A waistcoat, or vest, is a sleeveless upper-body garment. It is worn over a dress shirt and necktie and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear, it is sported as the third piece in the traditional three-piece male lounge suit. Any given vest can be ornate or for leisure or luxury; the vest can be worn either in the place of or underneath a larger coat dependent upon the weather and setting. The term waistcoat is used in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries; the term vest is used in the United States and Canada and is worn as part of formal attire or as the third piece of a lounge suit in addition to a jacket and trousers. The term vest derives from the French language veste “jacket, sport coat," the term for a vest-waistcoat in French today being "gilet", the Italian language veste "robe, gown," and the Latin language vestis; the term vest in European countries refers to a type of athletic vest. The Banyan, a garment of India, is called a vest in Indian English. A waistcoat has a full vertical opening in the front, which snaps.
Both single-breasted and double-breasted waistcoats exist, regardless of the formality of dress, but single-breasted ones are more common. In a three piece suit, the cloth used matches trousers. Waistcoats can have lapels or revers depending on the style. Before wristwatches became popular, gentlemen kept their pocket watches in the front waistcoat pocket, with the watch on a watch chain threaded through a buttonhole. Sometimes an extra hole was made in line with the buttonholes for this use. A bar on the end of the chain held it in place to catch the chain if it were pulled. Waistcoats are now worn less, so the pocket watch may more be stored in a trouser pocket. Wearing a belt with a waistcoat, indeed any suit, is not traditional. To give a more comfortable hang to the trousers, the waistcoat instead covers a pair of braces underneath it. A custom still sometimes practised; this is said to have been started by King Edward VII. Variations on this include that he forgot to fasten the lower button when dressing and this was copied.
It has been suggested that the practice originated to prevent the waistcoat riding up when on horseback. Undoing the bottom button avoids stress to the bottom button when sitting down; this convention only applies to single-breasted day waistcoats and not double breasted, straight-hem or livery waistcoats that are all buttoned. Waistcoats worn with lounge suits match the suit in cloth, have four to six buttons. Double breasted waistcoats are rare compared to single; as formalwear, it used to be common to wear a contrastingly coloured waistcoat, such as in buff or dove linen. This is still seen in morning dress; the waistcoats worn with white- and black- tie are different from standard daytime single-breasted waistcoats, being much lower in cut. The much larger expanse of shirt compared to a daytime waistcoat allows more variety of form, with "U" or "V" shapes possible, there is large choice of outlines for the tips, ranging from pointed to flat or rounded; the colour matches the tie, so only black barathea wool, grosgrain or satin and white marcella, grosgrain or satin are worn, although white waistcoats used to be worn with black tie in early forms of the dress.
Waiters, sometimes waitresses, other people working at white-tie events, to distinguish themselves from guests, sometimes wear gray tie, which consists of the dress coat of white tie with the black waistcoat and tie of black tie. The variant of the clergy cassock may be cut as a vest, it differs in style from other waistcoats in that the garment buttons to the neck and has an opening that displays the clerical collar. In the Church of England, a particular High Church clerical vest introduced in the 1830s was nicknamed the "M. B. Waistcoat" with "M. B." standing for the Mark of the Beast. In the Girl Scouts of the USA, vests are used as an alternative to the sash for the display of badges. In many stock exchanges, traders who engage in open outcry may wear colored sleeveless waistcoats, or trading jackets, with insignia on the back. Waistcoats, alongside bowties, are worn by billiard players during a tournament, it is worn in snooker and blackball tournaments in the United Kingdom. The predecessors to the waistcoat are gambeson.
