Webbing is a strong fabric woven as a flat strip or tube of varying width and fibres used in place of rope. It is a versatile component used in climbing, furniture manufacturing, automobile safety, auto racing, parachuting, military apparel, load securing, many other fields. Made of cotton or flax, most modern webbing is made of synthetic fibers such as nylon, polypropylene or polyester. Webbing is made from exceptionally high-strength material, such as Dyneema, Kevlar. Webbing is both light and strong, with breaking strengths available in excess of 10,000 lb There are two basic constructions of webbing. Flat webbing is a solid weave, with most backpack straps being common examples. Tubular webbing consists of a flattened tube, is used in climbing and industrial applications. In rock climbing, nylon webbing is used in slings, harnesses, anchor extensions and quick draws. Webbing is used in many ways in hiking and camping gear including backpacks, load adjusters and tent adjusters. There are two types of webbing: tubular and flat.
The most popular webbing is one inch. Narrower webbing is looped through chock stones, which are jammed into cracks as safety anchors. In other cases, webbing is looped over rock outcroppings. Webbing is less to inch its way off the rock than tubular rope. Note that webbing construction is either utterly flat or flat-tubular; the most popular knots in webbing are the grapevine knot. The latter uses more webbing for the knot, it is customary to leave a few centimetres extending from the knot, in many cases climbers tape the ends down onto the main loops. Webbing is less expensive than rope of similar size kernmantle rope, which requires elaborate and expensive manufacturing. Unlike climbing rope, sold with recognizable brand names, webbing manufacture is generic. Climbing shops sell it off per foot basis. Webbing is cut with a hot wire as is nylon rope, which prevents unravelling. However, when webbing does fray and unravel, the result is less disastrous than with rope, providing a modest advantage.
Webbing suffers the drawback of less elasticity than perlon rope, it may be more difficult to handle with gloves or mittens on. Slacklines use flat or tubular 1-inch webbing, or flat 2-inch webbing. Other widths are less common. White water rafting boats use tubular webbing for bow lines, stern lines, "chicken lines", equipment tie down, or floor lacing for self-bailing rafts. Rafters call tubular webbing "hoopie" or "hoopi". Rafters use camstraps with flat webbing for equipment tie down. Life preservers are crafted using nylon or cotton webbing that conforms to federal standards and guidelines. Seat belts are an obvious example of webbings used in auto safety but there are myriad other uses. Nylon and polyester webbing are used a great deal in auto racing safety for a large variety of items. Racing harnesses restraining the driver have used nylon webbing for years, but since the death of Dale Earnhardt polyester webbing is becoming more popular due to its increased strength, lower rate of elongation under load.
The nylon commercial type 9 webbing used in racing harnesses stretches 20 to 30 percent of its initial length at 2500 lb while polyester only stretches 5 to 15 percent. Window nets to prevent objects from entering the driver compartment are constructed of polypropylene webbing, as are helmet nets used to reduce side loads to the head in Sprint cars; the HANS device uses webbing tethers to attach the helmet to the collar, the Hutchens device is made entirely of webbing. Webbing is used in couches and chairs as a base for the seating areas, both strong and flexible. Webbing used as a support is rubberised to improve resilience and add elasticity. Many types of outdoor furniture use little more than thin light webbing for the seating areas. Webbing is used to reinforce joints and areas that tend to flex. Military webbing, otherwise known as Mil-Spec webbing, is made of strips of woven narrow fabrics of high tensile strength, such as Nylon and Nomex; when these materials are used for parachute and ballooning applications, they must conform to PIA standards.
Mil-Spec webbing is used to make military belts, packs and other forms of equipment. The British Army adopted cotton webbing to replace leather after the Second Boer War although leather belts are still worn in more formal dress; the term is still used for a soldier's combat equipment, although cotton webbing has since been replaced with stronger materials. The webbing system used by the British Army today is known as Personal Load Carrying Equipment. Americans use All-purpose Lightweight Individual Carrying Equipment and MOLLE. A soldier is provided a rucksack to carry survival items for anywhere between 24 hours and a week. Webbing is designed so that if the pack is lost or abandoned, the soldier can survive on emergency rations and clothing, carried in it for up to 24 hours, or longer if the supplies are rationed. Typical contents of military webbing equipment include cooking equipment, 24 hours worth of rations, ammunition, first aid or survival supplies, cold weather/rain gear, anti-gas/CBRN gear and sheltering equipment.
