Skull and Bones, The Order, Order 322 or The Brotherhood of Death is an undergraduate senior secret student society at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. The oldest senior class society at the university and Bones has become a cultural institution known for its powerful alumni and various conspiracy theories; the society's alumni organization, the Russell Trust Association, owns the organization's real estate and oversees the membership. The society is known informally as "Bones", members are known as "Bonesmen", "Members of The Order" or "Initiated to The Order". Skull and Bones was founded in 1832 after a dispute among Yale debating societies Linonia, Brothers in Unity, the Calliopean Society over that season's Phi Beta Kappa awards. William Huntington Russell and Alphonso Taft co-founded "the Order of the Skull and Bones"; the first senior members included Russell, 12 other members. Alternative names for Skull and Bones are The Order 322 and The Brotherhood of Death; the society's assets are managed by its alumni organization, the Russell Trust Association, incorporated in 1856 and named after the Bones' co-founder.
The association was founded by Daniel Coit Gilman, a Skull and Bones member. The first extended description of Skull and Bones, published in 1871 by Lyman Bagg in his book Four Years at Yale, noted that "the mystery now attending its existence forms the one great enigma which college gossip never tires of discussing". Brooks Mather Kelley attributed the interest in Yale senior societies to the fact that underclassmen members of freshman and junior class societies returned to campus the following years and could share information about society rituals, while graduating seniors were, with their knowledge of such, at least a step removed from campus life. Skull and Bones selects new members among students every spring as part of Yale University's "Tap Day", has done so since 1879. Since the society's inclusion of women in the early 1990s, Skull and Bones selects fifteen men and women of the junior class to join the society. Skull and Bones "taps" those that it views as campus leaders and other notable figures for its membership.
The Skull and Bones Hall is otherwise known as the "Tomb". The building was built in three phases: the first wing was built in 1856, the second wing in 1903, Davis-designed Neo-Gothic towers were added to the rear garden in 1912; the front and side facades are of Portland brownstone in an Egypto-Doric style. The 1912 tower additions created a small enclosed courtyard in the rear of the building, designed by Evarts Tracy and Edgerton Swartwout of Tracy and Swartwout, New York. Evarts Tracy was an 1890 Bonesman, his paternal grandmother, Martha Sherman Evarts, maternal grandmother, Mary Evarts, were the sisters of William Maxwell Evarts, an 1837 Bonesman; the architect was Alexander Jackson Davis or Henry Austin. Architectural historian Patrick Pinnell includes an in-depth discussion of the dispute over the identity of the original architect in his 1999 Yale campus history. Pinnell speculates that the re-use of the Davis towers in 1911 suggests Davis's role in the original building and, Austin was responsible for the architecturally similar brownstone Egyptian Revival Grove Street Cemetery gates, built in 1845.
Pinnell discusses the Tomb's esthetic place in relation to its neighbors, including the Yale University Art Gallery. In the late 1990s, New Hampshire landscape architects Saucier and Flynn designed the wrought iron fence that surrounds a portion of the complex; the society manages Deer Island, an island retreat on the St. Lawrence River. Alexandra Robbins, author of a book on Yale secret societies, wrote:The forty-acre retreat is intended to give Bonesmen an opportunity to "get together and rekindle old friendships." A century ago the island sported tennis courts and its softball fields were surrounded by rhubarb plants and gooseberry bushes. Catboats waited on the lake. Stewards catered elegant meals, but although each new Skull and Bones member still visits Deer Island, the place leaves something to be desired. "Now it is just a bunch of burned-out stone buildings," a patriarch sighs. "It's ruins." Another Bonesman says. "It's a dump, but it's beautiful." Skull and Bones's membership developed a reputation in association with the "power elite".
