The Trelleborg west of Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, is one of seven Viking ring castles discovered as of 2014. In its day, the fortress was situated on a peninsula that jutted into the area between two rivers. The swamp was connected to the Great Belt by a lake that at its time could be navigated by Viking ships. Trelleborg is believed to have ordered by King Harald Bluetooth in the year 980 AD and it might have commanded the Great Belt and its sea traffic. Trelleborg is the best preserved of the Viking ring fortresses and there is a museum here since 1995 - Trelleborg Museum -, presenting the story of this particular fortress and the nearby area. Some of the found in connection with the achaeological excavations are on display at the museum. Slagelse Municipality has recently granted DK25 mio. to update Trelleborg Museum with digital and virtual technology, in collaboration with the other Viking ring castles, the project is applying for admission to UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
In each of the four quarters stood four almost identical longhouses arranged in a square, unlike other ring castles, Trelleborg was extended with a sort of bailey. The whole fortress may have supplied room for some 1,300 people, the circular main castle was surrounded by a 5 m high rampart,17.5 m wide at the base and with a diameter of 137 m. The outer walling was made of oak, two rows of poles were supported by slanted beams from the outside and the room in between the poles was filled with loam and stones. The inside walling was clad with wood and the two facades were reinforced by beams connecting the two, in the east, there was a 5 m broad berm protected by a ditch with a pointed profile,17 m wide and 4 m deep. The ditch was not filled with water and had a palisade at its base, the two roads were covered with wood, and the four gates lined with stones on the inside. As in Fyrkat, there may have been a path along the inner side of the ramparts. The fortifications encircled a total of 16 longhouses arranged in four squares 29.42 m long each, the houses had a somewhat ship-like form as the long walls were bulging outwards.
Each house had four entrances, two at the ends and two in the long walls, and was divided into three rooms with a large central hall and two smaller rooms at the ends. The doors were protected by porches and this part of the fortress seems unique, as other ring castles lack this feature apparently. So far only Aggersborg and Trelleborg has been excavated as of 2006. The bailey was protected by a rampart of its own to the east, the 14 longhouses of the bailey, each 26.33 meters long, were placed with their axis through the length of the buildings pointing to the center of the main castle
William Christopher Zeise
William Christopher Zeise was a prominent early Danish organic chemist. He is best known for synthesising one of the first organometallic compounds and he performed pioneering studies in organosulfur chemistry, discovering the xanthates in 1823. William Christopher Zeise was born 15 October 1789 in Slagelse, the son of an apothecary, Frederick Zeise, Zeise attended Slagelse Latin school until he went to Copenhagen in 1805 to take up an apprenticeship under Gottfried Becker as a pharmacy assistant at the Royal Court Pharmacy. Gottfried Becker, was an accomplished chemist who was employed as extraordinary Professor of Chemistry at the University, however Zeise felt dissatisfied there and returned home complaining of his health after having been there only a few months. Around this time his interest in science began to develop, at the same time he experimented with a home-made voltaic pile. At 17 years old, he rearranged his fathers pharmacy in accordance with the new pharmacopoeia of 1805, in autumn 1806, he was welcomed into the family home of Ørsted, where he was given a position as an Assistant, helping Ørsted prepare his university lectures.
His stay with Ørsted lasted several years and was certainly of the greatest importance for his development, Ørsted himself recounted how he influenced Zeise through conversations and encouraged him when he expressed the desire to take the university entrance examination. Ørsted spoke fondly of Zeises independent spirit, Zeise became a university student in 1809. Zeise had at first intended to study medicine, but while attending lectures it became clear that his interests had a scientific base. The experimental part of work he performed in a small laboratory. As the university had no separate Lecturing Chair in Chemistry and no scientific laboratory, Zeise decided to work, in 1818 he managed to get travelling money. Zeise arrived in Göttingen, where he spent four months working in Friedrich Stromeyers laboratory and he was trained particularly in analytical chemistry, in which he would become a great master. Zeise next spent nearly a year in Paris and his diary entries reflect how diligent he was, and depict vividly the impression he got of the famous French scientists he came in contact with.