Items are stored in an ordered fashion in a combination of ammo and utility pouches. The amm
Olympia is the capital of the U. S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. European settlers claimed the area in 1846, with the Treaty of Medicine Creek initiated in 1854, the Treaty of Olympia initiated in January 1856. Olympia was incorporated as a town on January 28, 1859, as a City in 1882; the population was 46,479 as of the 2010 census. The city borders Lacey to the Tumwater to the south. Olympia is a cultural center of the southern Puget Sound region. Olympia is located 60 miles southwest of the largest city in the state of Washington; the site of Olympia has been home to Lushootseed-speaking peoples known as the Steh-Chass for thousands of years. Other Native Americans visited the head of Budd Inlet and the Steh-Chass including the other ancestor tribes of the Squaxin, as well as the Nisqually, Chehalis and Duwamish; the first recorded Europeans came to Olympia in 1792. Peter Puget and a crew from the British Vancouver Expedition are said to have explored the site, but neither recorded any encounters with the resident Indigenous population here.
In 1846, Edmund Sylvester and Levi Smith jointly claimed the land that now comprises downtown Olympia. In 1851, the U. S. Congress established the Customs District of Puget Sound for Washington Territory and Olympia became the home of the customs house, its population expanded from Oregon Trail immigrants. In 1850, the town settled on the name Olympia, at the suggestion of local resident Colonel Isaac N. Ebey, due to its view of the Olympic Mountains to the Northwest; the area began to be served by a small fleet of steamboats known as the Puget Sound Mosquito Fleet. Over the course of two days, December 24–26, 1854, Governor Isaac I. Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Medicine Creek with the representatives of the Nisqually, Squawksin, Steh'Chass, Noo-Seh-Chatl, Squi-Aitl, T'Peeksin, Sah-Heh-Wa-Mish, S'Hotl-Ma-Mish tribes. Stevens' treaty included the preservation of Indigenous fishing, hunting and other rights, it included a section which, at least as interpreted by United States officials, required the Native American signatories to move to one of three reservations.
Doing so would force the Nisqually people to cede their prime farming and living space. One of the leaders of the Nisqually, Chief Leschi. Outraged, refused to give up ownership of this land and instead fought for his peoples' right to their territory, sparking the beginning of the Puget Sound War; the war ended in the controversial execution of Leschi. In 1896, Olympia became the home of the Olympia Brewing Company, which brewed Olympia Beer until 2003; the 1949 Olympia earthquake damaged many historic buildings beyond repair, they were demolished. Parts of the city suffered damage from earthquakes in 1965 and 2001. Olympia is located at 47°2′33″N 122°53′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.68 square miles, of which 17.82 sq mi are land and 1.86 sq mi are water. The city of Olympia is located at the southern end of Puget Sound on Budd Inlet; the Deschutes River estuary was dammed in 1951 to create Capitol Lake. Much of the lower area of downtown Olympia sits on reclaimed land.
The cities of Lacey and Tumwater border Olympia. The region surrounding Olympia has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, whereas the local microclimate has dry summers and cool July and August overnight lows, it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 8a, with isolated pockets around Puget Sound falling under zone 8b. Most of western Washington's weather is brought in by weather systems that form near the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, it contains cold moist air, which brings western Washington cold rain and fog. November through January are Olympia's rainiest months. City streets and rivers can flood during the months of November through February; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 38.4 °F in December to 64.1 °F in August. Seasonal snowfall for 1981–2010 averaged 10.8 inches but has ranged from trace amounts in 1991–92 to 81.5 in in 1968–69. Olympia averages 50 inches of precipitation annually and has a year-round average of 75% cloud cover. Annual precipitation has ranged from 29.92 in in 1952 to 66.71 in in 1950.
