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Slavery Abolition Act 1833

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. This Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom expanded the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807 which made the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception of "the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company", Saint Helena; the Act was repealed in 1997 as a part of wider rationalisation of English statute law. In May 1772, Lord Mansfield's judgment in the Somersett's Case emancipated a slave in England and thus helped launch the movement to abolish slavery; the case ruled that slaves could not be transported out of England against their will, but did not abolish slavery in England. However, many campaigners, including Granville Sharp, mistakenly believed that the Somerset case meant that slavery was unsupported by law in England and that no authority could be exercised on slaves entering English or Scottish soil. In 1785, English poet William Cowper wrote: We have no slaves at home – Then why abroad?

Slaves cannot breathe in England. They touch our country, their shackles fall. That's noble, bespeaks a nation proud, and jealous of the blessing. Spread it then,And let it circulate through every vein. By 1783, an anti-slavery movement to abolish the slave trade throughout the Empire had begun among the British public. Spurred by an incident involving Chloe Cooley, a slave brought to Canada by an American Loyalist, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada John Graves Simcoe tabled the Act Against Slavery in 1793. Passed by the local Legislative Assembly, it was the first legislation to outlaw the slave trade in a part of the British Empire. In 1807, Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807, which outlawed the slave trade, but not slavery itself; this legislation imposed fines. Abolitionist Henry Brougham realized that trading had continued and as a new MP introduced the Slave Trade Felony Act 1811 which at last made slavery a felony act through the empire; the Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron to suppress the Atlantic slave trade by patrolling the coast of West Africa.

It did not stop it entirely. Between 1808 and 1860, the West Africa Squadron captured 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans, they resettled many in Jamaica and the Bahamas. Britain used its influence to coerce other countries to agree to treaties to end their slave trade and allow the Royal Navy to seize their slave ships; the British were, by the late eighteenth century, the biggest proponents of the abolition of slavery worldwide, having been the world's largest slave dealers. In 1823, the Anti-Slavery Society was founded in London. Members included Joseph Sturge, Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce, Henry Brougham, Thomas Fowell Buxton, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Jane Smeal, Elizabeth Pease, Anne Knight. Jamaican mixed-race campaigners such as Louis Celeste Lecesne and Richard Hill were members of the Anti-Slavery Society. William Wilberforce had written in his diary in 1787 that his great purpose in life was to suppress the slave trade before waging a 20-year fight on the industry.

During the Christmas holiday of 1831, a large-scale slave revolt in Jamaica, known as the Baptist War, broke out. It was organised as a peaceful strike by the Baptist minister Samuel Sharpe; the rebellion was suppressed by the militia of the Jamaican plantocracy and the British garrison ten days in early 1832. Because of the loss of property and life in the 1831 rebellion, the British Parliament held two inquiries; the results of these inquiries contributed to the abolition of slavery with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. The Act had its third reading in the House of Commons on 26 July 1833, three days before William Wilberforce died, it received the Royal Assent a month on August 28, came into force the following year, on 1 August 1834. In practical terms, only slaves below the age of six were freed in the colonies. Former slaves over the age of six were redesignated as "apprentices", their servitude was abolished in two stages: the first set of apprenticeships came to an end on 1 August 1838, while the final apprenticeships were scheduled to cease on 1 August 1840.

The Act excluded "the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company, or to the Island of Ceylon, or to the Island of Saint Helena." The exceptions were eliminated in 1843. The Act provided for payments to slave-owners; the amount of money to be spent on the payments was set at "the Sum of Twenty Million Pounds Sterling". Under the terms of the Act, the British government raised £20 million to pay out for the loss of the slaves as business assets to the registered owners of the freed slaves. In 1833, £20 million amounted to 40% of the Treasury's annual income or 5% of the British GDP. To finance the payments, the British government had to take on a £15 million loan, finalised on 3 August 1835, with banker Nathan Mayer Rothschild and his brother-in-law Moses Montefiore; the money was not paid back until 2015. Half of the money went to slave-owning families in the Caribbean and Africa, while the other half went to absentee owners living in Britain; the names listed in the returns for slave owner payments show that ownership was spread over many hundreds of British families, many of them of high social standing.