In August 1818, while in Paris, Zeise became personally acquainted with the distinguished Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Berzelius received the young Danish chemist with great benevolence, expressing his admiration for Zeises Doctoral thesis. They continued a respectful friendship thereafter, despite Zeise being ten years younger than Berzelius, Zeise returned to Denmark in the autumn of 1819. The prospects were not bright for an appointment at the University, however, he learned at the end of the year that he had received public funds to support his work in science. That same year the university rented an apartment in Nørregade for use as a physics workshop, Ørsted converted the apartment kitchen into a menial little laboratory, over which Zeise was made responsible. In this, the so-called Royal Science Laboratory, Zeise received 10 students in the first year to whom he lectured, in June 1822 Zeise was appointed extraordinary Professor of Chemistry
Andreas Gottlob Rudelbach
Andreas Gottlob Rudelbach was a Dano-German neo-Lutheran theologian, born at Copenhagen 29 September 1792, died at Slagelse, Zealand,3 March 1862. He was educated at the university of his city, where he became privatdozent. During this period he edited, in collaboration with N. F. S and he accordingly accepted a call to the pastorate of Slagelse, where he passed the remainder of his life. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Samuel Macauley. New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge and New York and Wagnalls
Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen (/ˈhɑːnz ˈkrɪstʃən ˈændərsən/, often referred to in Scandinavia as H. C. Although a prolific writer of plays, travelogues and poems, Andersens popularity is not limited to children, his stories, called eventyr in Danish, express themes that transcend age and nationality. Some of his most famous fairy tales include The Emperors New Clothes, The Little Mermaid, The Nightingale, The Snow Queen, The Ugly Duckling and his stories have inspired ballets and live-action films and plays. Hans Christian Andersen was born in the town of Odense, Andersens father, considered himself related to nobility. His paternal grandmother had told his father that their family had in the past belonged to a social class. A persistent theory suggests that Andersen was a son of King Christian VIII. Andersens father, who had received an education, introduced Andersen to literature. Andersens mother, Anne Marie Andersdatter, was uneducated and worked as a washerwoman following his fathers death in 1816, she remarried in 1818.
Andersen was sent to a school for poor children where he received a basic education and was forced to support himself, working as an apprentice for a weaver and, later. At 14, he moved to Copenhagen to seek employment as an actor, having an excellent soprano voice, he was accepted into the Royal Danish Theatre, but his voice soon changed. A colleague at the theatre told him that he considered Andersen a poet, taking the suggestion seriously, Andersen began to focus on writing. Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Danish Theatre, felt a great affection for Andersen and sent him to a school in Slagelse. Andersen had already published his first story, The Ghost at Palnatokes Grave, though not a keen pupil, he attended school at Elsinore until 1827. He said his years in school were the darkest and most bitter of his life, at one school, he lived at his schoolmasters home. There he was abused and was told that it was to improve his character and he said the faculty had discouraged him from writing in general, causing him to enter a state of depression.
A very early fairy tale by Andersen, called The Tallow Candle, was discovered in a Danish archive in October 2012, the story, written in the 1820s, was about a candle who did not feel appreciated. It was written while Andersen was still in school and dedicated to a benefactor, in 1829, Andersen enjoyed considerable success with the short story A Journey on Foot from Holmens Canal to the East Point of Amager. Its protagonist meets characters ranging from Saint Peter to a talking cat, Andersen followed this success with a theatrical piece, Love on St. Nicholas Church Tower, and a short volume of poems
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962.
Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen.
The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, Welsh
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.
This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index.
Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church
Stargard is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017. Situated on the Ina River it is the capital of Stargard County and since 1999 has been in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, before World War II the town was in Prussia, Germany. The citys name is of Pomeranian origin and stands for old town/city and its one of the biggest towns of Szczecin agglomeration. Stargard is a railroad junction, where the southwards connection from Szczecin splits into two directions - one towards Poznań and the other towards Gdańsk. There is another line to Pyrzyce from the town. Until December 31,2015, the town was known as Stargard Szczeciński, which was first mentioned in around 1140, received Magdeburg city rights in 1243 from Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania. The name itself is a combination of two Slavic words and gard, in this connotation, the term gard is still being used by the only surviving Pomeranian language speakers, the Kashubs. However, some say that the name is of Scandinavian origin, starn.