With a period of record dating back to 1948, extreme temperatures have ranged from −8 °F on January 1, 1979, up to 104 °F, most on July 29, 2009. On average, there are 6.3 days annually with temperatures reaching 90 °F, 1.8 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing all day, 78 nights where the low reaches the freezing mark. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 8 through May 3, allowing a growing season of 157 days, nearly 100 days shorter than in nearby Seattle. Olympia has a wide array of public parks and nature conservation areas; the Woodard Bay Natural Resources Conservation Area is a 600-acre parcel that preserves more than 5 miles of Puget Sound waterfront along the Woodard and Chapman Bays of the Henderson Inlet. Percival Landing Park includes 0.9 miles of boardwalk along Budd Inlet, as well as a playground, picnic areas, a large open space. Percival Landing closed in 2010 for an extensive remodel after saltwater degradation a
In rock climbing, an anchor can be any device or method for attaching a climber, a rope, or a load to the climbing surface - rock, steep dirt, or a building - either permanently or temporarily. The intention of an anchor is case-specific but is for fall protection. Climbing anchors are used for hoisting, holding static loads, or redirecting a rope. Depending on the surface being climbed, there are many types of protection that can be used to construct an anchor, including natural protection such as boulders and trees, or artificial protection such as cams, bolts or pitons. A natural anchor is a secure natural feature which can serve as a climbing anchor by attaching a sling, lanyard, or cordelette and a carabiner. Examples of natural anchors include trees, lodged chockstones, horns and protrusions. An artificial anchor consists of man-made climbing gear placed in the rock; such gear includes spring-loaded camming devices, aluminum chockstones, steel expansion bolts, pitons. Artificial anchors may be removable.
A belay anchor is used as a sole attachment to the cliff face, to support top rope. Ideally, it should consist of multiple redundant components, none of which are to fail, none of which in the event of failure would cause the entire anchor to fail. Any one component of a good anchor should be able to support the entire system by itself. If these conditions are met, the system will be bombproof. A running belay anchor is used as a safeguard in the event of a fall; the leader and follower climb with protection placed in between. When the two climbers advance using a running belay, the belay is as secure as using a belay device and anchors because if the leader falls, all the slack is out of the rope and the follower acts as a counterweight to catch the fall. A running belay is used as a faster alternative to pitch climbing when the risk and likelihood of a leader fall are deemed to be acceptable; the snow picket is used as an anchor in mountaineering. It is used to arrest falls. Snow pickets can be placed horizontally in snow as a deadman, which provides a secure anchor to abseil on.
Ice screws can be hand-driven into solid ice and are the equivalent of cams or nuts when ice climbing. Ice can be protected using an Abalakov thread or v-thread; because of the uncertain holding power of ice protection, it is sometimes attached to the rope using a load-absorbing sling or quickdraw, designed to reduce the load on protection by extending in case of a fall. When the rope goes from the climber to the belayer. Most used under controlled circumstances at climbing walls or when the climber doesn't have the weight advantage on the belayer during bottom roped climbs, it is impossible to escape from the system. When the rope comes from the climber to the belayer, but the belayer is attached separately to an anchor. Used when multi pitching and the belayer is on a stance. Or when top roping and it is possible that if the climber falls the belayer will be pulled from the stance above the climber; the belayer can, with a little effort remove themselves from the system if required. It is essential that the belayer is attached to the anchor via the belay loop at the front of the harness.
Attaching the belayers harness to the anchor via the back of the harness can cause the harness, when placed under strain, to constrict inwards elongating front to back, rather than side to side. This can result in serious harm to the belayer; when the rope comes from the climber to an anchor. A hanging belay device may be used, although it is common in this instance to just use an Italian hitch; the belayer is free of the system. The force on an anchor may be much greater than the weight of the climber. There are various mechanisms which contribute to excess force, including Direction of pull, or vector pulling Fall factor Stiffness of the climbing rope and anchor materials improper slippage through the belay device A swinging climber, or load. Cam-action type anchors A load-sharing anchor is a system consisting of two or more individual anchors which join together at a main anchor point to form an anchoring system; this configuration is a way to introduce redundancy and increase strength for a belay anchor.
If assembled the load will be distributed to each individual anchor, rather than placing all the load on a single anchor point. This decreases the chance that any single anchor point will fail, and, if a point does fail, the other should still be able to hold. To ensure proper redundancy and effectiveness of a load-sharing anchor, some best practices are observed. Selecting independent locations for the individual anchors is considered a best practice in climbing; this may mean using distinct boulders, crack systems, or objects for the placement location of each individual anchor. Load-sharing anchors are constructed such that the overall system will still be sufficiently strong if an individual anchor were to fail. In a load-sharing anchor, each individual anchor is connected to a main anchor point; the load-sharing anchor is said to be equalized if the load force is distributed to each individual anchor. This is accomplished by adjusting the length of each connecting member while pulling the main anchor in the anticipated direction of the load.
