The Xiongnu, were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the leader after 209 BC. The Xiongnu were active in areas now part of Siberia, Inner Mongolia and their relations with adjacent Chinese dynasties to the south east were complex, with repeated periods of conflict and intrigue, alternating with exchanges of tribute and marriage treaties. Attempts to identify the Xiongnu with groups of the western Eurasian Steppe remain controversial and Sarmatians were concurrently to the west. The identity of the core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words, mainly titles. The name Xiongnu may be cognate with that of the Huns and/or the Huna, other linguistic links – all of them controversial – proposed by scholars include Iranian, Turkic, Uralic Yeniseian, or multi-ethnic. Ancient China often came in contact with the Xianyun and the Xirong nomadic peoples, in Chinese historiography, some groups of these peoples were believed to be the possible progenitors of the Xiongnu people.
These nomadic people often had repeated confrontations with the Shang and especially the Zhou. During the Warring States period, the armies from the Qin, qins campaign against the Xiongnu expanded the Qin dynastys territory at the expense of the Xiongnu. In 215 BCE, Qin Shi Huang sent General Meng Tian to conquer the Xiongnu and drive them from the Ordos Loop, after the catastrophic defeat at the hands of General Meng Tian, the Xiongnu leader Touman was forced to flee far into the Mongolian Plateau. The Qin empire became a threat to the Xiongnu, which led to the reorganization of the many tribes into a confederacy. Chubei Huyan Lan Luandi Qiulin Suibu In 209 BCE, three years before the founding of Han China, the Xiongnu were brought together in a confederation under a new chanyu. This new political unity transformed them into a formidable state by enabling formation of larger armies. The Xiongnu adopted many of the Chinese agriculture techniques such as labor for heavy labor, wore silk like the Chinese.
The reason for creating the confederation remains unclear, to the north he conquered a number of nomadic peoples, including the Dingling of southern Siberia. He crushed the power of the Donghu people of eastern Mongolia and Manchuria as well as the Yuezhi in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu, Modu reoccupied all the lands previously taken by the Qin general Meng Tian. Under Modus leadership, the Xiongnu threatened the Han Dynasty, almost causing Emperor Gaozu, the first Han emperor, to lose his throne in 200 BCE. By the time of Modus death in 174 BCE, the Xiongnu had driven the Yuezhi from the Hexi Corridor, killing the Yuezhi king in the process and asserting their presence in the Western Regions
The skull is a bony structure that forms the head of the skeleton in most vertebrates. It supports the structures of the face and provides a cavity for the brain. The skull is composed of two parts, the cranium and the mandible, in the human these two parts are the neurocranium and the viscerocranium or facial skeleton that includes the mandible as its largest bone. The skull forms the anterior most portion of the skeleton and is a product of cephalisation—housing the brain, and several sensory structures such as the eyes, nose, in the human these sensory structures are part of the facial skeleton. In some animals such as horned ungulates, the skull has a function by providing the mount for the horns. The English word skull is probably derived from Old Norse skulle, while the Latin word cranium comes from the Greek root κρανίον, the skull is made up of a number of fused flat bones, and contains many foramina and processes, and several cavities or sinuses. For details and the constituent bones, see neurocranium and viscerocranium, the human skull is the bony structure that forms the head in the human skeleton.
It supports the structures of the face and forms a cavity for the brain, like the skulls of other vertebrates, it protects the brain from injury. The skull consists of two parts, of different embryological origin—the neurocranium and the facial skeleton, the neurocranium forms the protective cranial cavity that surrounds and houses the brain and brainstem. The facial skeleton is formed by the supporting the face. Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the skull are joined together by sutures—synarthrodial joints formed by bony ossification, sometimes there can be extra bone pieces within the suture known as wormian bones or sutural bones. The human skull is considered to consist of twenty-two bones—eight cranial bones. In the neurocranium these are the bone, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, the sphenoid and frontal bones. The bones of the skeleton are the vomer, two nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, the mandible, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, and two lacrimal bones.