It was one of the most important towns in Duchy of Pomerania, in 1363 the city joined the Hanseatic League and was strongly fortified. During the 15th century the Pomeranian dukes chose it as their residence, during the Thirty Years War the city burnt down and in the 1648 Peace of Westphalia it was incorporated, together with the rest of Further Pomerania, into Brandenburg-Prussia. In 1701 Stargard became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and in 1818, after the Napoleonic Wars, as a result of the unification of Germany in 1871 the city became part of the German Empire. On 1 April 1901 it became an independent city, separate from the Saatzig District, during World War II the large prisoner-of-war camp Stalag II-D was located near Stargard. There were Kashubs and thousands of Canadians captured at Dieppe imprisoned there, one of whom was Gerald MacIntosh Johnston, a Canadian actor, after World War II the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union.
Most Germans fled or were expelled and were replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, in 2004 a north-western part of the town was made into an industrial park - Stargardzki Park Przemysłowy. Another industrial park is located in the south - Park Przemysłowy Wysokich Technologii, on January 1,2016, the town was renamed Stargard. Heavy bombing during World War II devastated most of Stargards fine historical sites, some of these monuments, such as St. Mary’s Church and the 16th-century town hall, have been rebuilt. The newly restored buildings are on the European Route of Brick Gothic. Some of the surviving examples include, St. Marys Church - one of the largest brick churches in Europe St. Johns Church Medieval fortifications - ramparts, gates
In recent times, town twinning has increasingly been used to form strategic international business links between member cities. In the United Kingdom, the twin towns is most commonly used. In mainland Europe, the most commonly used terms are twin towns, partnership towns, partner towns, the European Commission uses the term twinned towns and refers to the process as town twinning. Spain uses the term ciudades hermanadas that means sister cities, Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / Miasto Partnerskie / Partnerské město, which translate as Partner Town or City. France uses Ville Jumelée, and Italy has Gemellaggio and Comune gemellato, in the Netherlands, the term is Stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted, in Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, twin towns and twin cities are used, the Americas, South Asia, and Australasia use the term sister cities or twin cities. In China, the term is 友好城市, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea.
The Douzelage is a twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. In recent years, the term city diplomacy has gained increased usage and acceptance, particularly as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy. It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments, the importance of cities developing their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, and Le Mans, France, in 836, starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux. The first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War and this was initially referred to as an adoption of the French town, formal twinning charters were not exchanged until 1986.
The practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding, for example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been heavily bombed during the war. Similarly, in 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five leading citizens on a mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with an enemy city – Düsseldorf. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been exclusively and reciprocally twinned with other, following the motto, Only Paris is worthy of Rome. Within Europe, town twinning is supported by the European Union, the support scheme was established in 1989
At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, reducing the number of municipalities from 271 before 1 January 2006, when Ærø Municipality was created, to 98. The reform was implemented in Denmark on January 1,2007, Zealand Region consists of the former counties of Roskilde, Storstrøm, and Vestsjælland. The region is named after the island of Zealand, which it shares with the neighbouring Danish Capital Region, Zealand Region includes the adjacent islands of Lolland, and Møn. Media related to Region Sjælland at Wikimedia Commons
Sannie Charlotte Carlson, better known as Whigfield and as Naan, is a Danish born, Italian-based Eurodance singer best known for the song Saturday Night, which was a hit in 1994. She worked with Italian producer Larry Pignagnoli, Saturday Night entered the Top 5 in Italy as well as in other European markets in October 1994. Her single Another Day managed to peak at No.3 in Italy where she was based. The single Another Day & Think of You did well in a number of markets where it entered the Top 10 including UK, Norway. Carlson was born in Skælskør, Denmark and she spent several years in Africa as a child before returning to her native country. Before singing Carlson worked as model and studied music, Carlson played in a jazz duo before she met the producer Larry Pignagnoli and took on the name Whigfield as a tribute to her piano teacher. Sannie Carlsons official website Whigfields official website
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen