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Slave rebellion

A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery or have practiced slavery in the past. A desire for freedom and the dream of successful rebellion are the greatest objects of song and culture amongst the enslaved population. Many of the events, are violently opposed and suppressed by slaveholders; the most successful slave rebellion in history was the 18th-century Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines who won the war against their French colonial rulers, which founded the country known as Saint Domingue. Other famous historic slave rebellions have been led by the Roman slave Spartacus, as well as the thrall Tunni, who rebelled against the Swedish monarch Ongentheow, a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled. In the ninth century, the poet-prophet Ali bin Muhammad led imported East African slaves in Iraq during the Zanj Rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate; the 1811 German Coast Uprising in the Territory of Orleans was the largest rebellion in the continental United States.

Ancient Sparta had a special type of serf called helots who were treated harshly, leading them to rebel. According to Herodotus, helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans; every autumn, according to Plutarch, the Spartan ephors would pro forma declare war on the helot population so that any Spartan citizen could kill a helot without fear of blood or guilt in order to keep them in line. In the Roman Empire, though the heterogeneous nature of the slave population worked against a strong sense of solidarity, slave revolts did occur and were punished; the most famous slave rebellion in Europe was led by Spartacus in Roman Italy, the Third Servile War. This war resulted in the 6000 surviving rebel slaves being crucified along the main roads leading into Rome; this was the third in a series of unrelated Servile Wars fought by slaves against the Romans. The English peasants' revolt of 1381 led to calls for the reform of feudalism in England and an increase in rights for serfs; the Peasants' Revolt was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe.

Richard II agreed to reforms including the abolition of serfdom. Following the collapse of the revolt, the king's concessions were revoked, but the rebellion is significant because it marked the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England. In Russia, the slaves were classified as kholops. A kholop's master had unlimited power over his life. Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. During the 16th and 17th centuries, runaway serfs and kholops known as Cossacks, formed autonomous communities in the southern steppes. There were numerous rebellions against slavery and serfdom, most in conjunction with Cossack uprisings, such as the uprisings of Ivan Bolotnikov, Stenka Razin, Kondraty Bulavin, Yemelyan Pugachev involving hundreds of thousands and sometimes millions. Between the end of the Pugachev rebellion and the beginning of the 19th century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia.

Numerous African slave rebellions and insurrections took place in North America during the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. There is documented evidence of more than 250 uprisings or attempted uprisings involving 10 or more slaves. Three of the best known in the United States during the 19th century are the revolts by Gabriel Prosser in the Richmond, Virginia area in 1800, Denmark Vesey in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1822, Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831. Slave resistance in the antebellum South did not gain the attention of academic historians until the 1940s, when historian Herbert Aptheker started publishing the first serious scholarly work on the subject. Aptheker stressed how rebellions were rooted in the exploitative conditions of the southern slave system, he traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover 250 similar instances. The Zanj Rebellion was the culmination of a series of small revolts, it took place in southern Iraq over fifteen years.

It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves. In the 3rd century BCE, Drimakos led a slave revolt on the slave entrepot of Chios, took to the hills and directed a band of runaways in operations against their ex-masters; the Servile Wars were a series of slave revolts within the Roman Republic. The First and Second Servile War occurred in Sicily; the Third Servile War occurred in mainland Italy. Spartacus, an escaped gladiator from Thrace, became the most prominent of the rebel leaders. Many modern rebels (such as the Spartacus League have since regarded Spartacus as a heroic figure. Other slave revolts occurred elsewhere. Eumenes III, king of Pergamon from 133 to 129 BCE, promised freedom to slaves to draw support against the Roman Republic. A number of slave revolts occurred in the Mediterranean area during the early modern period: 1748: Hungarian and Maltese slaves on board the Ottoman ship Lupa revolted and sailed the ship to Malta. 174

Marlborough, Wiltshire

Marlborough is a market town and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire on the Old Bath Road, the old main road from London to Bath. The town is on the River Kennet, 24 miles north of Salisbury and 10 miles south-southeast of Swindon; the earliest sign of human habitation is the Marlborough Mound, a 62-foot-high prehistoric tumulus in the grounds of Marlborough College. Recent radiocarbon dating has found it to date from about 2400 BC, it is of similar age to the larger Silbury Hill about 5 miles west of the town. Legend has it that the Mound is the burial site of Merlin and that the name of the town comes from Merlin's Barrow. More plausibly, the town's name derives from the medieval term for chalky ground "marl"—thus, "town on chalk"; however more recent research, from geographer John Everett-Heath, identifies the original Anglo-Saxon place name as Merleberge, with a derivation from either the personal name of Mærle combined with beorg, or meargealla beorg: hill where gentian grows.

