Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks; the lower part of each leaf encloses the stem. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. Grasses are an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands and tundra; the Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, rice and millet as well as forage, building materials and fuel.
Though they are called "grasses", seagrasses and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales; the name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, they became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, fossilized dinosaur dung have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and intertidal habitats, are the most widespread plant type. A cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets: Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago.
Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. Wu, You & Li described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation; the authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, therefore all other continents at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses must have existed before late Aptian. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probableThe relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more related to each other than to Oryzoideae; this separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years.
According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. King argued that this was the result of more acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in more soil creep. Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs with the following characteristics: The stems of grasses, called culms, are cylindrical and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous, have parallel veins; each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging a blade with entire margins. The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in each having one or more florets.
The spikelets are further grouped into spikes. The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at called glumes, followed by one or more florets. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea; the flowers are hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects play a role. The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; this complex structure can be seen in the image on the right. The fruit of grasses is a caryopsis. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips; this low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown without severe damage to the plant. Three general classifications of growth habit present in g
The striped skunk is a skunk of the genus Mephitis, native to southern Canada, the United States and northern Mexico. It is listed as least concern by the IUCN on account of its wide range and ability to adapt to human-modified environments, it is a polygamous omnivore with few natural predators. The striped skunk has a long history of association with humans, having been trapped and captively bred for its fur and kept as an exotic pet, it is one of the most recognizable of North America's animals, is a popular figure in cartoons and children's books. The English word skunk has two root words of Algonquian and Iroquoian origin seganku and scangaresse; the Cree and Ojibwe word shee-gawk is the root word for Chicago, which means'skunk-land'. Alternative English names for the striped skunk include common skunk, Hudsonian skunk, northern skunk, black-tailed skunk and prairie polecat; the latter name was used by English settlers, who noted the animal's similarity to the European polecat. This association resulted in the striped skunk's subsequent unfavorable reputation as a poultry thief, despite it being a much less destructive animal than the true polecat.
The name "Alaska sable" was employed by furriers during the late 19th century. The earliest fossil finds attributable to Mephitis were found in the Broadwater site in Nebraska, dating back to the early Pleistocene less than 1.8 million years ago. By the late Pleistocene, the striped skunk was distributed throughout the southern United States, it expanded northwards and westwards by the Holocene following the retreat of the Wisconsin glacier. Phylogenetic analyses of the species' cytochrome b gene and microsatellite data in 2012 indicated that there are four phylogroups of striped skunk; the first emerged from the Texas-Mexico region during the Rancholabrean before the Illinoian glaciation and colonized the southeastern United States. The second, still originating in the Texas-Mexico region, expanded westwards to the Rocky Mountains during the Illinoian glacial period. Two subsequent subclades were formed during the Sangamonian interglacial on either side of the Sierra Nevada; the subclade that colonized the Great Basin expanded eastwards across the northern Rocky Mountains during the Holocene, recolonising the Great Plains and making contact with the southern phylogroup.
A similar, but less significant, secondary contact occurred when the same subclade intermingled with members of the eastern phylogroup east of the Mississippi river. 13 subspecies of the striped skunk are recognized: The striped skunk is a stoutly-built, short-limbed animal with a small, conical head and a long furred tail. Adult males are 10% larger than females, with both sexes measuring between 52–77 cm in total body length and weighing 1.8–4.5 kg, though some may weigh 5.5 kg. The feet are plantigrade with bare soles, are not as broad or flat as those of hog-nosed skunks; the forefeet are armed with five long, curved claws adapted for digging, while those on the hind feet are shorter and straighter. The color patterns of the fur vary but consist of a black base with a white stripe extending from the head which divides along the shoulders, continuing along the flanks to the rump and tail; some specimens have a white patch on the chest, while others bear white stripes on the outer surface of the front limbs.
Brown or cream-colored mutations occur. Like all skunks, the striped skunk possesses two developed scent glands, one on each side of the anus, containing about 15 milliliters of musk each; this oily, yellow-colored musk consists of a mixture of powerfully odorous thiols, which can be sprayed at a distance of several meters. The odor of this musk was likened by Ernest Thompson Seton to a mixture of perfume musk, essence of garlic, burning sulfur and sewer gas "magnified a thousand times", though Clinton Hart Merriam claimed that it isn't "one tenth" as offensive as that produced by minks and weasels; the striped skunk is polygamous, breeds once a year, though yearling females who have failed to mate may enter a second estrous cycle a month after the first. The mating season occurs between mid-February to mid-April, though it is delayed at higher latitudes. Prior to copulating, the males' testicles swell during the January–February period, with maximum size being attained in March. Males during this period will cover much ground in their search for females, sometimes covering 4 km per night.
