Sligo is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, within the western province of Connacht. With a population of 20,000 in 2016, it is the second largest urban centre in the West of Ireland, with only Galway being larger; the Sligo Borough District constitutes 61% of the county's population of 63,000. Sligo is a historic, commercial, industrial and service centre of regional importance in the West of Ireland, is served by rail and road links. Sligo is a tourist destination, being situated on the Wild Atlantic Way, with many literary and cultural associations. Sligo is the anglicisation of the Irish name Sligeach, meaning "abounding in shells" or "shelly place", it refers to the abundance of shellfish found in the river and its estuary, from the extensive shell middens in the vicinity. The river now known as the Garavogue meaning "little rough one" was called the Sligeach, it is listed as one of the seven "royal rivers" of Ireland in the 9th century AD tale The Destruction of Da Dergas Hostel.
The river Slicech is referenced in the Annals of Ulster in 1188. The Ordnance Survey letters of 1836 state that "cart loads of shells were found underground in many places within the town where houses now stand"; the whole area, from the river estuary at Sligo, around the coast to the river at Ballysadare Bay, is rich in marine resources which were utilised as far back as the Mesolithic period. The importance of Sligo's location in prehistory is demonstrated by the abundance of ancient sites close by and within the town. For example, Sligo town's first roundabout was constructed around a megalithic passage tomb at Abbeyquarter North in Garavogue Villas; this is an outlier of the large group of monuments at Carrowmore on the Cuil Irra peninsula on the western outskirts of the town. The area around Sligo town has one of the highest densities of prehistoric archaeological sites in Ireland, it is the only place. Knocknarea mountain, capped by the great cairn of Miosgan Maeve, dominates the skyline to the west of the town.
Cairns Hill on the southern edge of the town has two large stone cairns. Excavations for the NRA for the N4 Sligo Inner Relief Road in 2002 revealed a Bronze Age Henge at Tonafortes on the southern outskirts of the town, an early Neolithic causewayed enclosure at Maugheraboy on high ground overlooking the town from the south; this is the oldest causewayed enclosure so far discovered in Ireland. It consists of a large area enclosed by a segmented ditch and palisade, was an area of commerce and ritual; these monuments are associated with the coming of agriculture and hence the first farmers in Ireland. According to archaeologist Edward Danagher, who excavated the site, "Magheraboy indicates a stable and successful population during the final centuries of the fifth millennium and the first centuries of the fourth millennium BC". Sligo bay is an ancient natural harbour, being known to Greek and Roman traders as the area is thought to be the location marked as the city of Nagnata on Claudius Ptolemy's 2nd century AD co-ordinate map of the world.
During the early medieval period the site of Sligo was eclipsed by the importance of the great monastery founded by Columcille 5 miles to the north at Drumcliff. By the 12th century there was a bridge and small settlement in existence at the site of the present town; the Norman knight Maurice Fitzgerald, the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, is credited with the establishment of the medieval European-style town and port of Sligo, building Sligo Castle in 1245. The annalists refer to the town as a sraidbhaile which seems to have consisted of the castle and an attached defensive bawn in the vicinity of Quay street. A Dominican Friary was founded by Maurice Fitzgerald and the King of Connacht Felim mac Cathal Crobderg Ua Conchobair in 1253; this was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1414, was subsequently rebuilt in its present form by Tighernan O’Rourke. Norman hegemony was, not destined to last long in Sligo; the Norman advance was halted in Sligo after the battle of Credran Cille in 1257 at Ros Ceite between Godfrey O'Donnell, Lord of Tirconnell, Maurice Fitzgerald.
Both commanders were mortally wounded in single combat. The Norman invasion of Tír Chonaill was abandoned after this. In 1289 a survey indicates; the Normans had laid a foundation, to last. The town is unique in Ireland in that it is the only Norman-founded Irish town to have been under continuous native Irish control throughout the Medieval period. Despite Anglo-Norman attempts to retake it, it became the administrative centre of the O' Conor Sligo confederation of Iochtar Connacht by 1315 AD. Called Clan Aindrias, the O'Conors were a branch of the O' Conchobar dynasty of Kings of Connacht, it continued to develop within the túath of Cairbre Drom Cliabh becoming the effective centre of the confederation of túatha. The other Irish túatha subject to here were Tír Fhíacrach Múaidhe, Luighne Connacht, Tir Olliol and Corann. Throughout this time Sligo was under the system of Fénechus law and was ruled by the Gaelic system of an elected Rí túath, an assembly known as an oireacht. Through competition between Gaelic dynasties for the lucrative port duties of Sligo, the town was burned, sacked or besieged 49 times during the medieval period, according to the annals of Ireland.
These raids seem to ha
I Want My MTV: The Uncensored Story of the Music Video Revolution is a 2011 book about the rise of American cable television channel MTV, its heyday, its transformation from a music video channel. The book relies entirely on interviews and anecdotes from the cable channel's founders and the artists whose videos appeared on the channel. Over 400 artists and staff of MTV were interviewed by the authors, music journalists Craig Marks and Rob Tannenbaum; the book's name is derived from a marketing campaign launched by the channel in 1981 that featured many of the artists appearing on the channel at the time exclaiming “I Want My MTV!” The primary purpose of the campaign was to encourage cable subscribers to request the channel on their cable TV lineup. The book is published by Dutton Penguin in the United States. Craig Marks has been the editor of three influential publications: Spin and Billboard. In addition, he has written for Rolling Stone, GQ, the New York Times, he is the co-founder of the pop music site Popdust.
Rob Tannenbaum has written for GQ, New York, the New York Times Magazine, Rolling Stone, the Village Voice, the New York Observer, Harper’s Bazaar, George and Playboy. He was the music editor of Blender. "Remember when MTV was just about music videos?" I Want My MTV chronicles the rise of MTV from its early inception at the beginning of cable television's advance into the suburbs and beyond. As an oral history, the authors interview over 400 artists, music industry, video disc-jockeys or VJs; the book follows the evolution of MTV from the first new wave videos imported from Britain, to the introduction of black artists, including Michael Jackson, the rise of hair metal bands. The book concludes its history in 1992 when MTV first revealed the groundbreaking reality show The Real World, grunge music made its debut, MTV broke away from its all-video format; the book covers the hiring of the first VJ's based on Bob Pittman's analysis that the video channel needed human beings. The first five VJs were selected to match certain demographics.
The launch of MTV occurred on August 1, 1981 with the classic MTV promo of the Apollo 11 mission footage. The first video was the Buggles Video Killed the Radio Star. While only a handful of videos were available, played several times a day, it was not long before record executives understood the value of producing a video; this created a one-two effect, according to Tom Freston, where exposure on MTV could lead to more radio airplay and record sales. The ability of MTV to influence record sales, combined with the "I Want My MTV" campaign, led to most cable operators picking up the independent network. Several interviews reveal the artistic side of music video production, the reluctance of some artists to enter the fray, the artists that capitalized on the exposure MTV gave them. One example is Men at a band that the record executives had few expectations, their videos placed their album at number one for 16 weeks. The inability to have a video played on MTV could make or break an artist; the book chronicles the introduction of metal bands to MTV, the criticism that no African-American artists were featured, how Michael Jackson's "Thriller" turned the video music world on its head.
The book concludes with an exploration of the end of programming focused on videos and the introduction of non-music programming, most notably The Real World. This is a partial selection of the people interviewed or highlighted in the book who were instrumental to the creation of MTV: John Lack is credited with coming up with the idea for MTV, he was the executive vice president of the Warner Amex Satellite Entertainment Company. He envisioned video radio. Bob Pittman, Founder; the one-eyed programmer for NBC Radio who came to work on The Movie Channel. He was the first CEO of MTV Networks until 1987, he worked with the record labels to get free videos to play on MTV. Alisa Belletini, creator of House of Style Cindy Crawford and original host of House of Style Tom Freston was the CEO of MTV Networks from 1987 to 2006. Les Garland, executive vice president of programming from 1982 to 1987. Michael Nesmith, a member of the Monkees, Nesmith created the Pop Clips TV show, a precursor to MTV. Todd Rundgren, musical artist in his own right who with his manager came up with the idea for a 24-hour music video channel with a video DJ.
He took his idea to Bob Pittman. A year MTV was announced. Filmmaker James Ponsoldt will write and direct the film adaptation of I Want My MTV, which does not yet have a release date. I Want My MTV was named one of the Best Books of 2011 by NPR and Spin.“As will be evident by now, I Want My MTV is compulsively entertaining, hugely edifying… and profound.” - Jessica Winter, Time.“I Want My MTV is an oral history of the network's first 10 years, chronicling its conception, its launch, its unprecedented rise to power, its wholesale abandonment of the music video format.” - Stephen Deusner, Pitchfork.“I guarantee you'll have a tough time putting it down. After you finish, your brain will be overloaded with random trivia to spout at dinner parties.” - Whitney Matheson, USA Today.“The book is full of nostalgia and inside tidbits, with lots of bizarre stories about animals on video sets, such as the doves that may or may not have been sucked into a fan, chopped up and splattered all over Prince during a long-ago video shoot… you will want this book.”
- J. Freedom du Lac, The Washington Post. Original I Want My MTV Video
In the Tenrikyo religion, the Service is the most important prayer ritual, along with the Sazuke. The Service comes in several variant forms; the text to the Service is one of the three scriptures of Tenrikyo. The most important Service is the Kagura Service; this service is the masked dance, performed around the Kanrodai where Tenrikyo Church Headquarters – located in Tenri City, Japan – is situated. Hashimoto cites three meanings behind the performance of the Kagura Service–to represent God's creative power at the time of human conception and thus inspire humankind to live the Joyous Life, to reconfirm humankind's relationship with God and the universe, to realize the importance of living by God's original intention for humankind; the Kagura Service is performed by ten people, five males and five females, who surround the Kanrodai. Each person represents a different divine providence that participated in the creation, wearing a unique kagura mask and dancing to unique hand movements; the performers of the Kagura Service are chosen from the inner circle of the administrative staff at Tenrikyo Church Headquarters.
The ten performers and the musical instrument players switch roles on a monthly basis. However, the roles of the Shinbashira and his wife remain the same throughout all performances and, to represent Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto and Omotari-no-Mikoto respectively; the song text for the Kagura Service is the same as that of the Seated Service. The first section is repeated twenty-one times, the second section is performed only once, the third section is performed seven times in sets of three, amounting to a total of twenty-one times; the kagura masks were first produced around or before 1874 by Nakayama's brother, Kyosuke Maegawa, but the masks he made have since been lost. However, it is assumed that the masks preserve the essential features of the original masks since the Osashizu instructed followers to model new masks after the original ones; the masks in use are made of wood, but earlier ones seem to have been made of papier-mâché. Hashimoto notes that the divine providences of the Kagura Service are oriented to reflect the metaphysical principle of oneness in two, the idea that the universe exists by integrating two opposing elements.
The opposing elements do not become identical, nor does one element become subsumed by the other. Oneness in two is likened to the concept of coincidentia oppositorum in the Western philosophical tradition. For example, Kunitokotachi-no-Mikoto, the providence of water, Omotari-no-Mikoto, the providence of fire, are opposing elements which are placed on opposing sides and south respectively; the Seated Service takes the place of the Kagura Service at places of worship besides Church Headquarters. The Seated Service and Kagura Service use the same instrumentation. However, unlike the Kagura Service, the Seated Service is performed by six people, three men and three women, sitting in a line facing the shrine and performing the same hand movements as one another. In the Seated Service, the third section of the Mikagura-uta is performed three times in sets of three, different from the Kagura Service, where the same section is performed seven times in sets of three; the Seated Service embodies "the truth of six fundamental aspects of divine providence," which can be understood to mean the "six fundamental aspects of God's providence during creation" or "six fundamental aspects of God's providence in the human body."
The Teodori refers to the part of the Service, sung and played to the text of the Eight Verses of the Yorozuyo and the Twelve Songs, or the fourth and fifth sections of the Mikagura-uta. A performance of the Teodori requires six dancers, three males on the left and three females on the right, who form a single line facing the shrine; the six Teodori dancers perform the same hand and foot movements in unison, expressing the meaning of the songs through the dance. The choreography of the Teodori is called Otefuri; the Teodori requires the full set of musical accompaniment: six men's instruments, three women's instruments, one or two singers. The original Japanese term for "Monthly Service" is tsukinamisai, which translates to "a regular or recurring monthly festival." During the Monthly Service, the central liturgy of a Tenrikyo church, the entire text of the Mikagura-uta is sung to specific choreography and instrumental accompaniment. The monthly Service performed at Tenrikyo Church Headquarters is different from Monthly Services performed at other churches due to the cosmological significance of the spot around which the Headquarters was constructed.
The monthly service at Headquarters begins with the Kagura Service followed by the Teodori, is always performed on the twenty-sixth of each month. A monthly service at other churches begins with the Seated Service followed by the Teodori, can be performed at any fixed day of the month determined by each church. From late 1888 through the following year, a number of churches were established in various districts, some of them requested permission to perform t