Bulee "Slim" Gaillard known as McVouty, was an American jazz singer and songwriter who played piano, guitar and tenor saxophone. Gaillard was noted for his comedic vocalese singing and word play in his own constructed language called "Vout-o-Reenee", for which he wrote a dictionary. In addition to English, he spoke five languages with varying degrees of fluency, he rose to prominence in the late 1930s with hits such as "Flat Foot Floogie" and "Cement Mixer" after forming Slim and Slam with Leroy Eliot "Slam" Stewart. During World War II, Gaillard served as a bomber pilot in the Pacific. In 1944, he resumed his music career and performed with notable jazz musicians such as Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Dodo Marmarosa. In the 1960s and 1970s, he acted in films—sometimes as himself—and appeared in bit parts in television series such as Roots: The Next Generations. In the 1980s, Gaillard resumed touring the circuit of European jazz festivals, he followed Dizzy Gillespie's advice to move to Europe and, in 1983, settled in London, where he died on 26 February 1991, after a long career in music and television, spanning nearly six decades.
Along with Gaillard's date of birth, his lineage and place of birth are disputed. Many sources state that he was born in Detroit, though he said that he was born in Santa Clara, Cuba. Of an Afro-Cuban mother called Maria and a German-Jewish father called Theophilus who worked as a ship's steward. During an interview in 1989, Gaillard added: "They all think I was born in Detroit because, the first place I got into when I got to America." However, the 1920 census lists one "Beuler Gillard" as living in Pensacola, having been born in April, 1918 in Alabama. Researchers Bob Eagle and Eric LeBlanc have concluded that he was born in June 1918 in Claiborne, where a "Theophilus Rothchild" had been raised the son of a successful merchant in the small town of Burnt Corn. At the age of twelve, he accompanied his father on a world voyage and was accidentally left behind on the island of Crete. On a television documentary in 1989, he said, "When I was stranded in Crete, I was only twelve years old. I stayed there for four years.
I traveled on the boats to Beirut and Syria and I learned to speak the language and the people's way of life." After learning a few words of Greek, he worked on the island "making shoes and hats". He joined a ship working the eastern Mediterranean ports Beirut, where he picked up some knowledge of Arabic; when he was about 15, he re-crossed the Atlantic, hoping the ship would take him home to Cuba, but it was bound for the U. S. and he ended up in Detroit. He never saw either of his parents again. Alone and unable to speak English, he tried to get a job at Ford Motor Company but was rejected because of his age, he worked at a general store owned by an Armenian family, with whom he lived for some time tried to become a boxer. During Prohibition in 1931 or 1932, he drove a hearse with a coffin, packed with whiskey for the Purple Gang, he taught himself to play guitar and piano. When Duke Ellington came to Detroit, he met his hero. Determined to become a musical entertainer, he moved to New York City and entered the world of show business as a'professional amateur'.
As Gaillard recalled much later: Gaillard first rose to prominence in the late 1930s as part of Slim & Slam, a jazz novelty act he formed with bassist Slam Stewart. Their hits included "Flat Foot Floogie", "Cement Mixer" and the hipster anthem, "The Groove Juice Special"; the duo performs in the 1941 movie Hellzapoppin'. Gaillard's appeal was similar to Cab Calloway's and Louis Jordan's in that he presented a hip style with broad appeal. Unlike them, he was a master improviser whose stream of consciousness vocals ranged far from the original lyrics, he sang wild interpolations of nonsense syllables, such as "MacVoutie O-reeney". One such performance is celebrated in the 1957 novel On the Road by Jack Kerouac. Gaillard, with Dodo Marmarosa on piano, appeared as a guest several times on Command Performance, recorded at KNX radio studios in Hollywood in the 1940s and distributed on transcription discs to American troops in World War II. In 1943, Gaillard was drafted in the United States Army Air Forces and "qualified as a pilot flying B-26 bombers in the Pacific" and resumed his music career on his release from the draft in 1944.