When a male locates a female, he will approach her from the rear and lick her genitals bite her on the nape before copulating. A single male may have a harem of several females, which he mates with and defends against other males for a period of about 35 days. Once the mating period has finished, the impregnated females confine themselves to their dens, while the males attempt to rebuild their fat reserves; the gestation period lasts around 59–77 days, with kits being born at about mid-May to early June. Litters consist of 2–12 kits, though a litter of 18 is known from Pennsylvania. Kits are born weighing 25 -- 40 grams; the eyes open after around three weeks, are weaned after 42–56 days. Although their musk is still undeveloped, kits of this age will instinctively assume the defensive stand position when threatened. At this point, the kits may accompany their mother outside the den, becoming independent after 2½ months; the striped skunk may dig its own dens, though it will appropriate those abandoned by other animals should the opportunity present itself.
These dens are use
Musteloidea is a superfamily of carnivoran mammals united by shared characters of the skull and teeth. Musteloids share a common ancestor with the group which includes seals; the Musteloidea consists of the families Ailuridae, Mustelidae and Mephitidae. In North America and musteloids first appear in the Chadronian. In Europe and musteloids first appear in the early Oligocene following the Grande Coupure; the cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny of six genes in Flynn, with the musteloids updated following the multigene analysis of Law et al
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces. Some animals are brightly colored. In some species, such as the peafowl, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colors and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible. There are several separate reasons. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use color to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; some animals use flashes of color to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may use motion dazzle, confusing a predator's attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly; some animals are colored for physical protection, with pigments in the skin to protect against sunburn, while some frogs can lighten or darken their skin for temperature regulation. Animals can be colored incidentally. For example, blood is red. Animals colored in these ways can have striking natural patterns. Animals produce color in both indirect ways. Direct production occurs through the presence of visible colored cells known as pigment which are particles of colored material such as freckles.
Indirect production occurs by virtue of cells known as chromatophores which are pigment-containing cells such as hair follicles. The distribution of the pigment particles in the chromatophores can change under hormonal or neuronal control. For fishes it has been demonstrated that chromatophores may respond directly to environmental stimuli like visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH, etc. Color change helps individuals in becoming more or less visible and is important in agonistic displays and in camouflage; some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colors. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colors. Animals use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colors and effects they need. Animal coloration has been a topic of research in biology for centuries. In the classical era, Aristotle recorded that the octopus was able to change its coloration to match its background, when it was alarmed.
In his 1665 book Micrographia, Robert Hooke describes the "fantastical" colors of the Peacock's feathers: The parts of the Feathers of this glorious Bird appear, through the Microscope, no less gaudy do the whole Feathers. Their upper sides seem to me to consist of a multitude of thin plated bodies, which are exceeding thin, lie close together, thereby, like mother of Pearl shells, do not onely reflect a brisk light, but tinge that light in a most curious manner. Now, that these colours are onely fantastical ones, that is, such as arise from the refractions of the light, I found by this, that water wetting these colour'd parts, destroy'd their colours, which seem'd to proceed from the alteration of the reflection and refraction. According to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of natural selection, features such as coloration evolved by providing individual animals with a reproductive advantage. For example, individuals with better camouflage than others of the same species would, on average, leave more offspring.
In his Origin of Species, Darwin wrote: When we see leaf-eating insects green, bark-feeders mottled-grey. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, in keeping that colour, when once acquired and constant. Henry Walter Bates's 1863 book The Naturalist on the River Amazons describes his extensive studies of the insects in the Amazon basin, the butterflies, he discovered that similar butterflies belonged to different families, with a harmless species mimicking a poisonous or bitter-tasting species to reduce its chance of being attacked by a predator, in the process now called after him, Batesian mimicry. Edward Bagnall Poulton's Darwinian 1890 book The Colours of Animals, their meaning and use considered in the case of insects argued the case for three aspects of animal coloration that are broadly accepted today but were controversial or wholly new at the time.
It supported Darwin's theory of sexual selection, arguing that the obvious differences between male and female birds such as the Argus pheasant were selected by the females, pointing out that bright male plumage was found only in species "which court by day". The book introduced the concept of frequency-dependent selection, as when edible mimi
Salamanders are a group of amphibians characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All present-day salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela. Salamander diversity is most abundant in the Northern Hemisphere and most species are found in the Holarctic ecozone, with some species present in the Neotropical zone. Salamanders have more than four toes on their front legs and five on their rear legs, but some species have fewer digits and others lack hind limbs, their permeable skin makes them reliant on habitats in or near water or other cool, damp places. Some salamander species are aquatic throughout their lives, some take to the water intermittently, others are terrestrial as adults, they are capable of regenerating lost limbs, as well as other damaged parts of their bodies. Researchers hope to reverse engineer the remarkable regenerative processes for potential human medical applications, such as brain and spinal cord injury treatment or preventing harmful scarring during heart surgery recovery.
Members of the family Salamandridae are known as newts and lack the costal grooves along the sides of their bodies typical of other groups. The skin of some species contains the powerful poison tetrodotoxin. Salamanders lay eggs in water and have aquatic larvae, but great variation occurs in their lifecycles; some species in harsh environments reproduce while still in the larval state. The skin lacks scales and is moist and smooth to the touch, except in newts of the Salamandridae, which may have velvety or warty skin, wet to the touch; the skin may be drab or brightly colored, exhibiting various patterns of stripes, spots, blotches, or dots. Male newts become colored during the breeding season. Cave species dwelling in darkness lack pigmentation and have a translucent pink or pearlescent appearance. Salamanders range in size from the minute salamanders, with a total length of 2.7 cm, including the tail, to the Chinese giant salamander which reaches 1.8 m and weighs up to 65 kg. Most, are between 10 and 20 cm in length.
An adult salamander resembles a small lizard, having a basal tetrapod body form with a cylindrical trunk, four limbs, a long tail. Except in the family Salamandridae, the head and tail have a number of vertical depressions in the surface which run from the mid-dorsal region to the ventral area and are known as costal grooves, their function seems to be to help keep the skin moist by channeling water over the surface of the body. Some aquatic species, such as sirens and amphiumas, have reduced or absent hind limbs, giving them an eel-like appearance, but in most species, the front and rear limbs are about the same length and project sidewards raising the trunk off the ground; the feet are broad with short digits four on the front feet and five on the rear. Salamanders do not have claws, the shape of the foot varies according to the animal's habitat. Climbing species have elongated, square-tipped toes, while rock-dwellers have larger feet with short, blunt toes; the tree-climbing salamander has plate-like webbed feet which adhere to smooth surfaces by suction, while the rock-climbing Hydromantes species from California have feet with fleshy webs and short digits and use their tails as an extra limb.
When ascending, the tail props up the rear of the body, while one hind foot moves forward and swings to the other side to provide support as the other hind foot advances. In larvae and aquatic salamanders, the tail is laterally flattened, has dorsal and ventral fins, undulates from side to side to propel the animal through the water. In the families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae, the male's tail, larger than that of the female, is used during the amplexus embrace to propel the mating couple to a secluded location. In terrestrial species, the tail moves to counterbalance the animal as it runs, while in the arboreal salamander and other tree-climbing species, it is prehensile; the tail is used by certain plethodontid salamanders that can jump, to help launch themselves into the air. The tail is used as a storage organ for proteins and lipids, it functions as a defense against predation, when it may be lashed at the attacker or autotomised when grabbed. Unlike frogs, an adult salamander is able to regenerate its tail when these are lost.
The skin of salamanders, in common with other amphibians, is thin, permeable to water, serves as a respiratory membrane, is well-supplied with glands. It has cornified outer layers, renewed periodically through a skin shedding process controlled by hormones from the pituitary and thyroid glands. During moulting, the skin breaks around the mouth, the animal moves forwards through the gap to shed the skin; when the front limbs have been worked clear, a series of body ripples pushes the skin towards the rear. The hind limbs are extracted and push the skin farther back, before it is freed by friction as the salamander moves forward with the tail pressed against the ground; the animal then eats the resulting sloughed skin. Glands in the skin discharge mucus which keeps the skin moist, an important factor in skin respiration and thermoregulation; the sticky layer helps protect against bacterial infections and molds, reduces friction when swimming, makes the animal slippery and more difficult for predators to catch.
Granular glands scattered on the upper surface the head and tail, produce repel
Moles are small mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle. They have cylindrical bodies; the term mole is and most properly used for "true moles" of the Talpidae family in the order Eulipotyphla, which are found in most parts of North America and Europe, although it may refer to unrelated mammals of Australia and southern Africa that have convergently evolved the "mole" body plan. The term is not applied to all talpids. Moles are known pests to human activities such as agriculture and gardening. However, they do not eat plant roots. In Middle English, moles were known as moldwarp; the expression "don't make a mountain out of a mole hill" – exaggerating problems – was first recorded in Tudor times. By the era of Early Modern English, the mole was known in English as mouldywarp, a word having cognates in other Germanic languages such as German, Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic, where the muld/mull/mold part of the word means soil and the varp/vad/varpa part means throw, hence "one who throws soil" or "dirt tosser".
Male moles are called "boars", females are called "sows". A group of moles is called a "labour". Moles have been found to tolerate higher levels of carbon dioxide than other mammals because their blood cells have a special form of hemoglobin that has a higher affinity to oxygen than other forms. In addition to this, moles utilize oxygen more by reusing the exhaled air, as a result, are able to survive in low-oxygen environments such as underground burrows. Moles have polydactyl forepaws. While the mole's other digits have multiple joints, the prepollex has a single, sickle-shaped bone that develops and differently from the other fingers during embryogenesis from a transformed sesamoid bone in the wrist, independently evolved but similar to the giant panda thumb; this supernumerary digit is species-specific, as it is not present in shrews, the mole's closest relatives. Androgenic steroids are known to affect the growth and formation of bones, a connection is possible between this species-specific trait and the "male" genitals apparatus in female moles of many mole species.
A mole's diet consists of earthworms and other small invertebrates found in the soil, a variety of nuts. The mole runs are in reality "worm traps", the mole sensing when a worm falls into the tunnel and running along to kill and eat it; because their saliva contains a toxin that can paralyze earthworms, moles are able to store their still-living prey for consumption. They construct special underground "larders" for just this purpose. Before eating earthworms, moles pull them between their squeezed paws to force the collected earth and dirt out of the worm's gut; the star-nosed mole can detect and eat food faster than the human eye can follow. Breeding season for a mole depends on species but is February through May. Males search for females by tunneling through foreign areas; the gestation period of the Eastern mole is 42 days. Three to five young are born in March and early April. Townsend moles mate in February and March, the 2–4 young are born in March and April after a gestation period of about 1 month.
The Townsend mole is endangered in the United States and Canada. Coast moles produce a litter of 2 -- 5 pups between April. Pups leave the nest 30–45 days after birth to find territories of their own. Moles are solitary creatures, coming together only to mate. Territories may overlap; the family Talpidae contains some of their close relatives. Desmans, which are Talpidae but are not called "moles", are not shown below, but belong to the subfamily Talpinae; those species called "shrew moles" represent an intermediate form between the moles and their shrew ancestors, as such may not be described by the article. On the other hand, there is no monophyletic relation between the mole and the hedgehog, both of which were placed in the now abandoned order Insectivora; as a result, Soricomorpha within Insectivora, has been elevated to the level of an order. Subfamily Scalopinae: New World moles Tribe Condylurini Star-nosed mole Genus Condylura: Star-nosed mole Tribe Scalopini New World moles Genus Parascalops: Hairy-tailed mole Genus Scalopus: Eastern mole Genus Scapanulus: Gansu mole Genus Scapanus: Western North American moles Subfamily Talpinae Old World moles and shrew moles Tribe Talpini: Old World moles Genus Euroscaptor: Six Asian species Genus Mogera Nine species from Japan and Eastern China Genus Parascaptor: White-tailed mole, southern Asia Genus Scaptochirus: Short-faced mole, China Genus Talpa Ten species and western Asia Tribe Scaptonychini Long-tailed mole Genus Scaptonyx: Long-tailed mole Tribe Urotrichini: Japanese shrew moles Genus Dymecodon: True’s shrew mole Genus Urotrichus: Japanese shrew mole Tribe Neurotrichini New World shrew moles G
A beehive is an enclosed, man-made structure in which some honey bee species of the subgenus Apis live and raise their young. Though the word beehive is used to describe the nest of any bee colony and professional literature distinguishes nest from hive. Nest is used to discuss colonies which house themselves in natural or artificial cavities or are hanging and exposed. Hive is used to describe an man-made structure to house a honey bee nest. Several species of Apis live in colonies, but for honey production the western honey bee and the eastern honey bee are the main species kept in hives; the nest's internal structure is a densely packed group of hexagonal prismatic cells made of beeswax, called a honeycomb. The bees use the cells to house the brood. Beehives serve several purposes: production of honey, pollination of nearby crops, housing supply bees for apitherapy treatment, to try to mitigate the effects of colony collapse disorder. In America, hives are transported so that bees can pollinate crops in other areas.
A number of patents have been issued for beehive designs. Honey bees use rock cavities and hollow trees as natural nesting sites. In warmer climates they may build exposed hanging nests. Members of other subgenera have exposed aerial combs; the nest is composed of multiple honeycombs, parallel to each other, with a uniform bee space. It has a single entrance. Western honey bees prefer nest cavities 45 litres in volume and avoid those smaller than 10 or larger than 100 litres. Western honey bees show several nest-site preferences: the height above ground is between 1 metre and 5 metres, entrance positions tend to face downward, Equatorial-facing entrances are favored, nest sites over 300 metres from the parent colony are preferred. Bees occupy nests for several years; the bees smooth the bark surrounding the nest entrance, coat the cavity walls with a thin layer of hardened plant resin called propolis. Honeycombs are attached to the walls along the cavity tops and sides, but small passageways are left along the comb edges.
The basic nest architecture for all honeybees is similar: honey is stored in the upper part of the comb. The peanut-shaped queen cells are built at the lower edge of the comb. Bees were kept in man-made hives in Egypt in antiquity; the walls of the Egyptian sun temple of Nyuserre Ini from the 5th Dynasty, dated earlier than 2422 BC, depict workers blowing smoke into hives as they remove honeycombs. Inscriptions detailing the production of honey are found on the tomb of Pabasa from the 26th Dynasty, describe honey stored in jars, cylindrical hives; the archaeologist Amihai Mazar cites 30 intact hives that were discovered in the ruins of the city of Rehov. This is evidence that an advanced honey industry existed in Palestine 4,000 years ago; the beehives, made of straw and unbaked clay, were found in orderly rows, with a total of 150 hives, many broken. Ezra Marcus from the University of Haifa said the discovery provided a glimpse of ancient beekeeping seen in texts and ancient art from the Near East.
An altar decorated with fertility figurines was found alongside the hives and may indicate religious practices associated with beekeeping. While beekeeping predates these ruins, this is the oldest apiary yet discovered. Traditional beehives provided an enclosure for the bee colony; because no internal structures were provided for the bees, the bees created their own honeycomb within the hives. The comb is cross-attached and cannot be moved without destroying it; this is sometimes called a fixed-frame hive to differentiate it from the modern movable-frame hives. Harvest destroyed the hives, though there were some adaptations using extra top baskets which could be removed when the bees filled them with honey; these were supplanted with box hives of varying dimensions, with or without frames, replaced by newer modern equipment. Honey from traditional hives was extracted by pressing – crushing the wax honeycomb to squeeze out the honey. Due to this harvesting, traditional beehives provided more beeswax, but far less honey, than a modern hive.
Four styles of traditional beehives include. Mud hives are still used in Siberia; these are long cylinders made from a mixture of unbaked mud and dung. Clay tiles were the customary homes of kept bees in the eastern end of the Mediterranean. Long cylinders of baked clay were used in ancient Egypt, the Middle East and to some extent in Greece and Malta, they sometimes were used singly, but more stacked in rows to provide some shade, at least for those not on top. Keepers would smoke one end to drive the bees to the other end. Skeps, baskets placed open-end-down, have been used to house bees for some 2000 years, they were made from wicker plastered with mud and dung but from the Middle Ages they were made of straw. In northern and western Europe, skeps were made of coils of straw. In its simplest form, there is a single entrance at the bottom of the skep. Again, there is no internal structure provided for the bees and the colony must produce its own honeycomb, attached to the inside of the skep. Skeps have two disadvantages.
To get the honey b