The Vickers-Slingsby T-65 Vega is a 15-metre class glider which first flew on 3 June 1977. Of fibreglass construction, it features linked camber-changing flaps and airbrakes, a retractable main and tailwheel. A simplified version called the T-65C Sport Vega has a non-retractable mainwheel and hinged trailing edge airbrakes instead of flaps; this version of the Vega first has no provision for water ballast. Data from: T65A Initial production version first flown in 1977. T65B One production glider was designated T65B. T65C Sport Vega Fixed-wheel with no flaps or water ballast, first flown in 1980. T65D Vega Increased water ballast to 350 lb and increased all up weight to 1,120 lb. Vega 17L Gliders fitted with optional wingtips to increase span to 17 metres. Data from Slingsby Sailplanes. General characteristics Crew: One Length: 22 ft 0 in Wingspan: 49 ft 3 in Wing area: 109 ft2 Aspect ratio: 22.4 Empty weight: 519 lb Gross weight: 1,120 lb Performance Maximum speed: 160 mph Maximum glide ratio: 42 Rate of sink: 132 ft/min Hardy, Michael.
Gliders & Sailplanes of the World. Shepperton: Ian Allan Ltd. p. 173. ISBN 0 7110 1152 4. Coates, Andrew. Jane's World Sailplanes and Motor Gliders. London: Jane's Publishing Company. P. 133. ISBN 0 7106 0017 8. Martin Simons, Slingsby Sailplanes, ISBN 1-85310-732-8 British Gliding Association data sheet
Slingsby Falcon III
The Slingsby T.4 Falcon 3 was a two-seat training glider produced from 1935, by Fred Slingsby in Kirbymoorside, Yorkshire. Espin Hardwick persuaded Fred Slingsby to build a two-seat version of the Falcon. Slingsby enlarged the fuselage to accept side by side seating for pupil and instructor, enlarged the aircraft to cope with the increased weight; the increased span wings were attached to a rectangular centre-section, supported by six struts. To increase the field of vision the centre section had celluloid panels and the wing root fairing strips were made from a clear plastic, both of these vision aids tended to have short lives, were replaced with doped fabric or plywood as appropriate. After successful flight tests with only minor modifications, the Falcon 3 was put into production. Eight more were built, but didn't see as much use as trainers as they should have, due to the short-sighted prevailing opinion that trainee pilots gained more from having to master gliders with poor flying characteristics.
Production halted by 1938 and most of the Falcon 3's were impressed for use by the Air Training Corps UK Air Training Corps General characteristics Crew: Two Length: 22 ft 1 in Wingspan: 58 ft in Wing area: 294.8 ft2 Aspect ratio: 11.1 Wing profile: Göttingen 535 Empty weight: 500 lb Gross weight: 899 lb Performance Slingsby Falcon 2 Aircraft of comparable role and era Slingsby T.21 Sedbergh Related lists List of gliders Ellison, N. H. British Gliders and Sailplanes 1922-1970. A & C Black, 1971 Simons, M. Slingsby Sailplanes. Airlife Publishing, 1996 - ISBN 1-85310-732-8
The Slingsby T.49 Capstan is a British two-seat glider of the 1960s built by Slingsby Sailplanes as a replacement for their earlier Type 42 Eagle. It is a high-winged monoplane of wooden construction, the last two-seat wooden glider built by Slingsby, intended for both training and general club flying. Side-by-side seats for the two pilots are accommodated in an enclosed cockpit with a one-piece perspex canopy; the prototype T.49A first flew in 1961, it entered production as the T.49B in 1963. Thirty-four Capstans were built, one of, fitted with an auxiliary engine with the designation T.49C Powered Capstan. Data from The World's Sailplanes:Die Segelflugzeuge der Welt:Les Planeurs du Monde Volume IIJane's All The World's Aircraft 1969 General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 25 ft 4 in Wingspan: 55 ft 1 in Wing area: 219.9 sq ft Aspect ratio: 13.75 Airfoil: Root:NACA 633-620, Tip: NACA 6412 Empty weight: 761 lb Gross weight: 1,250 lb Performance Stall speed: 32 kn. Flight International, 31 May 1962.pp.
867—869. Taylor, J. W. R Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1969-70. London:Sampson Low, 1969. Slingsby Sailplanes Capstan T49 Handbook, 1963 Photos of Slingsby Capstan Slingsby Capstan Pictures
Welburn is a village and civil parish in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, in England, 2 miles south west of Kirkbymoorside and about 24 miles from York. The population of the parish was estimated at 60 in 2012; as the population of the civil parish was less than 100 it was not separately counted in the 2011 census and was included with the civil parish of Wombleton. The civil parish includes the lower part of Kirkdale, including Kirkdale Cave and the parish church of St Gregory's Minster, both about 0.6 miles north of the village. The Slingsby Aviation works and airstrip lie south-east of the village. Welburn was a township in the parish of Kirkdale and became a civil parish in 1866. In 1870–72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Welburn like this: "WELBURN, a township in Kirkdale parish, N. R. Yorkshire. Acres, 1,582. Real property, £2,846. Pop. 121. Houses, 20." Built during the 17th century, Welburn Hall was a lath and plaster structure, becoming the home of the Strangeway family.
A following owner, Sir John Gibson, High Sheriff of Yorkshire, built a substantial stone addition to the original building. The Hall again passed to new owners by way of Elizabeth and heiress of Thomas Robinson Esquire of Welburn who married Rev. Digby Cayley, their three daughters and co-heiresses married into the families of Rev. Francis Wrangham, Archdeacon of Cleveland, Thomas Smith, M. D. and Rev. Arthur Cayley, rector of Normanby, who were in possession in 1824. Mrs. Wrangham held the manor in 1857 followed by William Ernest Duncombe, the Earl of Feversham, in 1872. During the 19th century, Welburn Hall a fine specimen of Elizabethan architecture, was in a state of decay having remained unoccupied from about 1850 to 1880 when Joseph Heads, a brick and tile maker, became the occupant. “In 1890, the derelict hall was sold, the west wing was demolished and the present house and stables were built.” The 1901 census is more precise than earlier records. Notably, Welburn Hall was occupied by colliery owner, John Shaw JP, his wife, his son, James Edward Shaw, wife of James and John's three grandchildren, Beatrice and John Edward Durrant Shaw.
Eleven household servants are recorded. The Hall’s new coach house was occupied by the coachman, William Scholey, his wife, Elizabeth; the "Hall Farm" was operated by his two employees. “In 1931, the house was badly damaged by a fire and was subsequently rebuilt in a less ostentatious style”. The above-mentioned, Major John Edward Durrant Shaw, son of James Edward Shaw, became High Sheriff of Yorkshire from 1939 to 1940. Richard Potter became a miller occupying Howkeld Mill. In 1784, William Franklin was born in Welburn, he worked as a cartwright and in 1861, he was lodging with another carpenter, John Clarke, employing 3 apprentices. Thomas Parker, born in Edmundbyres, appeared in Yorkshire during the mid-18th Century, he married Hannah Boyes, born in Wombleton and they took up farming in Welburn. Christopher Foxton and his wife, Ann Hodgson, farmed 200 acres. By 1840, their son, John Foxton and Grace Brown had taken over this farm. John and Grace were born in Welburn and married in 1803; the widowed Grace and her two sons, Richard Foxton and Hartas Foxton continued to run the farm through the 1850s.
