a mixed population of Greeks. According to the Human Rights Watch, Greeks constituted 50% of the town's population in 1989, but this fell to 25% in 1999.
In antiquity the region was inhabited by the Greek tribe of the Chaonians. In the Middle Ages, Delvinë was part of the Despotate of Epirus. After defeat of Slavic tribes in 616 when they unsuccessfully besieged Thessaloniki, one of the tribes migrated to Epirus; until the 14th century this region in Epirus was referred to as Vanegetia, from the name of this Slavic tribe. Similar toponyms like Viyanite or Viyantije survived until the 16th century when they were replaced with the name Delvinë; the separate Sanjak of Delvina was established in the middle of 16th century, due to the need to secure Ottoman control in the region towards potential Venetian infiltration from nearby Butrinto and to control the rebellious zone of Himara. The county town was Delvinë, yet during the 18th century the local Pasha moved the seat of the sanjak from Delvinë to Gjirokastër; the official name did not change however, as it was referred to as the Sanjak of Gjirokastër. In an ecclesiastical entry of 1635, the Codex of the church of Delvinë written in the Greek language noted that Muslims had increased and dwelt in quarters inhabited by Orthodox Christians, had confiscated their churches and converted them into mosques, thereby forcing the non-Islamized Christians to move to other quarters of the town.
The Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi visited Delvinë around 1670 and gave some information about the city in his travel book. He reported that in the Middle Ages Delvinë was in the hands of the Spanish and the Venetians. In his own time, Ajaz Mehmet Pasha - a native Albanian - governed the Sanjak-bey of Delvinë; the sanjak covered 155 timars. There was a Turkish garrison, whose command on the castle was from Delvinë. According to the description of Çelebi, the small fortress had a good cisterne, an ammunition depot and a small mosque. In the city there were about 100 brick-built houses; these stood far apart and nearly every house had a tower. He noted. There was three Medreses and about 80 stores, as well as an open market place. Çelebi observed that during this time, all the inhabitants of Delvinë spoke the Albanian language while having no knowledge of the Greek language. In an ecclesiastical entry of 1730, the Codex of the church of Delvinë noted that some of the Christian Greek clergy had linguistic difficulties in administrating to their congregation, as there were Christian villagers living within the region of Delvinë who were Albanian speaking.
The local diaspora in Venice as part of the Venetian Greek community's Brotherhood of Saint Nicholas financially supported various initiatives for the expansion of Greek education in 18th century. Thus, in two instances in 1713 and 1749, Spyros Stratis and Spyridon Rizos notable members of the local diaspora in Venice, financially supported the expansion of the local Greek education system, as well as donating vast sums of money to local Orthodox monasteries and churches. In 1878 a Greek rebellion broke out, with a unit of 700 revolutionaries Epirotes, taking control of Sarandë and Delvinë. However, it was suppressed by the Ottoman troops. In the early 20th century a çetë consisting of 200 activists of the Albanian National Awakening was formed in Delvinë. During the Balkan Wars and the subsequent Ottoman defeat, the Greek Army entered the city at March 3, 1913. In June 1914 the town hosted the constituent assembly of the representatives of Northern Epirus that discussed and approved the Protocol of Corfu, on July 26, 1914.
Delvino became part of the short-lived Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus. Until the Second World War, a small Jewish community existed in Delvinë, it consisted of Jews from Spain who had come to Delvinë when under Ottoman rule and had close connections to the large Jewish community in Ioannina. After the war, nearly all the Jews emigrated to Israel; the first school in Delvina, a Greek language school, was founded at 1537, when the town was still under Venetian control, was maintained by bequests from wealthy local families. Moreover, at 1875 a Greek female school was founded. Delvinë is twinned with: Sarandë, Albania Ecumenical Patriarch Serapheim II of Constantinople and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Themistoklis Bamichas, ethnic Greek politician and representative of Northern Epirus at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 Avni bej Delvina, bej of the city, was one of the signatories of the Albanian Declaration of Independence Sulejman Delvina, fifth Prime Minister of Albania Sabri Godo and politician Limoz Dizdari, composer Laert Vasili and director Themistoklis Bamichas.
"Codex of the Church o
Gramsh is a town and a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania. The municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Gramsh, Kukur, Kushovë, Pishaj, Poroçan, Skënderbegas and Tunjë, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the town Gramsh. The total population is 24,231, in a total area of 739.22 km2. The population of the former municipality at the 2011 census was 8,440; the town is connected with Elbasan, Korça, Skrapar and Berat. The town is crossed by the river Devoll. During the Ottoman period and before the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912, it was known as Grameç in Turkish. Gramsh has been inhabited since ancient times, as is confirmed by archaeological findings in the Tumulus of Cëruja. In the Middle Ages, the area was under the possession of Prince George Arianiti. During Ottoman rule, it was a kaza administrative division within the Sanjak of Elbasan of the Monastir Vilayet. From 1912 until 1947, this was the center of Gramsh area.
With the new administrative division, it became the center of Gramsh district, in which were placed various state institutions. Gramsh was declared a city on July 10, 1960. Since 1965, it has been a municipality; the southern part of the district was part of the ethnographic region of Tomorrica, its population was Bektashi, a Sufi order linked to Shiism, while the northern part of the district was more Sunni, but there is a Bektashi tekke in the town of Dushk, in the Sult municipality. There are Orthodox Christians in addition to Muslims in the southeastern region of Lenie in Aromanian towns such as Grabovë. There were ethnically Albanian Orthodox Christians from in the nearby Shpat region of the former Elbasan district, which borders Gramsh. Evangelist missionaries made some headway among the population but today, there are many people who don't practice any of the four faiths listed. Many of Gramsh's municipalities saw less than 50% of the population declare themselves for any religion, including Tunjë, Poroçan, Gramsh the city itself, Kodovjat, as well as the neighboring Mollas region, linked to Gramsh although it wasn't part of the municipality recently.
The city was home of one of the main military weaponry factories during the communist era. Devolli Hydro Power started in 1980, but was left between work due to the death of communist leader Enver Hoxha, the beginning of a Transitional period until the 1990s that culminated in the overthrow of that system. On October 2013, it was reported that the municipality debt was high and the municipality was close to bankruptcy due to poor management of funds by former mayor, Dritan Bici; the football club is KF Gramshi, in the Albanian Second Division. Adriatik Llalla, General Prosecutor of Albania Architect Kasemi, famous architect of the 16th century Ismail Qemali Gramshi, signatory of the Albanian Declaration of Independence The name of Antonio Gramsci, famous Italian politician with Arbëresh origins refers back to an ancestry in Gramsh, Albania. Dritan Abedin Bici, former mayor and one of the most corrupted mayors of all time after Bujar Kllogjri