On John Speed's map of Wiltshire, the town's name is recorded as Marlinges boroe. The town's motto is Ubi nunc sapientis ossa Merlini. Further evidence of human occupation comes from the discovery in St Margaret's Mead of the Marlborough Bucket, an Iron Age burial bucket made of fir wood with three iron hoops, a top bar and two handles. Roman remains and the large Mildenhall Hoard of coins have been found two miles to the east of Marlborough, at Mildenhall. A Saxon settlement grew up around The Green and two early river crossings were made at Isbury Lane and Stonebridge Lane. In 1067 William the Conqueror assumed control of the Marlborough area and set about building a wooden motte-and-bailey castle, sited on the prehistoric mound; this was completed in around 1100. Stone was used to strengthen the castle in around 1175; the first written record of Marlborough dates from the Domesday Book in 1087. William established a mint in Marlborough, which coined the William I and the early William II silver pennies.

The coins display the name of the town as Maerleber. He established the neighbouring Savernake Forest as a favourite royal hunting ground and Marlborough castle became a Royal residence. Henry I observed Easter here in 1110. Henry II stayed at Marlborough castle in talks with the King of Scotland, his son, Richard I gave the castle to his brother John, in 1186. King John was spent time in Marlborough, where he established a Treasury. In 1204 King John granted Charter to the Borough which permitted an annual eight-day fair, commencing on 14 August, the vigil of the Feast of the Assumption of Our Lady, in which "all might enjoy the liberties and quittances customary in the fair at Winchester", he established that weekly markets may be held on Wednesdays and Saturdays. These continue to this day. Henry III was married here. Henry III held Parliament here, in 1267; this seven-hundred-year-old law states that no-one shall seize his neighbour's goods for alleged wrong without permission of the Court. Apart from Charters, it is the oldest statute in English law.

The castle remained Crown property. Edward VI passed it to the Seymour family, his mother's relatives. In 1498 Thomas Wolsey was ordained priest in St Peter's church, he rose to become a cardinal and Lord Chancellor. In 1642 Marlborough's peace was shattered by the English Civil War; the Seymours held the Castle for the King but the town was for Parliament. With his headquarters in nearby Oxford, King Charles had to deal with Marlborough. "A Town the most notoriously disaffected of all that Country, saving the obstinacy and malice of the inhabitants, in the situation of it unfit for a garrison... this place the King saw would prove an ill neighbour to him, not only as it was in the heart of a rich County, so would straighten him, infest his quarters." The King sent Lord Digby to take the town who left Oxford, the head of four hundred horses, 24 November 1642. When he arrived, he chose to parley first, thus giving the inhabitants a chance to prepare defences and to recruit troops, they mustered about seven hundred poorly armed men.

At this point, the town issued a reply to Digby: "The King's Majesty, providing he were attended in Royal and not in war like wise, should be as welcome to that town as was Prince to People. After some early skirmishes, Royalist troops infiltrated the town down its small alleyways; the town was captured and looted and many buildings were set ablaze. One hundred and twenty prisoners were marched in chains to Oxford; the town was abandoned by the King and took no further part in the war. On 28 April 1653 the Great Fire of Marlborough started in a tanner's yard and spread eventually after four hours burning the Guildhall, St Mary's Church, the County Armoury, 244 houses to the ground. During the rebuilding of the town after the Great Fire, the high street was widened and is claimed to be the widest in England though the actual widest is in Stockton-on-Tees; this wide street allows ample space for the local market. Fire swept through the Town again in 1679 and again in 1690; this time, an Act of Parliament was pass

GoldenEye (1995 video game)

GoldenEye is a handheld third-person shooter video game developed by Tiger Electronics, based on the 1995 James Bond film of the same name, released between 1995 and 1998. The game was released in two versions, both small handheld consoles with a similar gameplay: the player controlled James Bond as he fought enemies loosely based on the ones from the movie before a GoldenEye satellite destroyed the city with its electromagnetic pulse weapon; the game was available in two different versions: the gamepad variant, with an LCD display, a cross-shaped push button and two line-shaped ones and four settings buttons on the lower side of the screen, the "Grip Games" line variant, shaped like a pistol grip, with a trigger used to shoot and other buttons on the rear. The two editions were different. In the gamepad variant, the main character stays in a centre-left position on the display and the player must move his torso and his legs to shoot other characters, walk or drive a tank. In the five levels of the game, Bond must confront Xenia Onatopp and some Russian Army soldiers using the "kick", "Q", "punch", "fire" and "right"/"left"/"up" buttons of the console.

The game's dynamics mimic the film's ones, but no backstory is given. The Grip Games version of the game resembles a gun grip, powered by three AAA batteries; the trigger can be used to stop or to start the game, while the "on"/"off" and settings buttons are on the rear, facing the player. The LCD is located on the top of the pistol grip. In this edition of GoldenEye, the player is able to choose Bond's weapon between a silenced.22 gun, another pistol, a shotgun, a machine gun and differs from the gamepad version in the fact that Bond must shoot the satellite down

Panna Ghosh

Panna Ghosh is a Bangladeshi cricketer who plays for the Bangladesh national women's cricket team. She is right-handed batsman. Ghosh was born on November 1989 in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Ghosh made her ODI debut against the Ireland women's cricket team on November 26, 2011. Panna made her T20I debut against the Sri Lanka women's cricket team on October 28, 2012. In June 2018, she was part of Bangladesh's squad that won their first Women's Asia Cup title, winning the 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup tournament; the same month, she was named in Bangladesh's squad for the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20 Qualifier tournament. In October 2018, she was named in Bangladesh's squad for the 2018 ICC Women's World Twenty20 tournament in the West Indies. In January 2020, she was named in Bangladesh's squad for the 2020 ICC Women's T20 World Cup in Australia. Panna was a member of the team that won a silver medal in cricket against the China national women's cricket team at the 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China.

Panna Ghosh at ESPNcricinfo Panna Ghosh at CricketArchive

Louis Lapicque

Louis Édouard Lapicque was a French neuroscientist, socialist activist, antiboulangist and freemason, influential in the early 20th century. One of his main contributions was to propose the integrate-and-fire model of the neuron in a seminal article published in 1907. Today, this model of the neuron is still one of the most popular models in computational neuroscience for both cellular and neural networks studies, as well as in mathematical neuroscience because of its simplicity. A review article was published for the centenary of the original Lapicque's 1907 paper - this review contains an English translation of the original paper, his wife, Marcelle Lapicque, was a neurophysiologist. Louis Lapicque "insisted on the importance of his wife as equal co-worker in all his research". Notice on titles and scientific works of Louis Lapicque Excitability function of time, its meaning and its measure Nervous machine Neuromuscular isochronism and rythmogenic excitability On reaction times according to races and social conditions Quantitative research on nervous electrical excitation treated like a polarization Consciousness as a cellular function Chronaxie Guide to the Louis Lapicque Papers Louis Lapicque Papers in UTHSCSA Digital Archives Works by Louis Lapicque at Open Library

Charles L. Ingersoll

Charles L. Ingersoll was an American professor of agriculture and academic administrator. Ingersoll was born in Perry, New York on November 1, 1844, he enlisted in Ninth Michigan Cavalry in the Civil War. In 1872, he enrolled at the State Agricultural College of Michigan and received a B. S. degree in 1874. After graduating, he taught and managed the experimental farm at the State Agricultural College of Michigan. In 1879, Ingersoll was hired as the first instructor in School of Agriculture at Purdue University. In 1882, he became the President of Colorado State Agricultural College, where he served until 1891. Ingersoll broadened and strengthened the curriculum Colorado State, a fledgling, narrow-focused struggling agricultural school when he arrived there, he went on to serve as dean of the Industrial College of the University of Nebraska. He died on December 8, 1895 in Grand Junction, Colorado