By 1861, Hartas had taken over Welburn Grange. Leonard Snowdon followed by Mathew Snowdon occupied West Ings; the Parker and Snowdon families became intertwined by marriage during the 1800s, producing many descendants who contributed to the growth and prosperity of Yorkshire and beyond. Thomas Parker and Hannah Boyes produced five children: Thomas Parker married Jane Winspear Elizabeth Parker married Joseph Worthy, Margaret Parker married William Foxton, John Parker married Ann Richardson, Joseph Parker married Lavinia Fenwick. During the 1840s and 1850s, the three Parker brothers were tenant farmers on individual acreages and occupied adjacent homes in Welburn Village, they produced eight daughters in total. Thomas Parker and Jane Winspear's son, another Thomas Parker, married Jane Foxton and worked as a cattle jobber in nearby Wombleton; this couple produced five daughters. Their move back to Welburn coincided with the death of Thomas' father in 1853 and by 1881, Thomas and Jane, now "cattle dealers", had moved to Sonley Hill, Welburn.
Hartas Foxton was born in Welburn in 1822. By 1861, he occupied Welburn Grange with his wife, farming 210 acres and employing six servants. John Parker, son of John Parker and Ann Richardson, became the original Sinnington Huntsman, he was described as an eccentric character "whose witty anecdotes are still remembered". Jack Parker is noted as the legendary huntsman who "blooded" the Viscount of Helmsley. According to available records, Frederick Parker, son of Thomas Parker and Jane Foxton, is the only Parker to have a direct connection to Welburn Hall. During the 1860s and 1870s, Frederick and Jane Snowdon were farming 150 acres at nearby Muscoates. By 1881, Frederick and his second wife, were farming 113 acres in Welburn. West Ings, a 234-acre farm, adjacent to Welburn Hall, was the birthplace of Frederick’s former wife, Jane Snowdon. In 1881, West Ings was occupied by William Snowdon and his wife, Hannah. By 1901, Frederick Parker was again a widower, farming Welburn Hall acreage until about 1910.
He moved to Wombleton where he died in 1912. In 1859, Joseph and Thomas Parker, sons of Thomas Parker and Jane Foxton, le
A composite material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure, differentiating composites from mixtures and solid solutions; the new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. More researchers have begun to include sensing, actuation and communication into composites, which are known as Robotic Materials. Typical engineered composite materials include: Reinforced concrete and masonry Composite wood such as plywood Reinforced plastics, such as fibre-reinforced polymer or fiberglass Ceramic matrix composites Metal matrix composites and other Advanced composite materialsComposite materials are used for buildings and structures such as boat hulls, swimming pool panels, racing car bodies, shower stalls, storage tanks, imitation granite and cultured marble sinks and countertops.
The most advanced examples perform on spacecraft and aircraft in demanding environments. The earliest man-made composite materials were straw and mud combined to form bricks for building construction. Ancient brick-making was documented by Egyptian tomb paintings. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest man-made composite materials, at over 6000 years old. Concrete is a composite material, is used more than any other man-made material in the world; as of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic metres of concrete are made each year—more than one cubic metre for every person on Earth. Woody plants, both true wood from trees and such plants as palms and bamboo, yield natural composites that were used prehistorically by mankind and are still used in construction and scaffolding. Plywood 3400 BC by the Ancient Mesopotamians. Cartonnage layers of linen or papyrus soaked in plaster dates to the First Intermediate Period of Egypt c. 2181–2055 BC and was used for death masks. Cob Mud Bricks, or Mud Walls, have been used for thousands of years.
Concrete was described by Vitruvius, writing around 25 BC in his Ten Books on Architecture, distinguished types of aggregate appropriate for the preparation of lime mortars. For structural mortars, he recommended pozzolana, which were volcanic sands from the sandlike beds of Pozzuoli brownish-yellow-gray in colour near Naples and reddish-brown at Rome. Vitruvius specifies a ratio of 1 part lime to 3 parts pozzolana for cements used in buildings and a 1:2 ratio of lime to pulvis Puteolanus for underwater work the same ratio mixed today for concrete used at sea. Natural cement-stones, after burning, produced cements used in concretes from post-Roman times into the 20th century, with some properties superior to manufactured Portland cement. Papier-mâché, a composite of paper and glue, has been used for hundreds of years; the first artificial fibre reinforced plastic was bakelite which dates to 1907, although natural polymers such as shellac predate it. One of the most common and familiar composite is fibreglass, in which small glass fibre are embedded within a polymeric material.