Various types of waistcoats may have been worn in theatrical manners such as performances and masquerades prior to what is said to be the early origins of the vest. During the 17th century, the forerunner to the three-piece suit was appropriated from the traditional dress of diverse Eastern European and Islamic countries; the justacorps frock coat was copied from the long zupans worn in Poland and the Ukraine, the necktie or cravat was derived from a scarf worn by Croatian mercenaries fighting for King Louis XIII of France, the brightly coloured silk waistcoats popularised by King Charles II of England were inspired by exotic Turkish and Persian attire acquired by wealthy English travellers. On October 7th of the year 1666, King Charles II of England revealed that he would be launching a new type of fashion piece in men’s wear. Scholar Diana De Marly suggests that the f
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
An apron is a garment, worn over other clothing and covers the front of the body. It may have several different purposes and is today most known as a functional accessory that protects one's clothes and skin from stains and marks. However, various types of aprons may be worn as a decoration, for hygienic reasons, as part of a uniform, or as protection from certain dangers such as acid, allergens or excessive heat. An apron can gain sentimental value over time by the way we're of it or people depending on the wearer; the routine of putting an apron on before doing ones work can begin to feel ceremonial, as a signal to the self to prepare mentally and physically for the task at hand. As a top layer that covers the front body, the apron is worn as a uniform, ceremonial garb or fashion statement. Apron styles can be practical and sentimental. There are many different apron forms depending on the purpose of the apron. A basic distinction is between waist aprons, which cover the body from the waist down, bib aprons, which cover the upper part of the body.
An apron is held in place by two ribbon-like strips of cloth that are tied at the back. A bib apron may either have a strap around the neck, or shoulder straps that criss-cross at the back and attach to the waistband; the advantage of the former design is that it makes it simple to put on the bib apron. The advantage of the shoulder strap design is; some modern-day aprons have designs or corporate logos. The bib apron has been worn for centuries; the bib apron's humble beginnings began when people used scraps of fabric to make a bib-like covering that slipped over the neck and tied at the back. The bib apron's intuitive design and full coverage have made it a popular apron for tradesmen and people in low-economic classes since the 1880s—and maybe earlier. In the 1960s—when women no longer wanted an apron that symbolized domestic ideals—the bib apron became the most-used apron and is now offered in a multitude of variations, colors and fabrications. Pinafores may be worn by girls and women as a protective apron.
A related term is pinafore dress. A pinafore is a full apron with two holes for the arms, tied or buttoned in the back just below the neck. Pinafores have complete front shaped over shoulder while aprons have no bib, or only a smaller one. A child's garment to wear at school or for play would be a pinafore. A tabard is a type of apron, it is fastened with waist bands that tie in the back. It covers most of the upper part of the body and is used in many occupations, like bakeries and large retail stores; the original cobbler's apron was made of leather. An alternative version uses closes at the front; such an apron is in effect like a vest and is more sold for domestic rather than occupational use. A bungalow apron is an item of women's at-home clothing. Most bungalow aprons were simple garments with kimono sleeves, little or no trim, the fewest possible fasteners. Most date from the first half of the 20th century, when they evolved into or were replaced by the "patio dress" or Lounger available today.
In contrast to most aprons, they were intended to be worn as a stand-alone garment, not over another dress. They developed from the full-coverage wraparound or pullover aprons of the early years of the 20th century. Bungalow aprons fell between nightgowns or house coats and house-dresses; the term apron refers to an item of clerical clothing, now obsolete, worn by Anglican bishops and archdeacons. The clerical apron resembles a short cassock reaching just above the knee, is colored black for archdeacons and purple for bishops; the apron is worn with black breeches, reaching to just below the knee, knee-length gaiters. The history behind the vesture is that it symbolically represents the mobility of bishops and archdeacons, who at one time would ride horses to visit various parts of a diocese or archdeaconry. In this sense, the apparel was much more practical. In latter years, this vesture was more symbolic than practical, since the mid-twentieth century it has fallen out of favor; the apron was traditionally viewed as an essential garment for anyone doing housework.