For example, Henry Phillpotts, with three others (as trustees and executors of the

Minignan

Minignan is a town in north-western Ivory Coast. It is the seat of Minignan Department, it is a commune and the seat of Folon Region in Denguélé District. The French explorer René Caillié stopped at Minignan in 1827 on his journey from Boké, in present-day Guinea, to Timbuktu in Mali, he was travelling with a caravan transporting kola nuts to Djenné. He described the village in his book Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo. We halted towards two o'clock at a village inhabited by Bambaras, they are idolaters. In 2014, the population of the sub-prefecture of Minignan was 14,521; the 13 villages of the sub-prefecture of Minignan and their population in 2014 are

Johor Sultanate

The Sultanate of Johor was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511. At its height, the sultanate controlled modern-day Johor and territories stretching from the river Klang to the Linggi and Tanjung Tuan, Batu Pahat, Pulau Tinggi and other islands off the east coast of the Malay peninsula, the Karimun islands, the islands of Bintan, Bulang and Bunguran, Bengkalis and Siak in Sumatra. In 1564 the Ottomans conquered the Sultanate during the Ottoman expedition to Aceh. During the colonial era, the mainland part was administered by the British, the insular part by the Dutch, thus breaking up the sultanate into Johor and Riau. In 1946, the British section became part of the Malayan Union. Two years it joined the Federation of Malaya and subsequently, the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. In 1949, the Dutch section became part of Indonesia. In 1511, Malacca fell to the Portuguese and Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca.

The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese forced the sultan to flee to Pahang; the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organised several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese position. Based at Pekan Tua, Sungai Telur, the Johor Sultanate was founded by Raja Ali Ibni Sultan Mahmud Melaka, known as Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II, in 1528. Although Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah and his successor had to contend with attacks by the Portuguese in Malacca and by the Acehnese in Sumatra, they managed to maintain their hold on the Johor Sultanate. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship and it helped to convince the Portuguese to destroy the exiled sultan's forces. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay but it was not until 1526 that the Portuguese razed Bintan to the ground; the sultan retreated to Kampar in Sumatra and died two years later.

He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah continued on to establish Perak while Alauddin Riayat Shah became the first sultan of Johor; the new sultan established a new capital by the Johor River and, from there, continued to harass the Portuguese in the north. He worked together with his brother in Perak and the Sultan of Pahang to retake Malacca, which by this time was protected by the fort A Famosa. On the northern part of Sumatra around the same period, Aceh Sultanate was beginning to gain substantial influence over the Straits of Malacca. With the fall of Malacca to Christian hands, Muslim traders skipped Malacca in favour of Aceh or of Johor's capital Johor Lama; therefore and Aceh became direct competitors. With the Portuguese and Johor locking horns, Aceh launched multiple raids against both sides to tighten its grip over the straits; the rise and expansion of Aceh encouraged the Portuguese and Johor to sign a truce and divert their attention to Aceh.

The truce, was short-lived and with Aceh weakened and the Portuguese had each other in their sights again. During the rule of Sultan Iskandar Muda, Aceh attacked Johor in 1613 and again in 1615. In the early 17th century, the Dutch reached Southeast Asia. At that time the Dutch allied themselves to Johor. Two treaties were signed by Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge on behalf of the Dutch Estates General and Raja Bongsu of Johor in May and September 1606. In 1641, the Dutch and Johor forces headed by Bendahara Skudai, defeated the Portuguese; as per the agreement with Johor struck in May 1606, the Dutch took control of Malacca and agreed not to seek territories or wage war with Johor. In January 1641, the Dutch and Johor forces, defeated the Portuguese at Malacca. By the time the fortress at Malacca surrendered, the town's population had been decimated by famine and disease; as per article 1 of the agreement with Johor ratified in May 1606, the Dutch assumed control of the town of Malacca and of some surrounding settlements.

Malacca became a territory under the control of the Dutch East India Company and formally remained a Dutch possession until the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed. With the fall of Portuguese Malacca in 1641 and the decline of Aceh due to the growing power of the Dutch, Johor started to re-established itself as a power along the Straits of Malacca during the reign of Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III, its influence extended to Pahang, Sungei Ujong, Malacca and the Riau Archipelago. During the triangular war, Jambi emerged as a regional economic and political power in Sumatra. There was an attempt of an alliance between Johor and Jambi with a promised marriage between the heir Raja Muda and daughter of the Pengeran of Jambi. However, the Raja Muda married instead the daughter of the Laksamana Abdul Jamil who, concerned about the dilution of power from such an alliance, offered his own daughter for marriage instead; the alliance therefore broke down, a 13-year war ensued between Johor and the Sumatran state beginning in 1666.

The war was disastrous for Johor as Johor's capital, Batu Sawar, was sacked by Jambi in 1673. The Sultan died four years later, his successor, Sultan Ibrahim engaged the help of the Bugis in the fight to defeat Jambi. Johor w