Some of these bones—the occipital, frontal, in the neurocranium, and the nasal, the skull contains sinus cavities and numerous foramina. The sinuses are lined with respiratory epithelium and their known functions are the lessening of the weight of the skull, the aiding of resonance to the voice and the warming and moistening of the air drawn through the nasal cavity. The foramina are openings in the skull, the largest of these is the foramen magnum that allows the passage of the spinal cord as well as nerves and blood vessels. The many processes of the include the mastoid process and the zygomatic process
The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
Azuchi Castle was one of the primary castles of Oda Nobunaga. It was built from 1576 to 1579, on the shores of Lake Biwa, unlike earlier castles and fortresses, Azuchi was not intended to only be a military structure, cold and foreboding. Nobunaga intended it as a mansion, which would impress and intimidate his rivals, not only with its defenses, in addition to being one of the first Japanese castles with a tower keep, Azuchi was unique in that its uppermost story was octagonal. In addition, the facade of Azuchi, unlike the white or black of other castles, was colorfully decorated with tigers. There were five main features of Azuchi Castle that differentiated it from earlier castle designs. Firstly, it was a structure, with the walls of the castle ranging from 18 feet to 21 feet in thickness. The second feature of Azuchi Castle is the predominant use of stone, the walls were constructed from huge granite stones fitted carefully together without the use of mortar. A third innovation of the Azuchi Castle was the central tower.
The tower allowed for increased visibility for the use of guns against an opposing force, builder’s plans for the castle show the donjon to be 138 feet tall, with seven levels. Fourthly, Azuchi Castle had irregularly formed inner citadels and these inner citadels gave defenders ample defensive positions against intruders. The location of Azuchi Castle was a novel feature and he had trouble convincing people to move into these homes at first, however. By 1582, the inhabitants numbered roughly 5,000. In the summer of 1582, just after Nobunagas death at Honnō-ji, the castle was set aflame, though some accounts claim this might have been the work of looting townspeople, or of one of Nobunagas sons. Mitsuhide, never managed to occupy the castle, the Azuchi-Momoyama Period of Japanese history takes its name, in part, from this castle. In 1976, the Japanese architectural historian Naitō Akira published what he believed to be a summary of the features of Azuchi Castle. It had seven levels, although from the outside only five were apparent.
The interior had some unexpected and unique features, the centre of the structure rose without a ceiling, up to level of the fifth floor, almost 62 feet from the ground. All that remains of the castle today is the stone base, however, an approximate reproduction of Azuchi, based on illustrations and historical descriptions, stands in Ise Sengoku Village, a samurai theme park near Ise
A kapala or skullcup is a cup made from a human skull used as a ritual implement in both Hindu Tantra and Buddhist Tantra. Especially in Tibet, they were carved or elaborately mounted with precious metals and jewels. Kapala is a word into Tibetan from Sanskrit kapāla and it denotes the skull or forehead and by implication the ritual item. Many of the deities of Vajrayana, including mahasiddhas and dharmapalas are depicted as carrying the kapala, some deities such as the Hindu Chinnamasta and the related Buddhist Vajrayogini are depicted as drinking blood from the kapala. Hindu deities that may be depicted with the kapala include Durga, Kālī and Shiva, even Ganesha, when adopted into Tibetan Buddhism as Maharakta Ganapati, is shown with a kapala filled with blood. B) The Chamunda, a form of Durga, seen in Halebidu temple of Hoysala architecture, in black or red colour, is described as wearing a garland of severed heads or skulls. She is described as having four, ten or twelve arms, holding a Damaru, sword, a snake, skull-mace, thunderbolt, a severed head and panapatra or skullcup, filled with blood.
In Tibetan monasteries it is used symbolically to hold bread or dough cakes, the dough cakes are shaped to resemble human eyes and tongues. The kapala is made in the form of a skull specially collected and prepared and it is elaborately anointed and consecrated before use. The cup is decorated and kept in a triangular pedestal. The heavily embossed cup is made of silver-gilt bronze with lid shaped like a skull. Kapalas are used mainly for purposes such as rituals. The kapala is one of several charnel ground implements made from bone found by tantrics at sky burial sites. Such a practice results in finding human bones, half or whole skeletons, more or less putrefying corpses, items made from human skulls or bones are found in the sky burial grounds by the Sadhus and Yogins of the tantric cult. The charnel grounds are known by the epithets the field of death or the valley of corpses. In Tibet, a distinction in the burial practices is noted. The dead High Lamas are buried in Stupas or cremated but the dead commoners are disposed of in the Charnel ground or in a Sky burial, kapala or the skull cup is thus a produce from the Charnel ground
In South Africa they are referred to as Veld. The prairie is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such and it may be semi-desert, or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest. The soil is typically of chernozem type, steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C and in winter, besides this huge difference between summer and winter, the differences between day and night are very great. In the highlands of Mongolia,30 °C can be reached during the day with sub-zero °C readings at night, the mid-latitude steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 250–510 mm of precipitation per year. Precipitation level alone is not what defines a steppe climate, potential evapotranspiration must be taken into account, the Eurasian Grass-Steppe of the temperate grasslands and shrublands had a role in the spread of the horse, the wheel, and the Indo-European languages.