Regarding the qualifications for membership, Lanny Davis wrote in the 1968 Yale yearbook: If the society had a good year, this is what the "ideal" group will consist of: a football captain. Like other Yale senior societies and Bones membership was exclusively limited to white Protestant males for much of its history. While Yale itself had exclusionary policies directed at particular ethnic and religious groups, the senior societies were more exclusionary. While some Catholics were able to join such groups, Jews were more not; some of these excluded groups entered Skull and Bones by means of sports, through the society's practice of tapping standout athletes. Star football players tapped for Skull and Bones included the first Jewish player and African-American player. Yale became coeducat
Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains was an experimental rock supergroup featuring bassist Les Claypool, guitarist Buckethead, keyboardist Bernie Worrell and drummer Bryan "Brain" Mantia. Les Claypool, bassist of many bands, including Primus, collaborated with virtuoso guitarist Buckethead, funk keyboardist Bernie Worrell, former Primus drummer Brain under the name Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains, after they met at the 2002 Bonnaroo Music and Arts festival. Worrell and Buckethead were there to perform with Bill Laswell as Praxis. Laswell was not able to play at the concert, so Claypool invited them to jam with him. From this point, they developed the concept of this supergroup, their concerts pushed the improvisational envelope by preparing no material and not rehearsing beforehand. At one of their shows they prepared sandwiches onstage for the audience members to eat. Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains reunited in 2004 to record The Big Eyeball in the Sky, an album with equal parts instrumental and vocal songs.
The band began an 18-state tour of the US on September 24, 2004. Claypool said the tour was "a traveling, oversized sock-puppet show spawned by the characters of a Tobe Hooper film and scored by Danny Elfman on bad acid." The album features the multi-talented Gabby La La on vocals and sitar. She opened on every show during the 2004 tour to mixed reviews as a solo act, sometimes with members of C2B3. Les Claypool - vocals, bass Buckethead - guitar Bernie Worrell - keyboards Bryan "Brain" Mantia - drums Studio album 2004: The Big Eyeball in the Sky2004 Fall Tour Downloads at the official site Compilations 2003: Bonnaroo, Vol. 2 - Featuring the live track "Number Two" 2004: Concrete Corner: October Sampler 2004 - Featuring the track "Junior" 2005: Les Claypool - 5 Gallons of DieselFeatures the four live tracks: "Opening Jam," "Encore Jam," "Tyranny of the Hunt," and "Scott Taylor." 2003: Bonnaroo Music Festival 2002Features the only live performance of the song "Number Two." Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains' official website Colonel Claypool's Bucket of Bernie Brains official live download website
Daniel Pedrosa Ramal is a Spanish former Grand Prix motorcycle racer who retired from competition at the end of the 2018 season. He grew up in a village near Sabadell, he was a 125 cc world champion in 2003, is the youngest world champion in 250 cc Grands Prix in the 2004 season. In 2019, the former Curva Dry Sac, a corner at the Jerez racetrack in Spain was renamed Pedrosa Corner after him. In spite of never being a MotoGP world champion, Pedrosa won races in twelve consecutive seasons in the championship, he has finished as championship runner-up on three occasions. Pedrosa spent 13 seasons riding for Repsol Honda until the end of 2018. In a televised press announcement, he confirmed his retirement from MotoGP competition on 12 July. In late October, it was confirmed he signed for the KTM MotoGP team as a development test rider for 2019 and 2020, ending his long association with Honda. Pedrosa replaced KTM's regular test rider Mika Kallio, who suffered a serious knee injury when racing as a scheduled wildcard entry in July 2018.
Born in Sabadell, Spain, Pedrosa started riding bikes at the early age of four, when he got his first motorcycle, an Italjet 50, which had side-wheels. His first racing bike was a minibike replica of a Kawasaki, which he got at the age of six and which he used to race with his friends. Pedrosa experienced real racing at the age of 9, when he entered the Spanish Minibike Championship and ended his debut season in second place, scoring his first podium finish in the second race of the season; the next year, Pedrosa entered the same championship, but health problems prevented him from improving his results and he ended that season in 3rd position. In 2001, Pedrosa made his World Championship debut in the 125cc class after being selected from the Movistar Activa Cup, a series designed to promote fresh racing talent in Spain, back in 1999. Under the guidance of Alberto Puig, Pedrosa scored two podium finishes in the first season and won his first race the following year, when he finished third in the championship.