Upon his return he released the song Atomic Cocktail, which featured lighthearted lyrics laced with symbolism about nuclear war. Gaillard teamed with bassist Bam Brown, they can be seen in a 1947 motion picture featurette O'Voutie O'Rooney filmed live at one of their nightclub performances. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Gaillard opened at Birdland for Charlie Parker, Flip Phillips, Coleman Hawkins, his December 1945 session with Parker and Dizzy Gillespie is notable, both musically and for its relaxed convivial air. "Slim's Jam", from that session, is one of the earliest known recordings of Parker's speaking voice. Gaillard managed to turn the performance from jazz to comedy, he would play the guitar with his left hand fretting with fingers pointing down over the fingerboard, or would play credible piano solos with his palms facing up. Gaillard wrote the theme song to the Peter Potter radio show. In addition, in 1950 he wrote and recorded the "Don
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Beryl Booker was an American swing pianist of the 1950s. Born in Philadelphia, she played with Slam Stewart's trio in 1946, played off and on with him until 1951, she played accompaniment for Dinah Washington. In 1951 she became part of the newly formed Austin Powell Quintet which recorded one Decca single entitled "All This Can't Be True" before disbanding. In early 1952, Booker led a quintet which played Birdland, featuring Don Elliot, Chuck Wayne, Clyde Lombardi and Connie Kay. Recordings with Miles Davis sitting in on the group have been preserved. In 1953, she formed her own trio with Elaine Leighton; this group toured Europe in 1954 as part of a show entitled "Jazz Club USA", which featured Billie Holiday. After another stint with Dinah Washington in 1959, she slipped into obscurity. In the 1970s she continued to record with small groups. Girl Met a Piano Beryl Booker Trio Don Byas with Beryl Booker The Beryl Booker Trio Beryl Booker at Allmusic
Erroll Louis Garner was an American jazz pianist and composer known for his swing playing and ballads. His best-known composition, the ballad "Misty", has become a jazz standard. Scott Yanow of Allmusic calls him "one of the most distinctive of all pianists" and a "brilliant virtuoso." He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6363 Hollywood Blvd. Garner was born with his twin brother Ernest in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on June 15, 1923, the youngest of six children in an African-American family, he attended George Westinghouse High School. Garner began playing piano at the age of three, his elder siblings were taught piano by Miss Bowman. From an early age, Erroll would sit down and play anything she had demonstrated, just like Miss Bowman, his eldest sister Martha said. Garner remained an "ear player" all his life, never learning to read music. At age seven, he began appearing on the radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh with a group called the Candy Kids. By age 11, he was playing on the Allegheny riverboats.
At 14 in 1937, he joined local saxophonist Leroy Brown. He played locally in the shadow of his older pianist brother Linton Garner. Garner moved to New York City in 1944, he worked with the bassist Slam Stewart, though not a bebop musician per se, in 1947 played with Charlie Parker on the "Cool Blues" session. Although his admission to the Pittsburgh music union was refused because of his inability to read music, it relented in 1956 and made him an honorary member. Garner is credited with a superb memory of music. After attending a concert by the Russian classical pianist Emil Gilels, Garner returned to his apartment and was able to play a large portion of the performed music by recall. Garner made many tours both at home and abroad, recorded, he was The Tonight Show host Johnny Carson's favorite jazz musician, appearing on Carson's show many times over the years. Garner was managed by Martha Glaser from 1950 until his death in 1977, for some of this time as her only client. Garner died of cardiac arrest related to emphysema on January 2, 1977.
He is buried in Pittsburgh's Homewood Cemetery. Short in stature, Garner performed sitting on multiple telephone directories, he was known for his vocalizations while playing, which can be heard on many of his recordings. He helped to bridge the gap for jazz musicians between the concert hall. Called "one of the most distinctive of all pianists" by jazz writer Scott Yanow, Garner showed that a "creative jazz musician can be popular without watering down his music" or changing his personal style, he has been described as a "brilliant virtuoso who sounded unlike anyone else", using an "orchestral approach straight from the swing era but... open to the innovations of bop." His distinctive style could swing like no other, but some of his best recordings are ballads, such as his best-known composition, "Misty", which became a jazz standard – and was featured in Clint Eastwood's film Play Misty for Me. Garner may have been inspired by the example of Earl Hines, a fellow Pittsburgh resident but 18 years his senior, there were resemblances in their elastic approach to timing and use of right-hand octaves.
Garner's early recordings display the influence of the stride piano style of James P. Johnson and Fats Waller, he developed a signature style that involved his right hand playing behind the beat while his left strummed a steady rhythm and punctuation, creating insouciance and tension. The independence of his hands was evidenced by his masterful use of three-against-four and more complicated cross-rhythms between the hands. Garner would improvise whimsical introductions to pieces that left listeners in suspense as to what the tune would be, his melodic improvisations stayed close to the theme while employing novel chord voicings. Pianist Ross Tompkins described Garner's distinctiveness as due to'happiness'. Garner's first recordings were made in late 1944 at the apartment of Timme Rosenkrantz, his recording career advanced in the late 1940s when several sides such as "Fine and Dandy", "Skylark" and "Summertime" were cut. His 1955 live album Concert by the Sea was a best-selling jazz album in its day and features Eddie Calhoun on bass and Denzil Best on drums.
This recording of a performance at the Sunset Center, a former school in Carmel-by-the-Sea, was made using primitive sound equipment, but for George Avakian the decision to release the recording was easy. One World Concert was recorded at the 1962 Seattle World Fair and features Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martin on drums. Other works include 1951's Long Ago and Far Away, 1953's Erroll Garner at the Piano with Wyatt Ruther and Fats Heard, 1957's The Most Happy Piano, 1970's Feeling Is Believing and 1974's Magician, which see Garner perform a number of classic standards; the trio was expanded to add Latin percussion a conga. In 1964, Garner appeared in the UK on the music series Jazz 625 broadcast on the BBC's new second channel; the programme was hosted by Steve Race, who introduced Garner's trio with Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martin on drums. Because Garner could not write down his musical ideas, he used to record them on tape, to be transcribed by others; the Erroll Garner Club was founded in 1982 in Scotland.
On September 26, 1992 Garnerphiles from England, Scotland and the US met in London for a unique and historic get-together. The guests of honour were Eddie Calhoun and Kelly Martin, Erroll'
Boy! What a Girl!
Boy! What a Girl! is a 1947 race film directed by Arthur H. Leonard and starring Tim Moore, with guest appearances by the Brown Dots, Slam Stewart, Sid Catlett and Gene Krupa. Would-be theatrical producer Jim Walton is planning a new show that will feature bandleader Slam Stewart and the comic female impersonator Bumpsie. Mr. Cummings, the wealthy father of Jim’s girlfriend Cristola, has agreed to finance half of the show if the famous Parisian impresario Madame Deborah will provide the second half of the funding; when word arrives that Madame Deborah’s arrival from France has been delayed, Bumpsie is brought in to keep Mr. Cummings occupied. Mr. Cummings, however, is unaware that he falls in love with him; the real Madame Deborah passes herself off as Mrs. Martin. Two other would-be suitors, impressed with Madame Deborah’s wealth, begin to pursue Bumpsie. A fundraising party for the show is held. A pair of thugs attempt to kidnap Bumpsie, believing he is Madame Deborah; the real Madame Deborah identifies herself and agrees to finance Jim’s show, enabling him to achieve his professional goals and to marry Cristola.
Tim Moore as Bumpsie, Elwood Smith as Jim Walton, Duke Williams as Harry Diggs, Alan Jackson as Mr. Cummings, Sheila Guyse as Francine, Betti Mays as Cristola, Sybil Lewis as Mme. Deborah Martin, Warren Patterson as Donaldson the Landlord, Milton Wood as the Jealous Lover and Lorenzo Tucker, as his helper Boy! What a Girl! was planned to be the first in a series of all-black race films produced by the independent company Herald Pictures. The film’s press kit acknowledged the segregated distribution patterns of the race film by proclaiming Boy! What a Girl! would be “an all-Negro motion picture can be produced to play in any theater in the country and not confined to the some 600 odd playhouses that cater to an all-Negro audience.” The film was shot at the Fox Movietone Studio in New York City. Gene Krupa, the only white member of the cast, was not signed to appear in the film. Boy! What a Girl! was the only starring film role for Tim Moore, an African American vaudeville comedy star who became famous as the Kingfish in the television series Amos'n Andy.
A pre-production news item identified Marva Lewis, the ex-wife of boxing champion Joe Louis, as being a part of the cast, but she is not present in the finished film, as she was forced to withdraw due to illness. She was replaced by the Brown Dots. There has been a revival of interest in the film in recent years due to the prominence of its black cast. In the words of Donald Bogale, the race films of the late 40s succeeded as "fundamental celebrations of cultural roots and communal spirits and as pure, undiluted celebrations of black style; such movies as Broken Strings, Boy! What a Girl!, Sepia Cinderella, Bronze Buckeroo, scores of others introduced a new rhythm to American cinema. Vocal inflections and intonations set the ears abuzz; the manners, postures, surprising double takes, swift interplay and communication between the characters is a world unto itself, despite whatever other distortions or failings, a segment of black American life and culture." List of films in the public domain in the United States Boy!