The glass fibre is strong and stiff, whereas the polymer is ductile. Thus the resulting fibreglass is stiff, strong and ductile. Concrete is the most common artificial composite material of all and consists of loose stones held with a matrix of cement. Concrete is an inexpensive material, will not compress or shatter under quite a large compressive force. However, concrete cannot survive tensile loading. Therefore, to give concrete the ability to resist being stretched, steel bars, which can resist high stretching forces, are added to concrete to form reinforced concrete. Fibre-reinforced polymers s include glass-reinforced plastic. If classified by matrix there are thermoplastic composites, short fibre thermoplastics, long fibre thermoplastics or long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics. There are numerous thermoset composites, including paper composite panels. Many advanced thermoset polymer matrix systems incorporate aramid fibre and carbon fibre in an epoxy resin matrix. Shape memory polymer composites are high-performance composites, formulated using fibre or fabric reinforcement and shape memory polymer resin as the matrix.
Since a shape memory polymer resin is used as the matrix, these composites have the ability to be manipulated into various configurations when they are heated above their activation temperatures and will exhibit high strength and stiffness at lower temperatures. They can be reheated and reshaped without losing their material properties; these composites are ideal for applications such as lightweight, deployable structures. High strain composites are another type of high-performance composites that are designed to perform in a high deformation setting and are used in deployable systems where structural flexing is advantageous. Although high strain composites exhibit many similarities to shape memory polymers, their performance is dependent on the fibre layout as opposed to the resin content of the matrix. Comp
SAH 2200 hovercraft
The Slingsby SAH 2200 hovercraft is a small military hovercraft produced by Slingsby Amphibious Hovercraft Company of Kirkbymoorside and used by the Finnish Border Guard. The SAH 2200 is a small military hovercraft powered by a single Cummins 6CTA-8-3M-1 diesel engine, armed with a single 12.7mm machine gun. 12 troops or 2.2 tons of cargo. The Finland Frontier Guard acquired its first SAH 2200 in March 1993. Three more were ordered in February 1998 and delivered in late 1999. Engineering and Professional Services Inc. purchased Slingsby Advanced Composites Limited and will continue producing a version of the SAH 2200 hovercraft manufactured out of composit materials, now renamed the EPS SAH 2200. The EPS SAH 2200 will be built at the company’s facilities in Titusville, where EPS presently has under construction a number of larger EPS M-10 hovercraft for delivery commencing in 2009 to the Border Guard of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Finnish Navy Designer / Manufacturer: Slingsby Amphibious Hovercraft Company Crew 2 Dimensions Length 10.6 metres Width 4.2 metres full load displacement 5.5 tons Propulsion Motor: diesel engine Power: 1 Cummins 6CTA-8-3M-1 diesel engine 300 horsepower for lift and propulsion Propellers: 1 three-bladed variable-pitch propeller Performance Speed 40 knots Range 400 miles at 30 knots Military Lift: 12 troops or 2.2 tons of cargo Weapons 1 X 12.7mm machine gun Radar Navigation: Raytheon R41.
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding. This unpowered aircraft uses occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. Gliders are aerodynamically streamlined and are capable of gaining altitude and remaining airborne, maintaining forward motion. Gliders benefit from producing the least drag for any given amount of lift, this is best achieved with long, thin wings, a faired narrow cockpit and a slender fuselage. Aircraft with these features are able to soar - climb efficiently in rising air produced by thermals or hills. In still air, gliders can glide long distances at high speed with a minimum loss of height in between. Gliders have either skids or undercarriage. In contrast hang gliders and paragliders use the pilot's feet for the start of the launch and for the landing; these latter types are described in separate articles, though their differences from gliders are covered below. Gliders are launched by winch or aerotow, though other methods: auto tow and bungee, are used.
Some gliders do not soar and are engineless aircraft towed by another aircraft to a desired destination and cast off for landing. Military gliders are single-use only, are abandoned after landing, having served their purpose. Motor gliders are gliders with engines which can be used for extending a flight and in some cases, for take-off; some high-performance motor gliders may have an engine-driven retractable propeller which can be used to sustain flight. Other motor gliders have enough thrust to launch themselves before the engine is retracted and are known as "self-launching" gliders. Another type is the self-launching "touring motor glider", where the pilot can switch the engine on and off in flight without retracting their propellers. Sir George Cayley's gliders achieved brief wing-borne hops from around 1849. In the 1890s, Otto Lilienthal built gliders using weight shift for control. In the early 1900s, the Wright Brothers built gliders using movable surfaces for control. In 1903, they added an engine.
After World War I gliders were first built for sporting purposes in Germany. Germany's strong links to gliding were to a large degree due to post-WWI regulations forbidding the construction and flight of motorised planes in Germany, so the country's aircraft enthusiasts turned to gliders and were encouraged by the German government at flying sites suited to gliding flight like the Wasserkuppe; the sporting use of gliders evolved in the 1930s and is now their main application. As their performance improved, gliders began to be used for cross-country flying and now fly hundreds or thousands of kilometres in a day if the weather is suitable. Early gliders had the pilot sat on a small seat located just ahead of the wing; these were known as "primary gliders" and they were launched from the tops of hills, though they are capable of short hops across the ground while being towed behind a vehicle. To enable gliders to soar more than primary gliders, the designs minimized drag. Gliders now have smooth, narrow fuselages and long, narrow wings with a high aspect ratio and winglets.
The early gliders were made of wood with metal fastenings and control cables. Fuselages made of fabric-covered steel tube were married to wood and fabric wings for lightness and strength. New materials such as carbon-fiber, fiber glass and Kevlar have since been used with computer-aided design to increase performance; the first glider to use glass-fiber extensively was the Akaflieg Stuttgart FS-24 Phönix which first flew in 1957. This material is still used because of its high strength to weight ratio and its ability to give a smooth exterior finish to reduce drag. Drag has been minimized by more aerodynamic shapes and retractable undercarriages. Flaps are fitted to the trailing edges of the wings on some gliders to minimize the drag from the tailplane at all speeds. With each generation of materials and with the improvements in aerodynamics, the performance of gliders has increased. One measure of performance is the glide ratio. A ratio of 30:1 means that in smooth air a glider can travel forward 30 meters while losing only 1 meter of altitude.
Comparing some typical gliders that might be found in the fleet of a gliding club – the Grunau Baby from the 1930s had a glide ratio of just 17:1, the glass-fiber Libelle of the 1960s increased that to 39:1, modern flapped 18 meter gliders such as the ASG29 have a glide ratio of over 50:1. The largest open-class glider, the eta, has a span of 30.9 meters and has a glide ratio over 70:1. Compare this to the Gimli Glider, a Boeing 767 which ran out of fuel mid-flight and was found to have a glide ratio of 12:1, or to the Space Shuttle with a glide ratio of 4.5:1. Due to the critical role that aerodynamic efficiency plays in the performance of a glider, gliders have aerodynamic features found in other aircraft; the wings of a modern racing glider have a specially designed low-drag laminar flow airfoil. After the wings' surfaces have been shaped by a mold to great accuracy, they are highly polished. Vertical winglets at the ends of the wings are computer-designed to decrease drag and improve handling performance.
Special aerodynamic seals are used at the ailerons and elevator to prevent the flow of air through control surface gaps. Turbulator devices in the form of a zig-zag tape or multiple blow holes positioned in a span-wise line along the wing are used to trip laminar flow air into turbulent flow at a desired location on the wing; this flow control prevents the formation of laminar flow bubbles and ensures t