A load-sharing anchor which does not extend in the event of an individual anchor failure has the property of non-extension. This importan
Colby College is a private liberal arts college in Waterville, Maine. 1,800 students from more than 60 countries are enrolled annually. The college offers 54 major fields of 30 minors, it was founded in 1813 as the Maine Literary and Theological Institution until it was renamed after the city it resides in with Waterville College. The donations of Christian philanthropist Gardner Colby saw the institution renamed again to Colby University before concluding on its final and current title, reflecting its liberal arts college curriculum. Located in central Maine, the 714-acre Neo-Georgian campus sits atop Mayflower Hill and overlooks downtown Waterville and the Kennebec River Valley. Along with fellow Maine institutions Bates College and Bowdoin College, Colby competes in the New England Small College Athletic Conference and the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium. Colby is ranked as the 18th best liberal arts in the country according to U. S. News & World Report and is ranked 61st among all institutions of higher learning according to Forbes.
On February 27, 1813, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, led by Baptists, adopted a petition to establish the Maine Literary and Theological Institution. It was moved to Waterville and used 179 acres of land donated by citizens. In 1818, trustees assigned the institution to Rev. Jeremiah Chaplin and classes began a vacant Waterville home. After Maine separated from Massachusetts in 1820, the first Maine legislature affirmed the Massachusetts charter for the institution, but made significant changes. Students could no longer be denied admission based on religion, the institution was prohibited from applying a religious test when selecting board members, the trustees now had the authority to grant degrees; the Maine Literary and Theological Institution was renamed Waterville College on February 5, 1821, four years the theological department was discontinued. In 1828 the trustees decided to turn the somewhat informal preparatory department of the college into a separate school, to, given the name Waterville Academy (most called the Coburn Classical Institute.
In 1833, Rev. Rufus Babcock became Colby's second president, students formed the nation's first college-based anti-slavery society. In 1845, the college's first Greek Society was formed, a chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon, followed by chapters of Zeta Psi in 1850 and Delta Upsilon in 1852. During the Civil War, many young men were called away from school to join the fight. Shannon, Henry C. Merriam, Benjamin Butler. Twenty-seven Waterville College students perished in the war, more than 100 men from the town. In the years following the war, as was the case at many American colleges, Waterville College was left with few students remaining to pay the bills and a depleted endowment; the college was on the verge of closing. On August 9, 1865, prominent Baptist philanthropist Gardner Colby attended Waterville College's commencement dinner, unbeknownst to anyone in attendance except college president James Tift Champlin, announced a matching $50,000 donation to the college. Trustees of the college voted to construct a library and chapel to honor the Colby men who died in the war, called the Memorial Hall.
The college remained isolated from neighboring Bates College, Bowdoin College due to relative location in Waterville, coupled with socio-economic and political differences. At the 1871 commencement, a Martin Milmore sculpture based on the Lion of Lucerne was added as the centerpiece of the building. In the fall of 1871, Colby University was the first all-male college in New England to accept female students; the national Sigma Kappa sorority was founded at Colby in 1874 by the college's first five female students. However the college resegregated them in 1890. One of the buildings is named after the first woman to attend, Mary Caffrey Low, the valedictorian of the Class of 1875. In 1874, based on the success of its partnership with the Coburn Classical Institute, Colby created relationships with Hebron Academy and Houlton Academy In 1893, the Higgins Classical Institute was deeded to Colby - the last preparatory school that the university would acquire. Students published the first issue of The Colby Echo in 1877.
On January 25, 1899, Colby president Nathaniel Butler Jr.'73, renamed the "university" Colby College. In 1920, Colby celebrated its centennial, marking not the date of the original charter, but the date of its charter from the new State of Maine in 1820. Franklin W. Johnson was appointed president of the college in June 1929; that same year saw the public release of the Maine Higher Education Survey Report, which gave Colby's campus a less than desirable review. Criticisms included a cramped location of just 28 acres located between the Kennebec River and the Maine Central Railroad Company tracks through Waterville, an aging physical plant, proximity to the unpleasant odors of a pulp mill and the soot of the railroad. Using the report as justification, President Johnson presented a proposal to move the college to a more adequate location to the Trustees on June 14, 1929; the campaign to raise funds for the move was complicated by the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, competing offers for the college's contemplated location emerged.
Most notably, William H. Gannett offered a site in Augusta - a financially attractive option for the college, but a troublesome prospect for the town of Waterville. A joint effort between Waterville citizens and the college raised more than $100,000 to purchase 600 acres near the outskirts of the city on Mayflower
A trampoline is a device consisting of a piece of taut, strong fabric stretched between a steel frame using many coiled springs. People bounce on trampolines for competitive purposes; the fabric that users bounce on is not elastic itself. A game similar to trampolining was developed by the Inuit, who would toss blanket dancers into the air on a walrus skin one at a time during a spring celebration of whale harvest. There is some evidence of people in Europe having been tossed into the air by a number of people holding a blanket. Mak in the Wakefield Second Shepherds' Play and Sancho Panza in Don Quixote are both subjected to blanketing – however, these are non-voluntary, non-recreational instances of quasi-judicial, mob-administered punishment; the trampoline-like life nets once used by firefighters to catch people jumping out of burning buildings were invented in 1887. The 19th-century poster for Pablo Fanque's Circus Royal refers to performance on trampoline; the device is thought to have been more like a springboard than the fabric-and-coiled-springs apparatus presently in use.
These may not be the true antecedents of the modern sport of trampolining, but indicate that the concept of bouncing off a fabric surface has been around for some time. In the early years of the 20th century, some acrobats used a "bouncing bed" on the stage to amuse audiences; the bouncing bed was a form of small trampoline covered by bedclothes, on which acrobats performed comedy routines. According to circus folklore, the trampoline was first developed by an artiste named du Trampolin, who saw the possibility of using the trapeze safety net as a form of propulsion and landing device and experimented with different systems of suspension reducing the net to a practical size for separate performance. While trampoline-like devices were used for shows and in the circus, the story of du Trampolin is certainly apocryphal. No documentary evidence has been found to support it. William Daly Paley of Thomas A. Edison, Inc. filmed blanket tossing initiation of a new recruit in Company F, 1st Ohio Volunteers in 1898.
The first modern trampoline was built by George Nissen and Larry Griswold in 1936. Nissen was a gymnastics and diving competitor and Griswold was a tumbler on the gymnastics team, both at the University of Iowa, United States, they had observed trapeze artists using a tight net to add entertainment value to their performance and experimented by stretching a piece of canvas, in which they had inserted grommets along each side, to an angle iron frame by means of coiled springs. It was used to train tumblers but soon became popular in its own right. Nissen explained. Nissen had heard the word on a demonstration tour in Mexico in the late 1930s and decided to use an anglicized form as the trademark for the apparatus. In 1942, Griswold and Nissen created the Griswold-Nissen Trampoline & Tumbling Company, began making trampolines commercially in Cedar Rapids, Iowa; the generic term for the trademarked trampoline was a rebound tumbler and the sport began as rebound tumbling. It has become a generic trademark.
Early in their development Nissen anticipated trampolines being used in a number of recreational areas, including those involving more than one participant on the same trampoline. One such game was Spaceball—a game of two teams of two on a single trampoline with specially constructed end "walls" and a middle "wall" through which a ball could be propelled to hit a target on the other side's end wall. During World War II, the United States Navy Flight School developed the use of the trampoline in its training of pilots and navigators, giving them concentrated practice in spatial orientation that had not been possible before. After the war, the development of the space flight programme again brought the trampoline into use to help train both American and Soviet astronauts, giving them experience of variable body positions in flight; the first Trampoline World Championships were organised by Ted Blake of Nissen, held in London in 1964. The first World Champions were both Dan Millman and Judy Wills Cline.
Cline went on to dominate and become the most decorated trampoline champion of all time. One of the earliest pioneers of trampoline as a competitive sport was Jeff Hennessy, a coach at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Hennessy coached the United States trampoline team, producing more world champions than any other person. Among his world champions was his daughter, Leigh Hennessy. Both Jeff and Leigh Hennessy are in the USA Gymnastics Hall of Fame; the competitive gymnastic sport of trampolining has been part of the Olympic Games since 2000. On a modern competitive trampoline, a skilled athlete can bounce to a height of up to 10 metres, performing multiple somersaults and twists. Trampolines feature in the competitive sport of Slamball, a variant of basketball, Bossaball, a variant of volleyball. There are a number of other sports that use trampolines to help develop and hone acrobatic skills in training before they are used in the actual sporting venue. Examples can be found in diving and freestyle skiing.