In 2003, he won the championship with two rounds remaining, scoring 223 points. In his first championship winning year, Pedrosa scored six podium finishes. A week after winning the championship, eighteen-year-old Pedrosa broke both of his ankles in a crash during practice at Phillip Island, ending his season. After winning the 125cc Championship, Pedrosa moved up to the 250cc class in 2004 without a proper test on the new bike because his ankles were healing during the off-season. Going into the season unprepared, Pedrosa won the first race in South Africa and went on to clinch the 250cc World Championship title, including rookie of the year honours. In his first season in 250cc class, Pedrosa scored 13 podium finishes. Pedrosa decided to stay for one more season in the 250cc class, he won another title, once again with two races remaining in championship. In 2005, Pedrosa won 8 races and scored 14 podium finishes, despite a shoulder injury he sustained in a practice session for the Japanese Grand Prix.
Pedrosa made the move to 990cc MotoGP bikes in 2006. Critics said that Pedrosa's tiny stature was not strong enough to handle a big, heavy MotoGP bike and race in the premier class. Proving critics wrong, he finished second in the opening round at Jerez on 26 March 2006. At his fourth MotoGP appearance, on 14 May 2006, during the Chinese Grand Prix, he won his first race; this win made him the equal 2nd youngest winner in the premier class at the time, behind Freddie Spencer. He won his second MotoGP race at Donington Park and became a strong candidate for the MotoGP Championship, it was a memorable victory for Pedrosa, who shared the podium for the first time with Valentino Rossi in 2nd place. He took two pole positions in the first half of the season; until the Malaysian Grand Prix at Sepang, Pedrosa was 2nd in the Championship only behind his more experienced teammate Nicky Hayden. However, he fell during free practice and suffered a severe gash to the knee, which rendered him immobile. Pedrosa qualified 5th on the grid in that race.
He managed to finish 3rd in the race, behind Ducati rider Loris Capirossi. However, in the next races, his form dropped and he struggled with the bike, moving him down to 5th place in the MotoGP standings, his poor performance continued at Estoril. After a promising start, he ran 2nd before being passed by Colin Edwards and championship leader and teammate Hayden. On lap 5, he and Hayden were involved in a crash. Pedrosa made a mistake whilst trying to overtake Hayden and crashed out of the race, taking out Hayden on the way; this crash ended his slim chances of winning the championship and caused Hayden to lose his lead in the championship standings, as Rossi managed to finish 2nd. However, two weeks Hayden recovered to win the championship while Pedrosa managed to finish in 4th place; this result clinched his 5th place in overall standings in his debut season, thus taking the title as Rookie of the Year, beating former 250cc rival Casey Stoner. At the end of season three-day test of 2006 at Jerez, Pedrosa put his 800 cc RC212V at the top of the timesheets edging out Rossi, fastest on the first two days, by 0.214 seconds.