What a Girl! on IMDb Boy! What a Girl! at TCMDB Boy! What a Girl! is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early to mid-1940s in the United States, which features songs characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key, instrumental virtuosity, improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure, the use of scales and occasional references to the melody. Bebop developed as the younger generation of jazz musicians expanded the creative possibilities of jazz beyond the popular, dance-oriented swing style with a new "musician's music", not as danceable and demanded close listening; as bebop was not intended for dancing, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords, extended chords, chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, intricate melodies. Bebop groups used rhythm sections in a way. Whereas the key ensemble of the swing era was the big band of up to fourteen pieces playing in an ensemble-based style, the classic bebop group was a small combo that consisted of saxophone, piano, double bass, drums playing music in which the ensemble played a supportive role for soloists.
Rather than play arranged music, bebop musicians played the melody of a song with the accompaniment of the rhythm section, followed by a section in which each of the performers improvised a solo returned to the melody at the end of the song. Some of the most influential bebop artists, who were composer-performers, are: tenor sax players Dexter Gordon, Sonny Rollins, James Moody; the term "bebop" is derived from nonsense syllables used in scat singing. It appears again in a 1936 recording of "I'se a Muggin'" by Jack Teagarden. A variation, "rebop", appears in several 1939 recordings; the first, known print appearance occurred in 1939, but the term was little-used subsequently until applied to the music now associated with it in the mid-1940s. Thelonious Monk claims that the original title "Bip Bop" for his tune "52nd Street Theme", was the origin of the name bebop; some researchers speculate that it was a term used by Charlie Christian because it sounded like something he hummed along with his playing.
Dizzy Gillespie stated that the audiences coined the name after hearing him scat the then-nameless tunes to his players and the press picked it up, using it as an official term: "People, when they'd wanna ask for those numbers and didn't know the name, would ask for bebop." Another theory is that it derives from the cry of "Arriba! Arriba!" used by Latin American bandleaders of the period to encourage their bands. At times, the terms "bebop" and "rebop" were used interchangeably. By 1945, the use of "bebop"/"rebop" as nonsense syllables was widespread in R&B music, for instance Lionel Hampton's "Hey! Ba-Ba-Re-Bop". Bebop grew out of the culmination of trends, occurring within swing music since the mid-1930s: less explicit timekeeping by the drummer, with the primary rhythmic pulse moving from the bass drum to the high hat cymbal; the path towards rhythmically streamlined, solo-oriented swing was blazed by the territory bands of the southwest with Kansas City as their musical capital. Ability to play sustained, high energy, creative solos was valued for this newer style and the basis of intense competition.
Swing-era jam sessions and "cutting contests" in Kansas City became legendary. The Kansas City approach to swing was epitomized by the Count Basie Orchestra, which came to national prominence in 1937. One young admirer of the Basie orchestra in Kansas City was a teenage alto saxophone player named Charlie Parker, he was enthralled by their tenor saxophone player Lester Young, who played long flowing melodic lines that wove in and out of the chordal structure of the tune but somehow always made musical sense. Young was daring with his rhythm and phrasing as with his approach to harmonic structures in his solos, he would repeat simple two or three note figures, with shifting rhythmic accents expressed by volume, articulation, or tone. His phrasing was far removed from the four bar phrases that horn players had used until then, they would be extended to an odd number of measures, overlapping the musical stanzas suggested by the harmonic structure. He would take a breath in the middle of a phrase, using the pause, or "free space," as a creative device.
The overall effect was that his solos were something floating above the rest of the music, rather than something springing from it at intervals suggested by the ensemble sound. When the Basie orchestra burst onto the national scene with its 1937 recordings and nationally broadcast New York engagements, it gained a national following, with legions of saxophone players striving to imitate Young, drummers striving to imitate Jo Jones, piano players striving to imitate
Red Norvo was one of jazz's early vibraphonists, known as "Mr. Swing", he helped establish the xylophone and vibraphone as jazz instruments. His recordings included "Dance of the Octopus", "Bughouse", "Knockin' on Wood", "Congo Blues", "Hole in the Wall". Red Norvo was born in Illinois, his career began in Chicago with a band called "The Collegians" in 1925. He played with many other bands, including an all-marimba band on the vaudeville circuit, the bands of Paul Whiteman, Benny Goodman, Charlie Barnet, Woody Herman, he recorded with Billie Holiday, Dinah Shore and Frank Sinatra. Norvo and his wife were known as "Mr. and Mrs. Swing." He appeared as himself in the film Screaming Mimi and in Ocean's 11, accompanying Dean Martin while he sang "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?". In 1933 he recorded two sessions for Brunswick under his own name; the first, "Knockin' on Wood" and "Hole in the Wall", pleased Brunswick's recording director Jack Kapp, Norvo was booked for another session. This time, Kapp was out of town and Norvo went ahead and recorded two early pieces of chamber jazz: "In a Mist" by Bix Beiderbecke's and Norvo's own "Dance of the Octopus".
He played marimba instead of xylophone in the second session, accompanied by Benny Goodman in a rare performance at bass clarinet, Dick McDonough on guitar, Artie Bernstein on double bass. Kapp was outraged when he tore up Norvo's contract; this modern record remained in print through the 1930s. Norvo recorded eight modern swing sides for Columbia in 1934–1935, fifteen sides for Decca and their short-lived Champion label series in 1936. Starting in 1936 through 1942, Norvo formed a swing orchestra and recorded for ARC, first on their Brunswick label Vocalion and Columbia after CBS bought ARC; the recordings featured arrangements by Eddie Sauter with Mildred Bailey as vocalist. In 1938, Red Norvo and His Orchestra reached number one with their recordings of "Please Be Kind", number one for two weeks, "Says My Heart", with lead vocals by Bailey, number one for four weeks on the pop charts, reaching number one during the week of June 18, 1938. In June 1945, while a member of the Benny Goodman Sextet, he recorded a session for Comet Records that employed members of Goodman's group, Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie.
About the session Norvo said, "Diz were dirty words for musicians of my generation. But jazz had always gone through changes and in 1945 we were in the middle of another one. Bird and Diz were saying new things in an exciting way. I had a free hand, so I gambled". In 1949, while trying to find work near home on the West Coast and running into difficulties with large groups, Norvo formed a trio with the novel combination of vibes and bass; when the original guitarist and bassist quit, he brought in two little-known players. Tal Farlow became one of the most important of the postwar generation of guitarists, in part because the demands of the trio led him to explore changes in tempo and harmony. Farlow left the group in 1953 and guitarist Jimmy Raney took his place. Charles Mingus's prominence as a bass player increased through this group, though its repertoire did not reflect the career he would develop as a composer. Mingus left in 1951 and Red Mitchell replaced him; the Norvo and Mingus trio recorded two albums for Savoy Records.
In 1959, Norvo's group played concerts in Australia with Frank Sinatra. Norvo and his group made several appearances on The Dinah Shore Chevy Show in the late 1950s and early'60s. Norvo recorded and toured throughout his career until a stroke in the mid-1980s forced him into retirement, he died at a convalescent home in Santa Monica, California at the age of 91. Red Norvo composed the following instrumentals during his career: "Dance of the Octopus", "Bughouse" with Irving Mills and Teddy Wilson, "The Night is Blue", "A Cigarette and a Silhouette", "Congo Blues", "Seein' Red", "Blues in E Flat", "Hole in the Wall", "Knockin' on Wood", "Decca Stomp", "Tomboy", "1-2-3-4 Jump". Red Norvo's Fabulous Jazz Session Red Norvo with Strings Vibe-Rations in Hi-Fi Midnight on Cloud 69 Move! with Tal Farlow, Charles Mingus The Red Norvo Trios Music to Listen to Red Norvo By Ad Lib with Buddy Collette Some of My Favorites Red Plays the Blues Windjammer City Style Red Norvo in Hi-Fi Pretty Is the Only Way to Fly The Second Time Around Live at Rick's Cafe Red and Ross Just Friends Red Norvo:'Mr.
Swing' at NPR Jazz Profiles Red Norvo Interview NAMM Oral History Library