One main advantage of trampolining as a training tool for other acrobatic sports is that it allows repetitive drill practice for acrobatic experience every two seconds or less, compared with many minutes with sports that involve hills, ramps or high platforms. In some situations it can be safer compared to landings on the ground. There are two generic types of trampoline and rec
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Yoga for therapeutic purposes
Yoga for therapeutic purposes is the use of modern yoga, consisting of postures called asanas, as a gentle form of exercise and relaxation to maintain or improve health. This postural form of yoga is practised in classes, may involve meditation, breath work and music. At least three types of health claim have been made for yoga: magical claims for medieval haṭha yoga, including the power of healing. Modern yoga exercise classes used as therapy consist of asanas and relaxation in savasana; the physical asanas of modern yoga are related to medieval haṭha yoga tradition, but they were not practiced in India before the early 20th century. The number of schools and styles of yoga in the Western world has grown from the late 20th century. By 2012, there were at least 19 widespread styles from Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga to Viniyoga; these emphasise different aspects including aerobic exercise, precision in the asanas, spirituality in the haṭha yoga tradition. These aspects can be illustrated by schools with distinctive styles.
Thus, Bikram Yoga has an aerobic exercise style with rooms heated to 105 °F and a fixed pattern of 2 breathing exercises and 26 asanas. Iyengar Yoga emphasises correct alignment in the postures, working if necessary with props, ending with relaxation. Sivananda Yoga focuses more on spiritual practice, with 12 basic poses, chanting in Sanskrit, pranayama breathing exercises and relaxation in each class, importance is placed on vegetarian diet. At least three different types of claim of therapeutic benefit have been made for yoga from medieval times onwards, not counting the more general claims of good health made throughout this period: magical powers. Medieval authors asserted that haṭha yoga brought physical benefits, provided magical powers including of healing; the Hatha Yoga Pradipika states that asanas in general, described as the first auxiliary of haṭha yoga, give "steadiness, good health, lightness of limb." Specific asanas, bring additional benefits. These claims lie within a tradition across all forms of yoga that practitioners can gain supernatural powers.
Hemachandra's Yogashastra lists the magical powers, which include healing and the destruction of poisons. Advocates of some schools of modern yoga, such as B. K. S. Iyengar, have for various reasons made claims for the effects of yoga on specific organs, without adducing any evidence; the yoga scholar Andrea Jain describes such claims in terms of "elaborating and fortifying his yoga brand" and "mass-marketing", calling his book Light on Yoga "arguably the most significant event in the process of elaborating the brand". Jain suggests that "Its biomedical dialect was attractive to many." For example, in the book, Iyengar claims that the asanas of the Eka Pada Sirsasana cycle tone up the muscular and circulatory systems of the entire body. The spine receives a rich supply of blood, which increases the nervous energy in the chakras, the flywheels in the human body machine; these poses make the breathing fuller and the body firmer. The history of such claims has been reviewed by William J. Broad in his 2012 book The Science of Yoga.
Broad argues that while the health claims for yoga began as Hindu nationalist posturing, it turns out that there is "a wealth of real benefits". Researchers have studied the medical and psychological effects of yoga in a wide range of trials and observational studies, sometimes with careful controls, providing evidence of differing quality about yoga's possible benefits; the various types of claim, the evidence for them, are discussed below. Much of the research on the therapeutic use of modern yoga has been in the form of preliminary studies or clinical trials of low methodological quality, including small sample sizes, inadequate control and blinding, lack of randomization, high risk of bias. For example, a 2010 literature review on the use of yoga for depression stated, "although the results from these trials are encouraging, they should be viewed as preliminary because the trials, as a group, suffered from substantial methodological limitations." A 2015 systematic review on the effect of yoga on mood and the brain recommended that future clinical trials should apply more methodological rigour.
The practice of asanas has been claimed to improve flexibility and balance. A review of five studies noted that three psychological and four biological mechanisms that might act on stress had been examined empirically, whereas many other