Pedrosa continued to race with Honda in 2007 on the new 800 cc bike. The machine had problems, Pedrosa was taken out of races by Olivier Jacque and by Randy de Puniet, but he finished the season in second place behind Stoner and ahead of Rossi, he signed a 2-year contract with Repsol Honda for 2008 and 2009. In 2008
Abdulrahman Fawzi was an Egyptian footballer who played as a winger. He took part at the 1934 FIFA World Cup, where he scored twice for Egypt in their 2–4 loss against Hungary, the first time that an African team had competed at the FIFA World Cup, he was thus the first African footballer to score at the World Cup. He would have been the first African to score a hat trick at the World Cup but his third goal was disallowed; the Egyptian goalkeeper that day, Mustafa Mansour said: "When the game was 2–2, my colleague Fawzi took the ball from the centre and dribbled past all the Hungarian players to score a third goal. But the referee cancelled the goal as an offside!" Abdulrahman Fawzi was born in Port Said, played for both Al-Masry and Zamalek SC. He became the first manager of the Saudi Arabia national football team. African nations at the FIFA World Cup Egypt at the FIFA World Cup
The Friarton Bridge is a steel box girder bridge with a concrete deck, across the River Tay on the southeastern outskirts of Perth, Scotland. It is located 20 miles upstream of the Tay Road Bridge; the bridge was constructed by the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Company with Miller Group as the foundation and concrete sub-contractor, while it was designed by Freeman Fox & Partners, with the team being led by Dr Oleg Kerensky and the resident engineer H Binnie. The site manager for Cleveland was J Robinson and for Miller it was R Gormley; the bridge consists of a pair of steel box girders 4.3 m wide overlaid by a lightweight concrete deck. The bridge is 831 m long, with a river span of 174 m; the river span provided a 25 m head room for a width of 46 m of the 76 m wide navigation channel. The boxes vary in depth between 7.5 m, with the deeper section located close to the river. It forms part of the eastern spur of the M90 between junctions 10 and 11, the most northerly motorway junction in the UK.
It forms part of the important east coast road corridor from Edinburgh through to Dundee and Aberdeen. It was the single largest structure on the M90, a title it held until the completion of the Queensferry Crossing in 2017, it was the first large box girder bridge to be built to the Merrison Rules, which were introduced in 1973 after the collapse during construction of three box girder bridges during the 1970s. The bridge was strengthened during the 2000s to cope with modern traffic loadings; the bridge spans the river, the Dundee-Perth railway line, a number of warehouses and the A85 high above the surrounding plain. It is a two-lane dual carriageway; when it was built in 1978, it was designated as the M85 motorway. When the A85 from the north end of the bridge to Dundee was renumbered in the early 1990s to A90 through to Dundee, the motorway's designation changed to M90 to provide a continuous route number from Edinburgh through to Fraserburgh. TRIS Online: M90 Friarton Bridge ImprovementsThe Journal of the institution of Structural Engineers.
Hippeastrinae is a subtribe of plants classified under the tribe Hippeastreae. It belongs to the subfamily Amaryllidoideae of the Amaryllis family. Terrestrial bulbous perennial herbaceous plants, although three species of Hippeastrum are epiphytic; the leaf shape is linear, lanceolate. The leaf growth pattern is annual or persistent, histeranthous, their texture is firm, they are moderately canaliculated internally. The scape is hollow and the spathe has two bracts which may be fused or free; the inflorescence may have between thirteen flowers. The flowers, which may be sessile or pedicellate have a perigone, actinomorphic to zygomorphic, is tubular, campanulate or infundibulorm in shape; the tepal-tube may vary from obsolete to being more than half the length of the perigone. When a paraperigone is present it consists of basal appendages that are diminutive, bristle-like, forming a fimbriate-lacerate or callose ring adnate to the throat of the perigone, surrounding the fascicle of the stamen; the stamen filaments are filiform and either declinate-ascending or straight and arranged in two to four series.
The stigma is either trifid or obscurely trilobed, but some taxa have a capitate stigma. The style is either straight. Chromosome number: 2n = 12–60; as formulated on morphological grounds alone it included six genera: This included species of medium height and with many flowers in each inflorescence and inflorescence bracts are different in size and fused basally. The alternative spelling Hippeastrineae was used by some authors; as reformulated using molecular phylogenetics it included seven to eight genera. In this redistribution the four species of Famatina were polyphyletic and F. maulensis segregated with Phycella and was placed in Traubiinae, while the remaining three segregated with Rhodophiala and are considered here. However none of the identified genera were monophyletic; some subclades were supported, such as the core-Rhodophiala. The genera and are as follows: Eithea Famatina s.s. Habranthus Hippeastrum Rhodophiala Sprekelia Tocantinia Zephyranthes Formerly included, now subtribe Traubiinae: Placea Phycella Traubia Mainly subtropical and tropical regions of South America, the Greater Antilles and the southern United States.