Sleaford Castle

Sleaford Castle is a medieval castle in Sleaford, England. Built by the Bishop of Lincoln in the early 1120s, it was habitable as late as 1555 but fell into disrepair during the latter half of the 16th century. Two English monarchs are known to have stayed at the castle, King John and Henry VIII; the castle was built between 1123 and 1139 by Alexander de Blois, Bishop of Lincoln from 1123 to 1147. Alexander built a quadrilateral castle, akin to his construction at Newark, with square towers and massive keep, he sited it on flat fen rather than on high ground even replacing an earlier moated manor house on the site. This shows he intended it for a manor house rather than for defense, though the fen site would make it hard for an enemy to approach unseen, it fulfilled the manor house function for most of its life, never withstanding an armed attack or siege but becoming one of the chief episcopal strongholds and an agricultural focus for the Bishop’s estates in Sleaford and elsewhere. An outline of a 40 by 15 metre tithe barn can still be seen in the southern half of the castle - local inhabitants would pay their tithe to the bishop, either by time working for the bishop, a share of their crop, or a cash sum.

A dam was placed across the river Slea at the end of Westgate, with a two-wheeled watermill behind it, producing a large pond to provide fresh fish for episcopal celebrations along with rushes and thatch for roofing. The nearest the castle came to a siege were on two occasions when the bishop was forced to hand over his keys to King Stephen during the Anarchy and to Edward II in the 1320s when his loyalties were doubted. King John spent a night in the castle in October 1216 just after his disastrous crossing of the Wash and just before his death, in 1430 Bishop Richard Fleming died in the castle. Henry VIII held a State Council at the Castle; the castle passed into the hands of the Duke of Somerset in 1544, from whom it was confiscated by the crown in 1546. On both occasions, in 1555, it was still said to be defensible and habitable. John Leland described it at this time as well maintained with a gatehouse, which housed two portcullises, a high central tower,'but not sette upon a hille of raised yerth'.

However, it soon began to fall into disrepair during the second half of the 16th century, starting with the timber and lead roof being taken. These were reused in buildings in the town such as the'Manor House', some of which survive to the present day; the process of decline continued under the ownership of the Carre family. In 1604 it was described as ‘the late fair castle’, suggesting it had been or fully dismantled before 1600. An early 18th-century engraving of the castle shows a ruin, but with a considerable amount of stonework still visible; the visible remains are now a scrap of masonry and associated earthworks. It is now a Grade II listed building protected by law, it is cultivated for wildlife. Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Local government pdf Salter, Mike, 2002, The Castles of the East Midlands p59 Thompson, M. W. 1998, Medieval bishops' houses in England and Wales p179 Pettifer, A. 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties p148 Roffe, David, 1993,'Castles' in Bennett, S. and Bennett, N.

An Historical Atlas of Lincolnshire p40-1 King, D. J. C. 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum Vol1 p262 Fry, P. S. 1980, Castles of the British Isles p298 Roffe, D. R.1979,'Origins', in Mahany, C. M. Roffe D. R. Sleaford p11-16 Renn, D. F. 1973, Norman Castles of Britain Beresford, M. 1967, New Towns of the Middle Ages p466 Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England Mackenzie, J. D. 1897, Castles of England Vol1 p439-40 Arnold, T. 1879, Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum p266 Trollope, E. 1872, Sleaford and Wapentakes of Flaxwell and Aswardhurn in the County of Lincoln p107-21 Brown, R, Allen, 1959,'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol74 William Camden, 1607, Britannia Toulmin Smith, Lucy, 1910, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535–43 Vol1 p26-7 and Vol5 p32

Andrew Evans case

Andrew Evans is an English soldier from Longton, Staffordshire, wrongfully convicted and served 25 years in jail after confessing to the 1972 murder of Judith Roberts, a 14-year-old schoolgirl from a village close to the northern outskirts of nearby Tamworth. Evans was stationed at Whittington Barracks near Lichfield – an army base in close proximity to Tamworth – when Judith was dragged from her bicycle and battered to death in June 1972, confessed to the crime after seeing the girl's face in a dream. Evans was charged with Judith's murder in October 1972 after he presented himself at a local police station, asking to see a photograph of the victim, making a signed statement following three days of interviews in which he maintained his guilt. Although he subsequently retracted his confession, a jury convicted him of murder following a trial in 1973, he was sentenced to life imprisonment. Advised he had no grounds for appeal, Evans spent the next two decades in prison before his case came to the attention of the British media in 1994, was taken up by the human rights group Justice when he contacted them about it.

With no other evidence against him apart from his own words, strong evidence that he was suffering from false memories as the result of anxiety and depression at the time of his arrest, Evans's conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeal in 1997. As of 1997 the time he spent in custody was the longest period served by an individual in the United Kingdom as the result of a miscarriage of justice. Evans was awarded £750,000 in compensation from the Home Office in 2000, while the identity of the real killer remains unknown; the daughter of a schoolmaster, described as bright and academic, Judith Roberts was a 14-year-old grammar school pupil from Wigginton, near Tamworth. Following a family disagreement about wearing make up, she left her home at around 5.30pm on 7 June 1972 to cycle along Comberford Lane. Her body was discovered the same day under a pile of hedge clippings and plastic fertiliser bags in a field adjacent to the road, a subsequent post mortem concluded she had been battered to death.

Police launched a murder investigation involving 200 detectives, who collected more than 15,400 sets of fingerprints and in excess of 11,000 statements. In addition, officers visited over 11,000 addresses as they made house-to-house inquiries, road blocks were established in the area, 4,200 separate pieces of evidence were followed up. However, in spite of what became one of the Midlands' most intensive hunts for a murder suspect for several years, the killer remained at large. In June 1972 Andrew Evans was a 17-year-old soldier stationed at Whittington Barracks near Lichfield, but having suffered an asthma attack he was awaiting discharge on medical grounds, on 7 June, the evening Judith Roberts was killed he was a day away from handing in his uniform and returning home. A semi-literate and inadequate teenager, he had joined the Armed Forces in the hope of a career, after his discharge was treated for depression, prescribed valium for that condition; as part of the police investigation into the murder, soldiers residing at Whittington on 7 June were required to complete a form giving an account of their whereabouts for that evening, providing references.

Evans said that he had spent that evening at the barracks, giving the names of three other soldiers who could verify his presence there. However, police subsequently failed to trace one of the named soldiers, discovered the remaining two had left the barracks prior to 7 June. Evans was questioned again in October by police. On the morning after that interview, Evans told his grandmother that he planned to visit the police station because he wished to see a picture of Judith, Evans having made this decision after having a dream in which he saw "a hazy combination of images of women's faces" which convinced him he was the killer. Although his grandmother advised him against such action, he subsequently presented himself to officers at Longton Police Station in a distressed state, where he made his request, telling them he had dreamt of Judith: "I keep seeing a face. I want to see a picture of her. I wonder if I've done it." During a series of interviews with detectives, Evans claimed that he had dragged Judith from her bicycle struggled with her in a field.

Asked if he was the killer he answered, "This is it. I don't know. Show me a picture and I'll tell you if I've seen it." Investigators asked him whether he'd visited Tamworth, to which he replied, "I don't know. I don't know. I could have been. I forget where I have been." Detectives did not believe his account, dismissing him as a fantasist, but over the three-day period in which Evans was questioned they became certain he was the killer. After giving a signed statement under caution, Evans was charged with murder. Speaking in 2000 about this, Evans told The Guardian's Patrick Weir, "By confessing, I thought I'd be able to rid myself of all the crap going on in my head."Evans's trial was held at Birmingham Crown Court in June 1973. By this time he believed that he was innocent, had retracted his original statement, it was claimed that his confession had been made with the use of Brietal, a so-called truth drug, discredited for inducing false memories. Prosecution and defence lawyers both agreed the drug's use.

Apart from the confession, no other evidence was presented. However, Evans could not provide an alibi for 7 June 1972, while a psychiatrist testified that Evans was suffering from amnesia. Evans's defence argued that he was suff

Eje Central

The Eje Central, or Avenida Lázaro Cárdenas, is a street in the Cuauhtémoc borough of central Mexico City. It is part of a system of roadways built by Carlos Hank González to modernize Mexico City for improved traffic flow through the city. Several Mexico City Metro stations are located on Eje Central, most notably the Eje Central station of Line 12. Line 8 runs under Eje Central on its stretch. Metro stationsSalto del Agua Bellas Artes La Raza Politécnico Instituto del Petróleo Autobuses del Norte Garibaldi / Lagunilla San Juan de Letrán Doctores Obrera Lázaro Cárdenas Eje Central Trolleybus Line A known as Corredor Cero Emisiones Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas, runs through Eje Central from the Northern Bus Station to the Southern Bus Station. Metro Eje Central Streets in Mexico City 19°26′6.1″N 99°8′27.02″W