The Indo-European expansion and diverse invasions of horse archer civilizations of the steppe eventually led to, the Pannonian Plain is another steppe region in eastern Europe, primarily Hungary. Another large steppe area is located in the central United States, western Canada, the shortgrass prairie steppe is the westernmost part of the Great Plains region. The Channeled Scablands in Southern British Columbia and Washington State is an example of a region in North America outside of the Great Plains. In South America, cold steppe can be found in Patagonia, relatively small steppe areas can be found in the interior of the South Island of New Zealand. In Asia, a subtropical steppe can be found in semi-arid lands that fringe the Thar Desert of the Indian subcontinent, in Australia, subtropical steppe can be found in a belt surrounding the most severe deserts of the continent and around the Musgrave Ranges. Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds by Manuel B. Morales, Santi Mañosa, Jordi Camprodón, international Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of steppe-land birds
Mongolia /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north, while it does not share a border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometers. At 1,564,116 square kilometers, Mongolia is the 18th largest and it is the worlds second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the countrys population, approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic, horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists, the non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs, the majority of the states citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country, especially in the west.
Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic, the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty, after the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty. By the early 1900s, almost one-third of the male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty, shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China.
In 1924, the Mongolian Peoples Republic was declared as a Soviet satellite state, after the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia approximately 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic, the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, and ostriches, earning it the nickname the Lascaux of Mongolia. The venus figurines of Malta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia, the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC
Goughs Cave is located in Cheddar Gorge on the Mendip Hills, in Cheddar, England. The cave is 115 metres deep and is 3.405 kilometres long and it contains the Cheddar Yeo, the largest underground river system in Britain. The initial sections of the cave, previously known as Sand Hole, were accessible prior to the 19th century, electric lighting was installed in the show caves in 1899. The cave is susceptible to flooding often lasting for up to 48 hours, the extensive flooded parts of the cave system were found and explored between 1985 and 1990. The cave contained remains of both humans and animals, all showing cut-marks and breakage consistent with de-fleshing and eating. Skull fragments, representing from 5 to 7 humans, including a child of about 3 years. The brain cases appear to have prepared as drinking cups or containers. In 1903 the remains of a male, since named Cheddar Man, were found a short distance inside Goughs Cave. He is Britain’s oldest complete skeleton, having been dated to approximately 7150 BCE.
There is a suggestion that the man died a violent death, perhaps related to cannibalism, mitochondrial DNA taken from the skeleton has been found to match that of Adrian Targett, a man living in the local area today, indicating that Cheddar Man is a very distant ancestor. The remains currently reside in the Natural History Museum in London, with a replica in the Cheddar Man, other human remains have been found in the cave. In 2007 a carving of a mammoth, estimated to be 13,000 years old, was found in the cave. In 2010 further human bones from the cave were examined, which carbon dating dated to around the end of the ice age 14,700 years ago. A second technique, using the Alicona 3D microscope, showed that the flesh had been removed from the using the same tools. According to Professor Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum, this supports theories about cannibalism amongst the living in or visiting the cave at that time. The first 820 metres of the cave are open to the public as a cave.
The greater part of the length is made up of the river passage. Goughs cave contains long stretches of completely flooded river passage, from a point relatively close to the areas of the cave open to the public, the cave-divers descent into Sump 1a begins through a tight passage known as Dire Straits
First Bulgarian Empire
The First Bulgarian Empire was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded circa 681 when Bulgar tribes led by Asparukh moved to the north-eastern Balkans, there they secured Byzantine recognition of their right to settle south of the Danube by defeating – possibly with the help of local South Slavic tribes – the Byzantine army led by Constantine IV. At the height of its power, Bulgaria spread from the Danube Bend to the Black Sea, as the state solidified its position in the Balkans, it entered into a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged as Byzantiums chief antagonist to its north, resulting in several wars, Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864. After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain, the Bulgarians confronted the advance of the Pechenegs and Cumans, and achieved a decisive victory over the Magyars, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Pannonia.
During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines, thereafter, he was recognized with the title of Emperor, and proceeded to expand the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Byzantines, eventually recovered, and in 1014, under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion. By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, and it was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185. After the adoption of Christianity, Bulgaria became the center of Slavic Europe. Old Bulgarian became the lingua franca of much of Eastern Europe, in 927, the fully independent Bulgarian Patriarchate was officially recognized. The Bulgars and other tribes in the empire gradually adopted an essentially foreign Slavic language. Since the late 9th century, the names Bulgarians and Bulgarian gained prevalence and became permanent designations for the local population, the First Bulgarian Empire became known simply as Bulgaria since its recognition by the Byzantine Empire in 681.
Some historians use the terms Danube Bulgaria, First Bulgarian State, during its early existence, the country was called the Bulgar state or Bulgar qaghanate. Between 864 and 917/927, the country was known as the Principality of Bulgaria or Knyazhestvo Bulgaria, in English language sources, the country is often known as the Bulgarian Empire. The eastern Balkan Peninsula was originally inhabited by the Thracians who were a group of Proto-Indo-European tribes, the whole region as far north as the Danube River was gradually incorporated into the Roman Empire by the 1st century AD. The decline of the Roman Empire after the 3rd century AD, nonetheless, it never relinquished the claim to the whole region up to the Danube. A series of administrative, legislative and economic reforms somewhat improved the situation, the group of Slavs that came to be known as the South Slavs was divided into Antes and Sclaveni who spoke the same language. The Slavic incursions in the Balkans increased during the half of Justinian Is reign and while these were initially pillaging raids
History of Somerset
Somerset is a historic county in the south west of England. The oldest dated human road work in Great Britain is the Sweet Track, following the Roman Empires invasion of southern Britain, the mining of lead and silver in the Mendip Hills provided a basis for local industry and commerce. Bath became the site of a major Roman fort and city, during the Early Medieval period Somerset was the scene of battles between the Anglo-Saxons and first the Britons and the Danes. In this period it was ruled first by various kings of Wessex, following the defeat of the Anglo-Saxon monarchy by the Normans in 1066, castles were built in Somerset. Expansion of the population and settlements in the county continued during the Tudor and coal mining expanded until the 18th century, although other industries declined during the industrial revolution. In modern times the population has grown, particularly in the seaside towns, agriculture continues to be a major business, if no longer a major employer because of mechanisation.
Light industries are based in such as Bridgwater and Yeovil. The towns of Taunton and Shepton Mallet manufacture cider, although the acreage of apple orchards is less than it once was, the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods saw hunter-gatherers move into the region of Somerset. There is evidence from flint artefacts in a quarry at Westbury that an ancestor of modern man, there is still some doubt about whether the artefacts are of human origin but they have been dated within Oxygen Isotope Stage 13. Other experts suggest that many of the bone-rich Middle Pleistocene deposits belong to a single but climatically variable interglacial that succeeded the Cromerian, animal bones and artefacts unearthed in the 1980s at Westbury-sub-Mendip, in Somerset, have shown evidence of early human activity approximately 700,000 years ago. Homo sapiens sapiens, or modern man, came to Somerset during the Early Upper Palaeolithic, there is evidence of occupation of four Mendip caves 35,000 to 30,000 years ago.
During the Last Glacial Maximum, about 25,000 to 15,000 years ago, evidence was found in Goughs Cave of deposits of human bone dating from around 12,500 years ago. The bones were defleshed and probably ritually buried though perhaps related to cannibalism being practised in the area at the time or making skull cups or storage containers. Somerset was one of the first areas of future England settled following the end of Younger Dryas phase of the last Ice Age c.8000 BC, Cheddar Man is the name given to the remains of a human male found in Goughs Cave in Cheddar Gorge. He is Britains oldest complete human skeleton, the remains date from about 7150 BC, and it appears that he died a violent death. Somerset is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from about 6000 BCE, Mendip caves were used as burial places, with between 50 and 100 skeletons being found in Avelines Hole. In the Neolithic era, from about 3500 BCE, there is evidence of farming. At the end of the last Ice Age the Bristol Channel was dry land, the Somerset Levels became flooded, but the dry points such as Glastonbury and Brent Knoll have a long history of settlement, and are known to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunters
Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening.
Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia.
He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha