The slave narrative is a type of literary genre involving the autobiographical accounts of enslaved Africans in Great Britain and its colonies, including the United States and Caribbean nations. Some six thousand such narratives are estimated to exist. In the United States during the Great Depression, more than 2,300 additional oral histories on life during slavery were collected by writers sponsored and published by the Works Progress Administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration. Most of the 26 audio-recorded interviews are held by the Library of Congress; some of the earliest memoirs of captivity known in England and the British Isles were written by white Europeans and Americans captured and sometimes enslaved in North Africa by Barbary pirates. These were part of a broad category of "captivity narratives" by English-speaking Europeans. Beginning in the 18th century, these included accounts by colonists and American settlers in North America and the United States who were captured and held by Native Americans.
Several well-known captivity narratives were published before the American Revolution, they followed forms established with the narratives of captivity in North Africa. North American accounts were by Americans captured by western tribes during 19th-century migrations. For the Europeans and Americans, the division between captivity as slaves and as prisoners of war was not always clear. Given the problem of international contemporary slavery in the 20th and 21st centuries, additional slave narratives are being written and published, it is an ubiquitous issue that still persists and remains undocumented. The development of slave narratives from autobiographical accounts to modern fictional works led to the establishment of slave narratives as a literary genre; this large rubric of this so-called "captivity literature" includes more "any account of the life, or a major portion of the life, of a fugitive or former slave, either written or orally related by the slave himself or herself". Whereas the first narratives told the stories of fugitive or freed slaves in a time of racial prejudice, they further developed into retrospective fictional novels and extended their influence until common days.
Not only maintaining the memory and capturing the historical truth transmitted in these accounts, but slave narratives were the tool for fugitive or former slaves to state their independence in the 19th century, carry on and conserve authentic and true historical facts from a first-person perspective. They go further than just autobiographies, are moreover "a source for reconstructing historical experience"; the freed slaves that wrote the narratives are considered as historians, since "memory and history come together". These accounts link elements of the slave's personal life and destiny with key historical phenomena, such as the American Civil War and the Underground Railroad. In simple, yet powerful storylines, slave narratives follow in general a plot common to all of them: starting from the initial situation, the slave in his master's home, the protagonist escapes in the wilderness and narrates the struggle for survival and recognition throughout his uncertain journey to freedom. After all, these narratives were written retrospectively by freed slaves and/or their abolitionist advocate, hence the focus on the transformation from the dehumanized slave to the self-emancipated free man.
This change entailed literacy as a means to overcome captivity, as the case of Frederick Douglass highlights. The narratives are graphic to the extent as extensive accounts of e.g. whipping and rape of enslaved women are exposed in detail. The denunciation of the slave owners, in particular their cruelty and hypocrisy, is a recurring theme in slave narratives, in some examples took a comic stance denouncing the double standards. According to James Olney, a typical outline looks the following way: A. An engraved portrait, signed by the narrator. B. A title page that includes the claim, as an integral part of the title, "Written by Himself" C. A handful of testimonials and/or one or more prefaces or introductions written either by a white abolitionist friend of the narrator or by a white amanuensis/editor/author responsible for the text, in the course of which preface the reader is told that the narrative is a "plain, unvarnished tale" and that naught "has been set down in malice, nothing exaggerated, nothing drawn from the imagination"-indeed, the tale, it is claimed, understates the horrors of slavery.
Jeremy Koling is a professional disc golfer from Charlotte, North Carolina. He competes on the sport's two main tours: the PDGA National Tour, Disc Golf Pro Tour. Among his most notable accomplishments are his 2008 PDGA Amateur World Championship win and his 2016 United States Disc Golf Championship win. Koling is the only male player to win the PDGA Amateur World Championships and earn the PDGA Male Rookie of the Year Award in back-to-back years. Additionally, Koling became the first and only player to win a PDGA Major at both the amateur and professional level after his 2016 USDGC win. Koling has won at every tier available in amateur and professional divisions throughout his career. Koling has 68 professional wins; as a professional, he has won two National Tour events and one Major, the 2016 USDGC. He finished 4th in the 2016 NT, 16th in the inaugural DGPT points standings, he has won two Pro World Mixed Doubles Championships with partner Paige Pierce. *Through January 2017 †At Year End Koling is sponsored by Innova Champion Discs.
He carries the following discs: Drivers Champion Shryke Star Destroyer C-Line FD Champion Firebird Champion Eagle C-Line PD2 Champion Roadrunner Champion Thunderbird Star Thunderbird Star Wraith Pro BossMidranges Frontline X Mortar C-Line MD2 C-Line MD3 Star RocPutters XT Nova P-Line P2
The Gift of Love is a 1958 DeLuxe Color in CinemaScope film directed by Jean Negulesco and starring Lauren Bacall and Robert Stack. The film's screenplay was based on the short story "The Little Horse" by Nelia Gardner White published in a 1944 issue of Good Housekeeping, made into the film Sentimental Journey, with John Payne and Maureen O'Hara. A brilliant scientist, Bill Beck, ends up married to Julie, his doctor's receptionist. Five years after their wedding, the same doctor treats Julie for a heart condition that she decides to keep secret from her husband, doing serious work as a physicist developing guided missiles. Not wishing him to be left alone if she dies, Julie suggests they adopt a child. An orphan called Hitty has been rejected many times. Bill, a pragmatist, does not understand the little girl's fantasy world, he is angered when Hitty, meaning well, erases a chalkboard, wiping out hours of Bill's hard work. Bill's superior at work, Grant Allan, urges him to give the girl more patience and time, but the Becks believe it could be best that Hitty be returned to the orphanage.
Julie's heart gives out. After her death, Hitty tries to win over her heartbroken foster father. Hitty is returned to the orphanage, she is caught in a storm. Bill and Grant hurry there to assist in a search, when they find Hitty and save her, Bill realizes he never wants to be apart from her again. Lauren Bacall as Julie Beck Robert Stack as William "Bill" Beck Evelyn Rudie as Hitty Lorne Greene as Grant Allan Anne Seymour as Miss McMasters Edward Platt as Dr. Jim Miller Joseph Kearns as Mr. Rynicker List of American films of 1958 The Gift of Love on IMDb The Gift of Love at AllMovie The Gift of Love at the TCM Movie Database The Gift of Love at the American Film Institute Catalog