Cheaper clothes and washing machines made aprons less common beginning in the mid-1960s in some countries such as the United States. However, the practice of wearing aprons remains strong in many places. Today, the apron has enjoyed a minor renaissance in terms of both women and men now wearing them when performing household chores. For instance, an article in the Wall Street Journal claimed in 2005 that the apron is "enjoying a renaissance as a retro-chic fashion accessory" in the United States. However, it still is not as prevalent. Aprons are nowadays considered appropriate for both women and men by most people. However, prevailing social norms ensure that w
Vietnamese clothing refers to the traditional clothes worn in Vietnam. During the Nguyễn dynasty, the Vietnamese were forced to wear Chinese style clothing, but now from the twentieth century onward Vietnamese people wear clothing, popular internationally. Chinese style clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn dynasty. Trousers have been adopted by White H'mong; the trousers replaced the traditional skirts of the females of the White Hmong. The tunics and trouser clothing of the Han Chinese on the Ming tradition was worn by the Vietnamese. Trousers and tunics on the Chinese pattern in 1774 were ordered by the Vo Vuong; the Chinese clothing in the form of trousers and tunic were mandated by the Vietnamese Nguyen government. It was up to the 1920s in Vietnam's north area; the Chinese Ming dynasty, Tang dynasty, Han dynasty clothing was ordered to be adopted by Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by the Nguyen Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát. Áo dài - the typical Vietnamese formal girl's dress Áo giao lĩnh - cross-collared robe worn before the Nguyen dynasty.
Áo tứ thân - a four-piece woman's dress, áo ngũ thân in 5-piece form. Yếm - woman's undergarment, similar to Chinese dù dōu. Áo bà ba - two-piece ensemble for men and women áo gấm - formal brocade tunic for government receptions, or áo the for the man in weddings. Đinh Tự, Phốc Đầu, the standard conical nón lá and lampshade nón quai thao Áo tràng Phật tử - shortened to "áo tràng" it is a robe worn by Upāsaka and Upāsikā in Vietnamese Buddhist temples. "black pyjamas", dép lốp, the rural khăn rằn scarf. From the twentieth century onward Vietnamese people have worn clothing, popular internationally; the Áo dài was banned after the fall of Saigon but made a resurgence. Now it is worn in white by high school girls in Vietnam, it is worn by receptionists and secretaries. Styles differ in southern Vietnam; the current formal national dress is the áo dài for suits or áo the for men. Leshkowich, Ann Marie. "History of Ao Dai". Ay-leen. "The Ao Dai and I: A Personal Essay on Cultural Identity and Steampunk"
An athlete is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The application of the term to those who participate in other activities, such as horse riding or driving, is somewhat controversial. Athletes may be amateurs. Most professional athletes have well-developed physiques obtained by extensive physical training and strict exercise accompanied by a strict dietary regimen; the word "athlete" is a romanization of the Greek: άθλητὴς, athlētēs, one who participates in a contest. The primary definition of "sportsman" according to Webster's Third Unabridged Dictionary is, "a person, active in sports: as: one who engages in the sports of the field and in hunting or fishing." Athletes involved in isotonic exercises have an increased mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume and are less to be depressed. Due to their strenuous physical activities, athletes are far more than the general population to visit massage salons and pay for services from massotherapists and masseurs.
Athletes whose sport espouses endurance more than strength have a lower calorie intake than other athletes. An "all-around athlete" is a person. Examples of people who played more than one sport professionally include Jim Thorpe, Lionel Conacher, Deion Sanders, Danny Ainge, Babe Zaharias and Erin Phillips. Others include Ricky Williams, Bo Jackson, Damon Allen, each of whom was drafted both by Major League Baseball and by professional gridiron football leagues such as the NFL and the CFL. Another female example is Heather Moyse, a multiple Winter Olympic gold medalist in bobsled and member of the World Rugby Hall of Fame who represented Canada internationally in track cycling and competed at university level in basketball and track and field. Japanese athletes such as Kazushi Sakuraba, Kazuyuki Fujita, Masakatsu Funaki and Naoya Ogawa have performed in professional wrestling and competed in mixed martial arts; the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" traditionally belongs to the world's top competitor in the decathlon and heptathlon in track and field.
The decathlon consists of 10 events: 100 meters, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400 meters, 110 m hurdles, pole vault, 1500 m. The heptathlon consists of seven events: the 100 m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200 meters, long jump, 800 meters; these competitions require an athlete to possess the whole spectrum of athletic ability in order to be successful including speed, coordination, jumping ability, endurance. Although the title "World's Greatest Athlete" seems a natural fit for these two events, its traditional association with the decathlon/heptathlon began with Jim Thorpe. During the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Thorpe won the gold medal in the Decathlon. Thorpe notably competed professionally in soccer, American Football, basketball. King Gustav V of Sweden, while awarding Thorpe the decathlon gold said: "You, are the greatest athlete in the world." That title has become associated with the decathlon event since. Sportswear Outdoor enthusiast Jock Athlete of the Year Women's sports
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature for aesthetic purposes. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders appear in lineups and perform specified poses for a panel of judges who rank the competitors based on criteria such as symmetry and conditioning. Bodybuilders prepare for competitions through the elimination of nonessential body fat, enhanced at the last stage by a combination of extracellular dehydration and carbohydrate loading, to achieve maximum muscular definition and vascularity, as well as tanning to accentuate the contrast of the skin under the spotlights. Bodybuilders may use other performance-enhancing drugs to build muscles; the winner of the annual IFBB Mr. Olympia contest is recognized as the world's top male professional bodybuilder; the winner of the Women's Physique portion of the competition is regarded as the world's top female professional bodybuilder.
The title is held by Juliana Malacarne, who has won every year since 2014. Since 1950, the NABBA Universe Championships have been considered the top amateur bodybuilding contests, with notable winners such as Reg Park, Lee Priest, Steve Reeves, Arnold Schwarzenegger. Winners go on to become professional athletes. Stone-lifting traditions were practiced in ancient Egypt and Tamilakam. Western weightlifting developed in Europe from 1880 to 1953, with strongmen displaying feats of strength for the public and challenging each other; the focus was not on their physique, they had large bellies and fatty limbs. Bodybuilding developed in the late 19th century, promoted in England by German Eugen Sandow, now considered as the "Father of Bodybuilding", he allowed audiences to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, the men displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through Florenz Ziegfeld.
The Oscar-winning 1936 musical film The Great Ziegfeld depicts the beginning of modern bodybuilding, when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. Sandow was so successful at flexing and posing his physique that he created several businesses around his fame, was among the first to market products branded with his name, he was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses: machined dumbbells, spring pulleys, tension bands. His image was sold by the thousands in "cabinet cards" and other prints. Sandow was a perfect "Gracilian", a standard of ideal body proportions close to those of ancient Greek and Roman statues. Men's physiques were judged by how they matched these proportions. Sandow organized the first bodybuilding contest on September 14, 1901, called the "Great Competition", it was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London. Judged by Sandow, Sir Charles Lawes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a great success and many bodybuilding enthusiasts were turned away due to the overwhelming amount of audience members.
The trophy presented to the winner was a gold statue of Sandow sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham; the silver Sandow trophy was presented to second-place winner D. Cooper; the bronze Sandow trophy — now the most famous of all — was presented to third-place winner A. C. Smythe. In 1950, this same bronze trophy was presented to Steve Reeves for winning the inaugural NABBA Mr. Universe contest, it would not resurface again until 1977 when the winner of the IFBB Mr. Olympia contest, Frank Zane, was presented with a replica of the bronze trophy. Since Mr. Olympia winners have been awarded a replica of the bronze Sandow. On January 16, 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City; the competition was promoted by Bernarr Macfadden, the father of physical culture and publisher of original bodybuilding magazines such as Health & Strength. The winner was Al Treloar, declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World".
Treloar won a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks Thomas Edison made a film of Treloar's posing routine. Edison had made two films of Sandow a few years before; those were the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century and Charles Atlas continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America. Many other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman, Zishe Breitbart, Georg Hackenschmidt, Emy Nkemena, George F. Jowett, Finn Hateral, Frank Saldo, Monte Saldo, William Bankier, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort, Gustav Frištenský, Ralph Parcaut, Alan P. Mead. Actor Francis X. Bushman, a disciple of Sandow, started his career as a bodybuilder and sculptor's model before beginning his famous silent movie career. Bodybuilding became more popular in the 1950s and 1960s with the emergence of strength and gymnastics champions, the simultaneous popularization of bodybuilding magazines, training principles, nutrition for bulking up and cutting down, the use of protein and other food supplements, the opportunity to enter physique contests.