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Sky UK

Sky UK is a British telecommunications company which serves the United Kingdom owned by Comcast. Sky provides television and broadband Internet services, fixed line and mobile telephone services to consumers and businesses in the United Kingdom, it is the UK's largest pay-TV broadcaster with 12.5 million customers as of 2018. It was the UK's most popular digital TV service until it was overtaken by Freeview in April 2007, its corporate headquarters are in Isleworth. Formed in March 1994 four years after the merger of Sky Television and British Satellite Broadcasting, Sky became the UK's largest digital subscription television company. Following Sky's 2014 acquisition of Sky Italia and a majority 90.04% interest in Sky Deutschland in November 2014, its holding company British Sky Broadcasting Group plc changed its name to Sky plc. The UK subsidiary's name was changed from British Sky Broadcasting Limited to Sky UK Limited, continues to trade as Sky as of November 2018. Sky UK Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Comcast-owned Sky, with its current company directors being Andrew Griffith and Christopher Taylor.

Andrew Griffith has acted as the Chief Financial Officer and the Managing Director for the commercial businesses division, however, it was announced in June 2019 that Kevin O’Toole of Comcast Business will take on the role of Managing Director of Sky Business Communications, reporting to Chris Stylianou. The present service can trace its heritage back to 1989, when BSkyB's predecessors Sky Television plc and British Satellite Broadcasting encrypted their respective film channels – Sky Movies and The Movie Channel which required viewers to get decoding equipment and a subscription to watch the channels. After the two companies merged, subscribers could get access to both channels, the sports channel Sky Sports became encrypted. In the autumn of 1991, talks were held for the broadcast rights for Premier League for a five-year period, from the 1992 season. ITV were the current rights holders, fought hard to retain the new rights. ITV had increased its offer from £18m to £34m per year to keep control of the rights.

BSkyB joined forces with the BBC to make a counter bid. The BBC was given the highlights of most of the matches, while BSkyB paying £304m for the Premier League rights, would give them a monopoly of all live matches, up to 60 per year from the 1992 season. Murdoch described sport as a "battering ram" for pay-television. A few weeks after the deal, ITV went to the High Court to get an injunction as it believed their bid details had been leaked before the decision was taken. ITV asked the Office of Fair Trading to investigate since it believed Rupert Murdoch's media empire via its newspapers had influenced the deal. A few days neither action took effect, ITV believed BSkyB was telephoned and informed of its £262m bid, Premier League advised BSkyB to increase its counter bid. BSkyB retained the rights paying £670m 1997–2001 deal, but was challenged by On Digital for the rights from 2001–2004, thus were forced to £1.1 billion which gave them 66 live games a year. Following a lengthy legal battle with the European Commission, which deemed the exclusivity of the rights to be against the interests of competition and the consumer, BSkyB's monopoly came to an end from the 2007–08 season.

In May 2006, the Irish broadcaster Setanta Sports was awarded two of the six Premier League packages that the English FA offered to broadcasters. Sky picked up the remaining four for £1.3bn. In February 2015, Sky bid £4.2bn for a package of 120 premier league games across the three seasons from 2016. This represented an increase of 70% on the previous contract and was said to be £1bn more than the company had expected to pay; the move has been followed by staff cuts, increased subscription prices and the dropping of the 3D channel. In September 1993, BSkyB launched Sky Multichannels, the present digital platform's analogue predecessor. Sky Multichannels was a subscription package that gave access not only to Sky's own channels but those of third party broadcasters; the service started on 1 September 1993. It was based on an idea by CEO Sam Chisholm and chairman Rupert Murdoch of converting the company business strategy to an fee-based concept; the new package included four channels available free-to-air, broadcasting on Astra's satellites, as well as introducing new channels.

The service continued until the closure of BSkyB's analogue service on 27 September 2001, due to the expansion of the Sky Digital platform after its launch three years before. Some of the channels did broadcast either in the clear or soft encrypted prior to their addition to the Sky Multichannels package. Within two months of the launch, BSkyB gained 400,000 new subscribers, with the majority taking at least one premium channel as well, which helped BSkyB reach 3.5 million households by mid-1994. Michael Grade criticised the operations in front of the Select Committee on National Heritage for the lack of original programming on many of the new channels. BSkyB's digital service was launched on 1 October 1998 under the name Sky Digital, although small-scale tests were carried out before then. At this time the use of the Sky Digital brand made an important distinction between the new service and Sky's analogue services. Key selling points were the improvement in picture and sound quality, increased number of channels and an interactive service branded Open....

Now called Sky Active, BSkyB competed with the ONdigital terrestrial offering and cable services. Within 30 days, over 100,000 digiboxes had bee

Australian Turf Club

Australian Turf Club owns and operates thoroughbred racing and hospitality venues across Sydney, Australia. The ATC came into being on 7 February 2011 when the Australian Jockey Club and the Sydney Turf Club merged; the ATC operates out of their offices at Randwick Racecourse and employs 250 full-time staff and over 1,000 casual staff across the five venues. The venues include Royal Randwick, Rosehill Gardens, Canterbury Park, Warwick Farm and the Rosehill Bowling Club; the Australian Jockey Club was founded in January 1842. It morphed from the former Australian Racing Committee set up in May 1840 to set the standards for racing in the colony. Races were held at the newly established Homebush Course, headquarters of NSW racing until 1860; the AJC was considered the senior racing club in Australia and was responsible for founding the Australian Stud Book, which the combined club still oversees today. The club in conjunction with the Victoria Racing Club, formulated the Rules of Racing that are followed by all Australian race clubs.

The Sydney Turf Club was the youngest of Australia's principal race clubs. It was formed following an Act passed by the New South Wales parliament called the Sydney Turf Club Act; the Act had taken 40 years to draft and gave the club the power to hold 62 race meetings a year at the tracks and empowered it to wind up other proprietary clubs that still existed in the Sydney area through a special Racing Compensation Fund. Both the Australian Jockey Club and the Sydney Turf Club had co-existed as independent bodies since the early 1940s. However, the first push for a merger came at the start of the century, with STC chairman Graeme Pash opening up the possibility of a merger during his tenure. Mentioned in jest by Sydney Morning Herald journalist Craig Young in 2003, the first real push for a merger came with the release of a report by Ernst and Young in June 2009 which recommended that a merger would save the New South Wales racing industry from collapse; the NSW Government pledged $174 million for Sydney racing if the merger went ahead, including a major revitalisation of Randwick racecourse.

The move for a merger was controversial, with members of both clubs hesitant to lose their respective identities. While AJC members voted in favour of a merger due to financial issues, STC members voted against a merger as they were financially stable; the board of the STC decided to proceed with a merger. The Australian Jockey and Sydney Turf Clubs Merger Act 2010 merged the two clubs under the name of the Australian Turf Club. Five venues are operated by the ATC: Royal Randwick Racecourse Rosehill Gardens Racecourse Canterbury Park Racecourse Warwick Farm Racecourse Rosehill Bowling Club The Everest Golden Slipper Stakes Rosehill Guineas Canterbury Guineas Sydney Cup Australian Derby Epsom Handicap Doncaster Handicap The Galaxy All Aged Stakes Chipping Norton Stakes Queen Elizabeth Stakes Australian Turf Club's Autumn Carnival includes the Longines Golden Slipper Carnival at Rosehill Gardens, followed by race days at Royal Randwick that include Derby Day, Longines Queen Elizabeth Stakes Day and Schweppes All Aged Stakes Day.

The Everest Spring Carnival features the world's richest race on turf, $14m The Everest, run in October over 1200m at Royal Randwick. It features the new "Golden Slam", which gives horses the opportunity to win the Golden Slipper at age 2, the Golden Rose at age 3 and the new Golden Eagle at age 4, with an added $5 million in prizemoney for the trio. In 2008 the Autumn Carnival was delayed by four weeks due to the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak. Australian Turf Club website Australian Turf Club Rosehill Gardens Royal Randwick Sydney Carnival

Citrobacter freundii

Citrobacter freundii is a species of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacteria have a long rod shape with a typical length of 1–5 μm. Most C. freundii cells have several flagella used for locomotion, but some do not and are non-motile. C. freundii is a soil organism, but can be found in water, food and in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. The genus Citrobacter was discovered in 1932 by Gillen. Cultures of C. freundii were identified in the same year from soil extracts. C. Freundii is a common component of the gut microbiome of healthy humans. While most strains are beneficial, there are significant phenotypic variations among strains those that share >99% of their genome. Some rare strains of C. freundii have been associated with opportunistic nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and many other sterile sites in immunocompromised patients. C. Freundii is commonly found to be a member of the soil microbiome; this microbe plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle in the environment.

C. freundii is responsible for reducing nitrate to nitrite in the environment. This conversion is an crucial stage in the nitrogen cycle; some members of the species are nitrogen-fixing and have been found in tissues of living sassafras trees. C. Freundii has been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid used in tanneries. C. Freundii has the ability to grow on glycerol, use it as its sole source of carbon and energy; the organism contains a bacterial microcompartment, capable of processing propanediol. C. freundii creates a positive MR and negative VP test along with a positive Catalase and negative Oxidase test. C. freundii can not hydrolyze lipids, or gelatin. "Citrobacter freundii". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 546. Type strain of Citrobacter freundii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase