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Slide guitar

Slide guitar is a particular technique for playing the guitar, used in blues-style music. The technique involves placing an object against the strings while playing to create glissando effects and deep vibratos, it involves playing the guitar in the traditional position with the use of a tubular "slide" fitted on one of the guitarist's fingers. The slide may be a glass tube, such as the neck of a bottle; the term "bottleneck" was used to describe this type of playing. The strings are plucked while the slide is moved over the strings to change the pitch; the guitar may be placed on the player's lap and played with a hand-held bar and is referred to as "lap slide guitar" or "lap steel guitar". Creating music with a slide of some type has been traced back to primitive stringed instruments in African culture and to the origin of the steel guitar in Hawaii. Near the beginning of the twentieth century, blues musicians in the Mississippi Delta popularized the bottleneck slide guitar style, the first recording of slide guitar was by Sylvester Weaver in 1923.

Since the 1930s, performers including Robert Nighthawk, Earl Hooker, Elmore James and Muddy Waters popularized slide guitar in the electric blues genre and influenced slide guitarists in the rock genre including the Rolling Stones, Duane Allman and Ry Cooder. Lap slide guitar pioneers include Oscar "Buddy" Woods, "Freddie Roulette; the technique of using a hard object against a plucked string goes back to the "diddley bow" derived from a one-stringed African instrument. The "diddley bow" is believed to be one of the ancestors of the bottleneck style; when sailors from Europe introduced the Spanish guitar to Hawaii in the latter nineteenth century, the Hawaiians slackened some of the strings from the standard tuning to make a chord – this became known as "slack-key" guitar, today referred to as an open tuning. With the "slack-key" the Hawaiians found it easy to play a three-chord song by moving a piece of metal along the fretboard and began to play the instrument across the lap. Near the end of the nineteenth century, a Hawaiian named Joseph Kekuku became proficient in playing this way using a steel bar against the guitar strings.

The bar was called the "steel" and was the source of the name "steel guitar". Kekuku popularized some sources claim he originated the technique, he moved to the United States mainland and became a vaudeville performer performing in Europe for several years. In the first half of the twentieth century, this so-called "Hawaiian guitar" style of playing spread to the US. Sol Hoopii was an influential Hawaiian guitarist who in 1919, at age 17, came to the US mainland from Hawaii as a stow-away on a ship heading for San Francisco. Hoopii's playing became popular in the late 1920s and he recorded songs like "Hula Blues" and "Farewell Blues". According to author Pete Madsen, " would influence a legion of players from rural Mississippi."Most players of blues slide guitar were from the southern US the Mississippi Delta, their music was from an African origin handed down to African-American sharecroppers who sang as they toiled in the fields. The earliest Delta blues musicians were solo singer-guitarists.

W. C. Handy commented on the first time he heard slide guitar in 1903, when a blues player performed in a local train station: "As he played, he pressed a knife on the strings of the guitar in a manner popularised by Hawaiian guitarists who used steel bars; the effect was unforgettable." Blues historian Gérard Herzhaft notes that Tampa Red was one of the first black musicians inspired by the Hawaiian guitarists of the beginning of the century, he managed to adapt their sound to the blues. Tampa Red, as well as Kokomo Arnold, Casey Bill Weldon and Oscar Woods, adopted the Hawaiian mode of playing longer melodies with the slide instead of playing short riffs as they had done previously. In the early twentieth century, steel guitar playing divided into two streams: bottleneck-style, performed on a traditional Spanish guitar held flat against the body; the bottleneck-style was associated with blues music and was popularized by African-American blues artists. The Mississippi Delta was the home of Robert Johnson, Son House, Charlie Patton, other blues pioneers, who prominently used the slide.

The first known recording of the bottleneck style was in 1923 by Sylvester Weaver, who recorded two instrumentals, "Guitar Blues" and "Guitar Rag". Guitarist and author Woody Mann identifies Tampa Red and Blind Willie Johnson as "developing the most distinctive styles in the recorded idom" of the time, he adds: Johnson was the first such player to achieve a real balance between treble and bass melodic lines, which acted as complementary voices in his arrangements of Baptist spirituals... Tampa Red's innovative for the late 1920s... Thanks to his distinctive approach and suave sound, the Chicago-based Red became the most influential bottleneck player of the blues age, his smooth-sound work echoing in the playing of Blind Boy Fuller, Robert Nighthawk, Elmore James, Muddy Waters; when the guitar was electrified in the 1930s, it allowed solos on the instrument to be more audible, thus more prominently featured. In the 1940s, players like Robert Nighthawk and Earl Hooker popularized electric slide guitar.

This allowed them switch between slide and fretted guitar playing, an advantage in rhythm accompaniment. Robert Nighthawk recorded extensively in the 1930s as "Robert Lee McCoy

Earl L. Vandermeulen High School

Earl L. Vandermeulen High School referred to as Port Jefferson High School, is in the Port Jefferson School District, located in Port Jefferson, New York; the current school building was built by the Public Works Administration. Port Jefferson High School was renamed around 1960 in honor of Earl L. Vandermeulen, who served as principal from 1923 to 1960; the school's auditorium and its driveway are named for Anthony Prochilo, who served as principal from 1960 to 1984. As of 2014, the current student body size is close to 400 students. In the past, the school served a larger student population, including students from a number of other communities that did not have their own high schools. In 1933, for example, the school was accepting students from Port Jefferson Station, Belle Terre, Miller Place, Mount Sinai, Rocky Point, Wading River, Middle Island, West Middle Island, West Yaphank, Coram and Stony Brook; as surrounding communities began to open their own high schools with the spread of suburban growth into Suffolk County, this practice subsided, ended with the opening of Mount Sinai High School in 1991.

The last graduating class outside Port Jefferson from Mount Sinai graduated in June 1992. In 2008, the school was placed 127th on Newsweek Magazine's 1,300 top U. S. high schools list, which placed it first among school ranked in Suffolk County and 20th among schools ranked in New York. According to 2007 data, 98.9% of school graduates earn a New York State Regent's diploma, 78.2 percent of graduates plan to attend 4 year college, 19.5% plan to attend a 2-year college. Earl L. Vandermeulen fields a number of varsity and junior varsity athletic teams in Section 11 of the New York State Public High School Athletic Association, including the following sports: Fall Football Soccer Volleyball Gymnastics Cross Country Field Hockey Golf Cheerleading Tennis Winter Basketball Winter Track Wrestling Cheerleading Spring Baseball Softball Track Lacrosse Tennis Les Goodman, former running back in the National Football League Toby Knight, former American professional basketball player, played professionally for the New York Knicks.

Chris Colmer, American football offensive lineman in the National Football League Martin Tankleff, wrongfully convicted in the 1988 murder of his parents. Sentenced to 50 years-to-life, verdict vacated and released in 2007. Maurice DuBois, television anchorman. Ed McMullen, U. S. ambassador to Liechtenstein. William Polchinski, a.k.a. "Broadway Blotto," guitarist and vocalist for the rock band Blotto. Http://www.portjeffschools.org/ https://web.archive.org/web/20100426122248/http://portjefferson.com/

Meteoroid

A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space. Meteoroids are smaller than asteroids, range in size from small grains to one-meter-wide objects. Objects smaller than this are classified as micrometeoroids or space dust. Most are fragments from comets or asteroids, whereas others are collision impact debris ejected from bodies such as the Moon or Mars; when a meteoroid, comet, or asteroid enters Earth's atmosphere at a speed in excess of 20 km/s, aerodynamic heating of that object produces a streak of light, both from the glowing object and the trail of glowing particles that it leaves in its wake. This phenomenon is called a meteor or "shooting star". A series of many meteors appearing seconds or minutes apart and appearing to originate from the same fixed point in the sky is called a meteor shower. If that object withstands ablation from its passage through the atmosphere as a meteor and impacts with the ground, it is called a meteorite. An estimated 25 million meteoroids and other space debris enter Earth's atmosphere each day, which results in an estimated 15,000 tonnes of that material entering the atmosphere each year.

In 1961, the International Astronomical Union defined a meteoroid as "a solid object moving in interplanetary space, of a size smaller than an asteroid and larger than an atom". In 1995, Beech and Steel, writing in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, proposed a new definition where a meteoroid would be between 100 µm and 10 m across. In 2010, following the discovery of asteroids below 10 m in size and Grossman proposed a revision of the previous definition of meteoroid to objects between 10 µm and one meter in diameter in order to maintain the distinction. According to Rubin and Grossman, the minimum size of an asteroid is given by what can be discovered from Earth-bound telescopes, so the distinction between meteoroid and asteroid is fuzzy; some of the smallest asteroids discovered are 2008 TS26 with H = 33.2 and 2011 CQ1 with H = 32.1 both with an estimated size of one m. In April 2017, the IAU adopted an official revision of its definition, limiting size to between 30 µm and one meter in diameter, but allowing for a deviation for any object causing a meteor.

Objects smaller than meteoroids are classified as micrometeoroids and interplanetary dust. The Minor Planet Center does not use the term "meteoroid". All meteoroids contain extraterrestrial nickel and iron, they have three main classifications: iron and stony-iron. Some stone meteoroids are called chondrites. Stony meteoroids without these features are called "achondrites", which are formed from extraterrestrial igneous activity; the composition of meteoroids can be inferred as they pass through Earth's atmosphere from their trajectories and the light spectra of the resulting meteor. Their effects on radio signals give information useful for daytime meteors, which are otherwise difficult to observe. From these trajectory measurements, meteoroids have been found to have many different orbits, some clustering in streams associated with a parent comet, others sporadic. Debris from meteoroid streams may be scattered into other orbits; the light spectra, combined with trajectory and light curve measurements, have yielded various compositions and densities, ranging from fragile snowball-like objects with density about a quarter that of ice, to nickel-iron rich dense rocks.

The study of meteorites gives insights into the composition of non-ephemeral meteoroids. Most meteoroids come from the asteroid belt, having been perturbed by the gravitational influences of planets, but others are particles from comets, giving rise to meteor showers; some meteoroids are fragments from bodies such as Mars or our moon, that have been thrown into space by an impact. Meteoroids travel around the Sun at various velocities; the fastest move at about 42 km/s through space in the vicinity of Earth's orbit. This is escape velocity from the Sun, equal to the square root of two times Earth's speed, is the upper speed limit of objects in the vicinity of Earth, unless they come from interstellar space. Earth travels at about 29.6 km/s, so when meteoroids meet the atmosphere head-on the combined speed may reach about 71 km/s. Meteoroids moving through Earth's orbital space average about 20 km/s. On January 17, 2013 at 05:21 PST, a one meter-sized comet from the Oort cloud entered Earth atmosphere over California and Nevada.

The object had a retrograde orbit with perihelion at 0.98 ± 0.03 AU. It approached from the direction of the constellation Virgo, collided head-on with Earth's atmosphere at 72 ± 6 km/s vapourising more than 100 km above ground over a period of several seconds; when meteoroids intersect with Earth's atmosphere at night, they are to become visible as meteors. If meteoroids survive the entry through the atmosphere and reach Earth's surface, they are called meteorites. Meteorites are transformed in chemistry by the heat of entry and force of impact. A noted 4-metre asteroid, 2008 TC3, was observed in space on a collision course with Earth on 6 October 2008 and entered Earth's atmosphere the next day, striking a remote area of no