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History of Multan

Multan in Punjab province of Pakistan is one of the oldest cities in South Asia, though its exact age has yet to be determined. It has seen a lot of warfare because of its location on a major invasion route between South and Central Asia, it is famous for its Sufi shrines. Ancient name of Multan was Kashep Puri; the town was built by Raja Kashep. After Hurnakas his son Parhilaad succeeded the throne and the town was named after him as Parhilaad Puri; the current name Multan was given due to Mali people. "Once Keshap Puri was capital of the Raja Hurnakas where Persian Kings had built temple of sun in which idol of sun was laid. After the conquest of Multan one Brahman had poined out Muhammad bin Qasim about treasure hidden beneath the fountain, buried by Raja Jesubin. Muhammad bin Qasim found 330 chests of treasure containing 13300 maunds gold. Entire treasure was shifted from Debal to Basra on ships. After Islamic conquest, Arab rulers got handsome income from temple of the sun. Whenever any Hindu Raja intended to conquer Multan the Arab rulers would threaten to destroy the temple.

Buzrag bin Shahryar wrote the name of temple as Aadith. Al Beruni wrote same name". Multan was ruled by the various native empires before the invasion of Alexander the Great, it is said that when Alexander was fighting for the city, a poisoned arrow struck him, making him ill and leading to his death. The exact place where Alexander was hit by the arrow can be seen in the old city premises; the noted Chinese traveller Huen Tsang visited Multan in 641. In the 7th century, Multan had its first arrival of the Muslim armies. Armies led by Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah launched numerous raids from Persia into India in 664 for inclusion of the area into their empires. However, only a few decades Muhammad bin Qasim would come on behalf of the Arabs, take Multan along with Sindh, his conquest was accompanied by much plundering: Following bin Qasim's conquest, the city was securely under Muslim rule, although it was in effect an independent state, but around the start of the 11th century, the city was attacked twice by Mahmud of Ghazni who destroyed the Sun Temple and broke its giant Idol.

A graphic detail is available in Al-Biruni's writings: During this era, the Multan Sun Temple was noted by the 10th-century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi to have been located in a most populous part of the city, between the city's ivory and coppersmith bazaars. The Hindu temple was noted to have accrued the Muslim rulers large tax revenues, by some accounts up to 30% of the state's revenues. By the mid 10th century, Multan had come under the influence of the Qarmatians; the Qarmatians had been expelled from Egypt and Iraq following their defeat at the hands of the Abbasids there. Qarmatians zealots had famously sacked Mecca, outraged the Muslim world with their theft and ransom of the Kaaba's Black Stone, desecration of the Zamzam Well with corpses during the Hajj season of 930 CE, they wrested control of the city from the pro-Abbasid Amirate of Banu Munabbih, established the Amirate of Multan, pledged allegiance to the Fatimid Dynasty based in Cairo. Jalam bin Shayban, a proselytizing Da'i, dispatched to the region by the Fatimid Caliph Imam al-Mu'izz, was dispatched to replace the city's previous Da'i, accused of promoting a syncretic version of Islam that incorporated Hindu rites – though his replacement was the result of doctrinal differences regarding succession in the Ismaili Imamate.

Jalam bin Shayban, established newly converted Katara Rajputs as its rulers. Soon after, Multan was attacked by the Ghaznavids. Mahmud of Ghazna invaded Multan in 1005, conducting a series of campaigns during which some Ismailis were massacred while most converted to Sunni Hanafi fiqh; the city was surrendered, Abdul Fateh Daud was permitted to retain control over the city with the condition that he adhere to the Sunni interpretation of Islam. Mahmud appointed Nawasa Khan, to rule the region in Mahmud's absentia. After being granted power, Niwasa Khan renounced Islam, attempted to secure control of the region in collusion with Abdul Fateh Daud. Mahmud of Ghazni led another expedition to Multan in 1007 C. E. against Niwasa Khan, captured and forced to relinquish his personal fortune to Ghazni. In an effort to gain his allegiance, the Fatimid Ismaili Imam-caliph al-Hakim dispatched an envoy to Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi two years later; this attempt appeared to be unsuccessful and the Ghaznawids continued to attack other Ismaili strongholds in Sindh to suppress any resurgence of the community in the region.

In 1032, Mahmud's own vizier, Hasanak was executed for having accepted a cloak from the Imam-caliph on suspicions that he had become an adherent of the Ismaili fiqh. Mahmud's purges of the region led several scholars including Stern to believe that the Ghaznawid purges of the region drove out Ismailism from the area, however discovered letters dating to 1083 and 1088 demonstrate continued Ismaili activity in the region, as the Imam-caliph Mustansir dispatched new da’is to replace those who were killed in the attacks. Like his predecessor, Mahmud of Ghazni, Muhammad of Ghor first took, in 1178, the Ismaili Multan sultans in northern Sindh, which had regained independence from Ghaznavid rule. Muhammad Ghori as a part of his campaigns to conquer north India, again massacred them. After Sultan Muhammad Ghori's victories in India, his establishment of a capital in Delhi, Multan was made a part of his empire. However, the rise of the Mongols would again give it some independence, albeit requiring it to be vigilant against Mongol raids from Central Asia.

The Qarmatians came to Multan in the 10th century and were expelled in

IDEA (journal)

IDEA: The Law Review of the Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property is a law review published by an independent student organization at the Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property at the University of New Hampshire School of Law. IDEA: The Law Review of the Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property covers scholarly legal articles relating to patent, trademark, trade secret, unfair competition, technology law, general intellectual property issues; the Law Review publishes three issues each year. In 1957, the Patent and Copyright Research Foundation at the Southern Louisiana University published the first issue of IDEA under the name Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal of Research & Education. In 1973, the Franklin Pierce Law Center, founded by Robert H. Rines, became home to the PTC Research Foundation as well as its student-run Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal of Research & Education. In 1999, the PTC Research Foundation relocated to the Academy of Apple Science, but the student-run journal remained at the Pierce Law Center.

In 1977, the journal first incorporated the wordmark IDEA into its title. In 2002, the journal changed its name to IDEA: The Intellectual Property Law Review. In 2010, IDEA became a publication of the University of New Hampshire School of Law when the Franklin Pierce Law Center merged with the University of New Hampshire. Del Gallo, Rinaldo. "Are Methods of Doing Business Finally out of Business as a Statutory Rejection?". IDEA: The Law Review of the Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property. 38: 403–437. This article was cited by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in State Street Bank v. Signature Financial Group, 149 F. 3d 1368. Bertha, Steve L.. "Intellectual Property Activities in U. S. Research Universities". IDEA: The Law Review of the Franklin Pierce Center for Intellectual Property. 36: 513–538. This article was cited by the United States Supreme Court in Florida Prepaid Postsecondary Education Expense Board v. College Savings Bank, 527 U. S. 627. Official website

Beasley Denson

Beasley Denson served as Miko or Tribal Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians from 2007 to 2011. He is the third person to be elected as Tribal Chief since the tribe adopted its modern constitution. Beasley Denson defeated 28-year incumbent Phillip Martin by 211 votes, receiving 1,697 votes compared to Martin's 1,486. Beasley Denson was born in the Conehatta Community as the son of the late David Denson and Bema Steve York, he has two sisters and Rita, a brother, Douglas Sam Denson. They grew up in the Standing Pine Community of Mississippi, he is a fluent Choctaw speaker. Denson graduated from Choctaw Central High School and earned an associate degree from Hinds Community College and Mississippi State University, he married Lena John of Pearl River. They have one daughter, Lane. Denson went to work for the Choctaw Tribe, which had reorganized in the first half of the 20th century, its reservation includes land in several counties in central Mississippi. Denson was first elected to the Choctaw Tribal Council in 1975.

During his five terms, he served as both Secretary Vice Chief. During this period, Mississippi adopted a gaming law. In 1994 the Choctaw established the first of their two gaming casinos, known as Pearl River Resort, it has generated funds to be used for economic development. Denson served on the Choctaw Gaming Commission for two years, he was an officer on the National Indian Education Board and the Board of Directors for United Southeastern Tribes. Denson works to be an accessible leader, his adherence to this philosophy can be seen across the Reservation. As chief, he made progress reducing the back log of Tribal housing, improving the health care system and upgrading educational facilities. Since serving as Chief, Miko Denson serves on the Board of the Native American Rights Fund, a non-profit law firm dedicated to defending the rights of Native Americans and Tribes. NARF staff brought the suit in North Dakota in 2016, challenging the state's new photo ID law because it did not accept Tribal cards as identification.

A federal court ruled in August 2016 that the law is discriminatory against Native Americans, placing an undue burden on them, that the state had to allow Native Americans to use former forms of ID for the election in 2016. Denson is Treasurer of the Sovereign Nations Alliance, a political action committee created to further the legislative goals of Indian Country at the federal level; the MBCI, with an enrolled membership of 9,660, is the only federally recognized tribe in the State of Mississippi. The Tribe provides a range of government services for its members including schools, a hospital, medical clinics and fire protection, courts, an elderly care center and many others; the Choctaw Indian Reservation contains some 35,000 acres of tribal lands situated in ten different Mississippi counties. This land is held in trust for the benefit of the Choctaw Tribe by the federal government; the Tribe has eight recognized Choctaw Indian communities: Pearl River, Red Water, Bogue Chitto, Crystal Ridge, Standing Pine, Tucker and Bogue Homa.

Pearl River, located in Neshoba, is the largest Choctaw Indian community. It is the site of Tribal government headquarters, as well as Pearl River Resort. Campaign for Chief

Janis Cooke Newman

Janis Cooke Newman is an American writer. She is known for her novels, Mary: Mrs. A. Lincoln and A Master Plan for Rescue as well as her memoir The Russian Word for Snow, she lives in San Francisco and is a long-time member of the San Francisco Writers’ Grotto, a member of The Castro Writers Coop, as well as the founder of the LitCamp Writers’ Conference. Newman grew up in New Jersey and attended San Francisco State University, where she received an MFA in creative writing, she lives in San Francisco and has been a member of the San Francisco Writers’ Grotto since 2007. She has been on staff at the Squaw Valley Writers’ Conference, the LitCamp writers conference, at the Book Passage Travel Writers Conference. Mary: Mrs. A. Lincoln was one of USA Today Best Books of 2006 and a Finalist for a Los Angeles Times Book Prize. Newman's work has been reviewed in USA Today and People Magazine, her travel writing has appeared in the New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the San Francisco Chronicle. Mary: Mrs. A. Lincoln ISBN 978-0-156-03347-3 A Master Plan for Rescue ISBN 978-1-594-63361-4 The Russian Word for Snow ISBN 978-0-312-28341-4 "So many wineries, so little time" Los Angeles Times, June 4, 2013.

"Hip little Tucson heats up" San Francisco Chronicle, May 5, 2013. "Nolita protects N. Y.'s neighborhood feel" San Francisco Chronicle, October 5, 2012. "Adelaide, Australia: On the hunt for an authentic dish" Los Angeles Times, August 12, 2012 "Australia's Byron Bay - like traveling to 1973" San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, 2012. "Upgrading the Outback around Flinders Ranges" San Francisco Chronicle, March 18, 2012. "Missing Don Draper? Get mad about Madison Avenue" San Francisco Chronicle, August 14, 2011. "A culinary walk through Barcelona" Los Angeles Times, April 25, 2011. "Taking the Godfather Tour in Sicily" San Francisco Chronicle, January 16, 2011. "Barcelona by bike" San Francisco Chronicle, November 7, 2010. “In Sicily, a Step Back in Time” The New York Times, September 22, 2010. "Healdsburg: For foodies, a new northern star" Los Angeles Times, July 5, 2010. "Barbados makes the belly happy" Los Angeles Times, November 1, 2009. "In wine country and wine make a nice pairing" Los Angeles Times, June 1, 2008.

Official website LitCamp Writers' Conference

Gold on the Ceiling

"Gold on the Ceiling" is the third track from El Camino, the seventh studio album by American rock band The Black Keys. It was released as the record's second single on February 25, 2012; the song was certified platinum in Canada. Two videos were shot for the song; the first, directed by Reid Long, features footage from the band's concerts, as well as candid shots of them on tour. A second music video, directed by Harmony Korine, was shot prior to the single release, but was not released until May 2012; the video features the band members wearing Baby Björns and being carried by giant doppelgängers of theirs, played by two Belmont Bruins men's basketball players. Will Hermes of Rolling Stone called the song's keyboards "a serrated organ growl backed up with a SWAT team of hand claps" and cited it as an example of Danger Mouse's prowess as a producer and co-writer. Summarizing the song, Hermes wrote, "It's Sixties bubblegum garage pop writ large, with T. Rex swagger and a guitar freakout that mirrors the lyrics, a paranoid rant that makes you shiver while you shimmy."

John Soeder of The Plain Dealer labeled it one of the album's finest and said that it sounded like a hybrid of Norman Greenbaum's "Spirit in the Sky" and Gary Glitter's "Rock and Roll Part 2". Harley Brown of Consequence of Sound called the song "bombastic sleazy" and said that it "best sums up The Black Keys' unbelievably consistent musicianship and success". Melissa Maerz of Entertainment Weekly said that the song, "with its swarm-of-bees organs and acid-trip gospel harmonies, could be a lost Nuggets gem". Randall Roberts of the Los Angeles Times, writing about the song's retro stylings, said that it "sounds as if it's existed forever". Sam Richards of NME said that the song's "brilliantly demented cowboy glam holler... is boosted by the band's new trio of female backing singers wailing for all they're worth". "Gold on the Ceiling" was used in a prominent television advertising campaign for the 2012 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament nicknamed "Brackets Everywhere" on Turner Sports and CBS Sports networks.

Along with being featured in commercials for the tournament, the song was featured during in-game coverage of the games. A mix of the song was used in a 2012 United Kingdom advert for the Indian beer Cobra, it is used in the advertisements for the TV series Veep. It is featured in TV shows and video games including NCIS, Suits, MLB 12: The Show, Battleship, "We're the Millers, Workaholics and Guitar Hero Live in addition to appearing as downloadable content for Rocksmith and Rock Band 4, it is used in the theatrical trailer for The Campaign. The song was performed live at the 2012 MTV Movie Awards by the band, accompanied on guitar by Johnny Depp. NBC Sports has made video montages with "Gold on the Ceiling" during the 2012 Summer Olympics honoring the Olympic athletes who had won gold medals. From 2012 to 2013 before the rebrand to Fox Sports 1, the song is the theme song for NASCAR: Race Day on SPEED; the song appears as the goal song for the Vancouver Canucks and the Nashville Predators, whose colors scheme includes gold, experimented with "Gold on the Ceiling" as its new goal song during the summer of 2014.

In one of the episodes of NBC's Superstore, this song can be heard in one scene playing in the background over the store's PA system. The song is played during the final clips of Ocean's 8. Sweet covered this song on their 2012 album New York Connection. Louisiana blues musician Tab Benoit covered the song on the 2013 album "My Blues Influenced The Black Keys." The cover art for the single features a picture of an abandoned, dilapidated building. It is the dilapidated south entrance to the former Kaufmann's/Macy's in Rolling Acres Mall in Akron, Ohio. Dan Auerbachvocals, guitar Patrick Carneydrums Brian Burton – keyboards, bass guitar Ashley Wilcoxson and Leisa Hans – backing vocals